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What is the TCP Protocol?

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Understanding TCP Protocol

It is considered a connection-oriented protocol, which means that connection is established and maintained until the time application programs at each of the end are done exchanging messages. It also decides how to break the application data in the form of packets that the networks deliver, then send packets and finally accept those packets from the network layer, and manage flow control. In the OSI model, TCP occupies parts of Layer 4, Transport Layer, and parts of Layer 5, the Session Layer.

Let us take an example. When the webserver sends an HTML file to the client, it makes use of the HTTP protocol. The HTTP program layer then requests the TCP layer to set the connection and then send the file. TCP stack then divides the file in the form of packets, numbers them and finally forwards them to the Internet Protocol layer to deliver. Though each of the packets in transmission has the same source and destination IP addresses, packets are still sent along various routes. TCP program layer in the client computer always waits until and unless all the packets have already arrived, and afterwards, it acknowledges the ones it has received and then it asks for the retransmission.

Advantages of TCP Protocol

It is quite a reliable protocol.

It also makes sure that the data reaches the desired destination in the same order that it was sent.

It is also connection-oriented.

It gives an error-checking mechanism as well as a mechanism of recovery.

It also exhibits communication that is end to end.

Also, it gives flow control.

Finally, this protocol exhibits server (full-duplex), which means it can perform receiver and senders roles.

TCP Protocol Scope

Source Port: It is 16-bit, and it identifies the application process’s source port on sending the device.

Destination Port: It is also 16-bit, and it identifies the application process’s destination port on receiving the device.

Data Offset (4-bits): It is 4 bits, and it mentions the size of the TCP header and data offset in the present packet in the entire TCP segment.

Reserved (3-bits): Everything is set to zero by default and is reserved for future use.

ECE: It has got two interpretations :

In case the SYN bit is 0, it means that ECE means that the IP packet has got its congestion experience, that is, the CE bit set.

In case the SYN bit is 1, it means that ECE means that the device is capable of ECT.

URG: URG signifies that the Urgent Pointer field has important data and should be processed.

ACK: ACK signifies that the Acknowledgement field has got importance. In case ACK is 0, it means that the packet is not having any acknowledgement.

PSH: When PSH is set, it is requested to receive the station to PUSH the data whenever it comes to receiving the application but without buffering it.

RST: Reset flag has got these features :

RST is needed to deny an incoming connection.

RST is needed to reject a segment too.

RST is needed to restart the connection.

SYN: SYN flag is needed to set the connection between hosts.

What Can You do with TCP Protocol?

TCP Protocol works in Server or client model. The client always starts the connection, and the server would either accept it or reject it. This three-way handshaking is essentially required for connection management.

The client starts the connection and then sends the segment along with the Sequence number. Then, the server would acknowledge it along with its SN (Sequence no.) and with an ACK of the client segment that is one more than the client’s sequence number. Now, the client, after getting the ACK of the segment, sends an acknowledgement of the Server’s response.

Working with TCP Protocol

TCP uses port numbers to know which application processes it needs to hand over the data segment. Alongside this, it uses the sequence numbers to synchronize along with the remote host. Every data segment is then sent as well as received along with SN’s. Sender makes sure the last of the data segment that has been received by Receiver whenever it gets the acknowledgement. The receiver is aware of the last segment that the sender sent by mentioning the most recent received packet’s sequence number(SN).


Finally, we have discussed major components of the networks and TCP/IP; we have got the needed background to look into quite critical issues of security. When we are aware of how networks are built, it gives us an understanding of which physical vulnerabilities are being introduced when we choose one network design over any other and knowing how are the packets formed provides us with an understanding of how they are crafted to achieve a purpose. Also, we are aware of how the packets are being transmitted and delivered provides a good understanding of what could possibly happen to the packets.

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Apple’S “Budget” Iphone Is About Screen Control, Not Cash

Apple’s “budget” iPhone is about screen control, not cash

The “cheap” iPhone isn’t actually about being cheap at all: it’s about retiring the 3.5-inch screen. Apple has a long-running love of standardization, and with good reason. The company built the iPad mini around a display size, aspect, and most importantly resolution that allowed the greatest parity – and the fewest developer headaches – with the existing, full-sized iPad, after all. It’s not just in the name of control-freak tyranny, either: the iPad mini came out the gate with a full catalog of compatible apps, which is more than the Nexus 7 could claim.

Thing is, the iPhone 4S has a 3.5-inch screen – a leftover of the old design – while the iPhone 5 and 5S are going to use the newer 4-inch Retina. The 4S is also not the cheapest to make, and there’s a good reason Apple switched from the precarious glass casing of that generation to the sturdier metal of the iPhone 5.

[aquote]Full specifications are yet to leak, but a 4-inch display is a safe assumption[/aquote]

Is there a better reason to ditch the iPhone 4S altogether, and introduce a new design completely: one which can cherry-pick the key elements of the iPhone 5 but wrap them up in a chassis that’s cheaper to make and thus cheaper to sell? Full specifications of the “low cost” iPhone are still yet to leak, but a 4-inch display is a safe assumption, meaning developers will be able to focus their efforts on a single, current resolution of 1136 x 640.

Price is important, of course. Apple figured that out back when it opted to keep the older iPhone around to create an instant tiered range, though not in the same way that Samsung or others might, by constantly developing multiple slightly differentiated models. Cheaper variations are also a mainstay of the iPod line-up: see, for instance, the cheaper iPod touch, which drops the camera and other elements to meet a price target.

It’s even more essential when you consider the next big battleground in smartphones: the so-called developing markets. Countries like China are the target for most of the big names in mobile – Samsung wants a piece of the pie, Nokia is counting on them to buoy up Windows Phone, and ZTE and Huawei are already staking their claim with budget Android phones – and the requirement for something affordable means keeping costs to a minimum is essential.

Apple’s strategy involves more than just making the cheapest phone possible. If the new, “cheap” iPhone plays just as nicely with the App Store (which remains a key differentiator for the brand) as its more expensive siblings; if it’s as appealing to budget buyers in established markets as the iPhone 4 has been in this past generation, then it serves two purposes. Ticks the box for taking on developing markets as well as offering something different and – thanks to those candy colored shells we’re expecting – eye-catching for more saturated markets.

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What Is Stakeholder Management? What Is Its Role In Leadership?

blog / Leadership What is Stakeholder Management? What is its Role in Leadership?

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Are you managing a project that involves different people who may be impacted by its results? If so, let’s get into what is stakeholder management, and why it is important, let us begin by first understanding who a stakeholder is. 

A stakeholder refers to an individual, group, or organization with a ‘stake’ in the outcome of a particular project. They could be board members, investors, suppliers, or anyone who may be directly involved in a project and be impacted by its outcome. 

What is Stakeholder Management

It is the practice of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing relationships with internal and external stakeholders who are directly affected by the outcome of a venture or project. It involves proactively implementing the right actions to build trust and foster better communication with multiple stakeholders. 

ALSO READ: What is Project Management and How to Become a Successful PM?

Why is Stakeholder Management Important?

According to Pulse of the Profession (PMI) 2023, 63% of companies have already integrated stakeholder engagement strategies. After all, it enables a deep understanding of stakeholders by establishing trust and strengthening interpersonal communication. Thereby ensuring that all stakeholders have a shared, similar understanding of the organization’s key goals and work together to fulfill these objectives. The main benefits are:

Ensures robust risk management

Creates a strong base for social license 

Aligns project concepts with business goals 

Supports conflict management 

Improves business intelligence 

ALSO READ: 7 Leadership Skills for Managers in Today’s Workplace

What are the Different Types of Stakeholders?

Internal stakeholders work within the organization and are directly invested in the project’s performance. For example, a company’s employees, top management, team members, and board of directors can all be considered internal stakeholders. 

External stakeholders may not be directly employed at the company or engaged with it but are impacted by the project in some way. Customers, shareholders, creditors, and suppliers are a few examples of external stakeholders. 

Stakeholder Management Examples

Looking at an example will help answer the ‘what is stakeholder management’ question. 

Let’s assume a government agency is working on developing a new policy. While refining a policy or developing a new one, there could be competing interests and varied opinions. Local councils, community groups, or certain businesses may not be supportive of this change. This is where stakeholder management can play a transformative role. Through effective stakeholder management, one can engage with these groups, find common ground, and address key changes that will enable a smooth decision-making process. 

What is a Stakeholder Management Plan?

It is a document that outlines core management techniques to effectively understand the stakeholder landscape and engage them throughout the project lifecycle. A stakeholder management plan usually includes: 

All the project stakeholders and their basic information

A detailed power interest matrix or a stakeholder map

The main strategies and tactics that are best suited to key stakeholder groups 

A well-laid-out communication plan

A clear picture of the resources available (budget, expertise, etc.)

Once you get to know what stakeholder management is really about, it’s essential to understand how to create an effective stakeholder management plan. 

How to Make a Stakeholder Management Plan?

Typically, a project manager is responsible for creating a stakeholder management plan. However, it is ideal also to involve all the project members to ensure accuracy. These are some steps to be followed while creating a stakeholder management plan: 

1. Identify Stakeholders

Conduct stakeholder analysis to identify key stakeholders and how they can impact the project’s scope.

2. Prioritize Stakeholders

Learn which stakeholders have influence over what areas of the project. This can be done by creating a power interest grid—a matrix that helps determine the level of impact a stakeholder has on the project. 

3. Establish a Communication Plan

It must include the type of communication, frequency, format, and distribution plan for communicating with each stakeholder. 

4. Manage Expectations

Develop dedicated timelines and share them with individual stakeholders to ensure the project is managed smoothly and also remains true to the stakeholders’ expectations. 

5. Implement the Plan

Make sure that all stakeholders have the final management plan before it is implemented. This helps build trust among teams and promotes transparency. It is also important to track the accuracy of the stakeholder management plan and make any changes based on the overall requirement. 

Stakeholder Management Principles

Now that you have a clear picture of what is stakeholder management, let’s take a look at the Clarkson Principles of Stakeholder Management. Max Clarkson, after whom these principles were named, was a renowned stakeholder management researcher. 

First Principle: Actively monitor and acknowledge the concerns of stakeholders and consider their interests throughout operations and decision-making processes. 

Second Principle: Have open and honest communication with stakeholders regarding any concerns, contributions, or risks that they may assume because of their association with the project.

Third Principle: Adopt practices and behaviors that are considerate toward the capabilities and concerns of all stakeholders. 

Fourth Principle: Recognize the efforts of stakeholders and ensure fair distribution of burdens and benefits of corporate activities while taking potential risks into consideration. 

Fifth Principle: Ensure cooperation with public and private entities to minimize risk from corporate activities. 

Sixth Principle: Avoid any activity that could potentially threaten stakeholders or jeopardize human rights.

Seventh Principle: Acknowledge any conflicts between the project manager and stakeholders. Such conflict should be addressed with open communication and reporting wherever required. 

Stakeholder Management Process

The process is simple to understand once you have in-depth knowledge about what is stakeholder management. These are the five main steps involved: 

Stakeholder Identification

It involves outlining key stakeholders and segregating them into internal and external stakeholder groups. 

Stakeholder Mapping

Once the list of stakeholders is segregated, you can analyze the stakeholders based on their level of influence, involvement, and importance vis-à-vis the project. 

Stakeholder Strategy

Since strategies are formed based on individual stakeholder groups in order of influence, this is your next important step. It defines the type of communication relevant to each stakeholder. 

Stakeholder Responsibility

It is essential to determine which team or individual should be responsible for which aspect of stakeholder engagement is essential. A stakeholder communication plan or template can be of great help here. 

Stakeholder Monitoring

Decide how to track stakeholder activities and integrate changes with ease. This may also involve using related software to boost convenience. 

ALSO READ: How to Develop Leadership Skills in Employees

Stakeholder management plays a vital role in leadership as it enables leaders—or managers in the case of projects—to identify and assess stakeholders’ expectations with a vested interest in a project. They do so by ensuring that everyone involved has a common understanding of the goals and objectives. Furthermore, it enables them to effectively manage any potential conflicts between stakeholders. 

By Neha Menon

Write to us at [email protected] 

What Is Data Lineage?

Currently, most businesses and big-scale companies are generating and storing a large amount of data in their data storage. Many companies are there which are entirely data-driven. Businesses and companies are using data to get insights about the progress and future steps for business growth. In this article, we will study the data lineage and its process, the significant reasons behind businesses investing in it, and the benefits of it, with its core intuition. This article will help one understand the whole data lineage process and its applications related to business problems.

What is Data Lineage?

Data lineage is a process of getting an idea about where the data is coming from, analyzing it, and consuming it. It reveals where the data has come from and how it has evolved through its lifecycle. It traces where the data was generated and the steps in between it went through. A clear flowchart for each step helps the user understand the entire process of the data lifecycle, which can enhance the quality of the data and risk-free data management.

Data lineage enables companies to track and solve problems in the path of the data lifecycle.

It provides a thorough understanding of the solutions to errors in the way of the data lifecycle with lower risk and easy solution methods.

It allows companies to combine and preprocess the data from the source to the data mapping framework.

Data lineage helps companies to perform system migration confidently with lower risk.

Data lineage tools help organizations manage and govern their data effectively by providing end-to-end data lineage across various data sources, enabling data discovery, mapping, and data lineage visualization, and providing impact analysis and data governance features.

Here are some of the top data lineage tools and their features:

1. Alation

Alation provides a unified view of data lineage across various data sources. It automatically tracks data changes, lineage, and impact analysis. It also enables collaboration among data users.

2. Collibra

Collibra provides end-to-end data lineage across various data sources. It enables data discovery, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also provides a business glossary and data dictionary management.

3. Informatica

Informatica provides data lineage across various data sources, including cloud and on-premise. It enables data profiling, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also includes impact analysis and metadata management.

4. Apache Atlas

Apache Atlas provides data lineage for Hadoop ecosystem components. It tracks metadata changes, lineage, and impact analysis for data stored in Hadoop. It also enables data classification and data access policies.


MANTA provides data lineage for various data sources, including cloud and on-premise. It enables data discovery, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also provides impact analysis and data governance features.

6. Octopai

Octopai provides automated data lineage for various data sources, including cloud and on-premise. It enables data discovery, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also includes impact analysis and data governance features.

Data Lineage Application Across Industries

Data lineage is a critical process across various industries. Here are some examples:

Healthcare: In the healthcare industry, data lineage is important for ensuring patient data privacy, tracking data lineage for medical trials, and tracking data for regulatory compliance.

Finance: Data lineage helps financial institutions comply with Basel III, Solvency II, and CCAR regulations. It also helps prevent financial fraud, risk management, and transparency in financial reporting.

Retail: In the retail industry, data lineage helps in tracking inventory levels, monitoring supply chain performance, and improving customer experience. It also helps in fraud detection and prevention.

Manufacturing: In manufacturing, data lineage tracks the production process and ensures the quality of the finished product. It helps identify improvement areas, reduce waste, and improve efficiency.

Government: Data lineage is critical for ensuring transparency and accountability. It supports regulatory compliance, public data management, and security.

Why Are Businesses Eager to Invest in Data Lineage?

Just the information about the source of the data is not enough to understand the importance of the data. Some preprocessing on data, error solution in between the path of data, and getting key insights from the data is also important for a business or company to focus on.

Knowledge about the source, updating of the data, and consumption of the data improves the quality of the data and helps businesses get an idea about further investing in it.

Profit Generation: For every organization, generating revenue is the primary need to grow the business. The information tracked from data lineage helps improve risk management, data storage, migration process, and hunting of some bugs in between the path of the data lifecycle, etc. Also, the insights from the data lineage process help the organizations understand the scope of profit and can generate revenue.

Reliance on the data: Good quality data always helps to keep the business running and improving. All the fields or departments, including IT, Human resources, and marketing, can be enhanced through data lineage, and companies can rely on data to improve and keep tracking things.

Better Data Migration: There are some cases where there is a need to transfer the data from one storage to another. The data migration process carries out very carefully as there is a high amount of risk involved in it. When the IT department needs to migrate the data, data lineage can provide all the information about the data for the soft data migration process.

How to Implement Data Lineage? Benefits of Data Lineage

There are some obvious benefits of the data lineage, which is why businesses are eager to invest in the same.

Some major benefits are listed below:

1. Better Data Governance

Data governance is the process in which data is governed, and analysis of the source of the data, the risk attached to it, data storage, data pipelines, and data migration is performed. Better data lineage can help conduct better data governance. Good quality of it can provide all this information about the data from its source to consumption and help achieve a better data governance process.

2. Better Compliance and Risk Management

Major data-driven companies have a huge amount of data, which is tedious to handle and keep organized. There are some cases where there is a need for data transformation or preprocessing data; during these types of processes, there is a huge risk involved lose the data. Better data lineage can help the organization keep the data organized and reduce the risk involved in the process of migration or preprocessing.

3. Quick and Easy Root Cause Analysis

During the entire data lifecycle, many steps are in between, and many bugs and errors are involved. With a good-quality data lineage, it can help businesses to find the cause of the error easily and solve it efficiently with less amount of time.

4. Easy Visibility of the Data

In a data-driven organization, due to a very high amount of data stored, it is necessary to have easy visibility of the data to access it quickly while spending less time searching for it. Good-quality data lineage can help the organization access the data quickly with easy data visibility.

5. Risk-free Data Migration

There are some cases where data-driven companies or organizations need the migrations of the data due to some errors occurring in existing storage. Data migration is a very risky and hectic process with a higher rate of data loss risk involved. It can help these organizations conduct a risk-free data migration process to transfer the data from one to another data storage.

Data Lineage Challenges Lack of Standardized Data Lineage Metadata 

It becomes difficult to track data lineage consistently across different systems and applications. Solution: Standardizing metadata and using common data models and schemas can help overcome this challenge.

Complex Data Architectures Data Lineage Gaps

There can be gaps in data lineage due to incomplete or inconsistent data, missing metadata, or gaps in the data collection process. Solution: Establishing a comprehensive data governance framework that includes regular data monitoring and auditing can help identify and fill data lineage gaps.

Data Lineage Security and Privacy Concerns

Data lineage information can be sensitive and require protection to avoid security and privacy breaches. Solution: Implementing appropriate security measures, such as data encryption and access controls, and complying with data privacy regulations can help to ensure data lineage security and privacy.

Lack of Awareness and Training

Lack of awareness and training among data stakeholders on the importance and use of data lineage can lead to limited adoption and usage. Solution: Providing training and awareness programs to educate data stakeholders on the importance and benefits of data lineage can help to overcome this challenge.

Data Lineage vs Other Data Governance Practices

Data lineage is a critical component of data governance and is closely related to other data governance practices, such as data cataloging and metadata management. However, data cataloging is the process of creating a centralized inventory of all the data assets in an organization. At the same time, metadata management involves creating and managing metadata associated with these assets.

Data lineage helps establish the relationships between data elements, sources, and flows and provides a clear understanding of how data moves throughout an organization. It complements data cataloging and metadata management by providing a deeper insight into data’s origin, quality, and usage.

While data cataloging and metadata management provide a high-level view of an organization’s data assets, data lineage provides a granular understanding of how data is processed, transformed, and used. Data lineage helps to identify potential data quality issues, track changes to data over time, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

Data Mapping vs Data Lineage

Data MappingData LineageFocuses on identifying the relationships between data elements and their corresponding data sources, destinations, and transformations.Focuses on tracking the complete journey of data from its origin to its final destination, including all the data sources, transformations, and destinations in between.Primarily used to understand data flow between systems and applications.Primarily used to understand the history and lifecycle of data within an organization.Typically involves manual or semi-manual documentation of data chúng tôi be automated or semi-automated using tools and platforms that capture and track metadata.Often used for specific projects or initiatives, such as data integration or data chúng tôi for ongoing data governance and compliance efforts, as well as for specific projects.Helps ensure consistency and accuracy in data movement across systems.Helps ensure data quality and compliance with regulatory requirements by providing a clear understanding of data lineage.

Regulatory Compliance

Compliance with regulations like GDPR and CCPA requires companies to comprehensively understand their data.

Data lineage provides a detailed data usage history, making it easier to comply with regulations like GDPR and CCPA.

With data lineage, organizations can easily identify where data is being stored, who has access to it, and how it is being used.

By maintaining a clear data lineage, organizations can demonstrate compliance to regulatory bodies and provide evidence of their data privacy and security practices.

Data lineage can also help with compliance by enabling organizations to easily audit their data usage and identify areas that may be non-compliant.

Data lineage can be particularly useful in the case of data breaches, as it allows organizations to quickly identify what data was affected and take appropriate action to notify affected individuals and regulatory bodies.

Future of Data Lineage

Adoption by More Industries: As more industries recognize the importance of data governance, data lineage will become more widely adopted as a critical tool for ensuring regulatory compliance and data quality.

Increased Automation: Automation will play a more significant role in data lineage, reducing the amount of manual effort required to maintain data lineage and providing more timely and accurate data lineage information.

Integration with Machine Learning and AI: Data lineage will be integrated with machine learning and artificial intelligence to enhance its capabilities for data discovery, quality management, and governance.

Improved Interoperability: Improved interoperability between data lineage tools and other data management systems will allow for more comprehensive data governance across organizations.

Greater Emphasis on Security: With increased concerns about data breaches and cyber threats, data lineage will be essential in ensuring data security by tracking data access and providing visibility into how data is used.

Emergence of Blockchain-based Data Lineage: Blockchain technology is being explored to provide more secure and transparent data lineage by creating an immutable record of data transactions.

Way Ahead

Data lineage is a crucial step for any organization that deals with data. By implementing data lineage, companies can achieve better data governance, manage risks more effectively, and gain easy access to data. Top companies like Netflix, Google, and Microsoft have already embraced data lineage and have significantly benefited from it. So, if you want to learn more about data lineage and other essential data skills, consider enrolling in our Blackbelt program. It’s a comprehensive program that will help you become an expert in data science and analytics.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is data lineage in ETL?

A. Data lineage in ETL refers to the complete end-to-end history of the data from its source to destination, including transformations and metadata changes.

Q2. What are the two types of data lineage?

A. The two types of data lineage are forward lineage and backward lineage. Forward lineage tracks data flow from source to destination, and backward lineage tracks data flow from destination to source.

Q3. What is data governance and data lineage?

A. Data governance is a process of managing data quality, security, and compliance, while data lineage is a part of data governance that tracks the data flow across the organization.

Q4. What is the difference between data mapping and data lineage?

A. Data mapping involves associating source data with target data, while data lineage tracks the flow of data and metadata across various systems.

Q5. What is data lineage of a dataset?

A. Data lineage of a dataset refers to the origin of the data, its transformations, and the places where it has been stored or used.

Q6. Is data lineage a metadata?

A. Yes, data lineage is a type of metadata that provides information on the movement and transformation of data across different systems.


Insights On Change Control Management

Each organization has to embrace change to grow, irrespective of its size and nature. These changes can be the requested ones or the unplanned and unexpected changes, like changes in customer trends. Whatever the change is, the manager has to work with the team and the supervisors to address and analyze them before implementing them in the organization. The team carefully evaluates the effects of the change on the company, its long−term objectives, employees, and other resources. Based on this, the change is either accepted or rejected. In this post, we will discuss all that you need to know about change control management. Keep reading.

What is Change Control Management?

Change control management is a set of procedures followed to ensure the changes are implemented as required, that no organizational process or resources are disrupted, and that the resources are used efficiently to ensure smooth functioning. No company can survive long without making changes to its procedures.

Not adapting to these changes can result in the business losing its competitive edge over time. That’s because customers’ demands, technology, and the business environment keep evolving. A change could be upgrading or downgrading your services, adding a new product line, implementing new technology, discontinuing certain products or tools, etc. The question is, how do you ensure that other areas of your business remain unaffected by these changes? In other words, what’s the best and most effective way to implement changes in your organization?

Steps in Change Control Management

Change is not a one−time procedure but an ongoing process. It is an inevitable part of the company’s growth. The best you can do is adapt to these changes in a way that benefits your organization and promote your business’ growth in the long run. Below we have compiled a list of some effective steps you must take to implement change control management.

Hire the Right People

Selecting the right people for change control management is key to a successful change control plan. You don’t want the meetings to be delayed or the new product addition to cause problems in your current work procedures just because you have delegated this part to unskilled people. Your best bet is to add people from different departments and varying levels of expertise, such as HR experts, accountants, legal service providers, IT specialists, marketing members, and so on. Remember, the team you select for change control management will determine the success or failure of the change implementation. Delegate this responsibility to trusted candidates that have a proven track record.


Like any other management process, implementing a change requires a planned strategy. An effective plan works as a roadmap that shows you where to start, how to go about implementing a change, and how to finish. In this phase, you need to list the resources you will use throughout the project execution, the total budget you have and estimated expenses you will incur in implementation, the objectives of bringing this change, and how it will affect the other areas of your business.

You need to outline the project with detailed steps and expected results. Once you have planned and documented everything, you need to send it to the higher−level management for approval. You can proceed with the plan once you get the green light.

Effective Communication

When implementing a change, the manager and stakeholders must concisely communicate their goals with the employees. The results of any project depend on how well the process of execution was communicated to the team. From planning to implementation, each step between these processes must be discussed before starting work on them.

Project Post-Mortem

Project managers must have heard of project post−mortem. It is practiced after completing the project and is used to evaluate the results. During a project post−mortem, the manager conducts a meeting with the team, stakeholders, clients, and other people involved in the project to discuss whether the project was successful or if it met the original target.

In this discussion, the team reveals their experiences working on different tasks. If the project fails, the stakeholders and the employees discuss the root causes of the failure and what they could have done better to avoid the mistakes. When you are implementing a new change to the company, it’s important that you conduct a project post−mortem to analyze the success or failure of the project. This will help the team to understand where they made mistakes and how they can improve.

Review, Revise, and Improve

Not every plan turns out as well as you discussed with the team. Reviewing it at every stage is crucial to ensure that you are on the right track and each process has been carried out as planned. If anything doesn’t go according to your plan, you can review and revise it to suit your requirements. Several changes are made during the project execution to ensure the best results without going over the budget and exceeding the deadline.

Why Does Every Organization Need Change Control Management?

No company can grow without implementing changes in its procedures, service, product line, customer support, technology, marketing, and other departments. You need a change control management solution to implement these changes effectively. Here’s why you need them −

Build an organizational culture that promotes change and mitigates the risk of its failure after deployment.

Ensure seamless communication throughout the change implementation journey.

Plan the resources, skills, and costs required to execute the project effectively.

Reduce cost and ensure the project is completed within budget.

Establish a deadline for the project and ensure that it’s completed by then.

Collect feedback from employees at every stage of project execution to track the progress of change implementation and how it is affecting your business.


Regardless of the industry, you are working in, you can’t avoid change. How you adapt to and implement these changes plays a crucial role in determining your company’s success. The change control management will help you monitor these changes and reduce the risk of failure.

What Is Shell In Linux?

Introduction to Shell in Linux

Linux is a code that transmits the system commands., Compilers, Editors, linkers, and command-line interpreters are essential and valuable but are not part of the operating system. We will look briefly at the LINUX command interpreter, called the SHELL, which, although not part of the operating system, makes heavy use of many operating system features and thus serves as an excellent example of how the system calls can be used. It is also the primary interface between a user sitting at his terminal and the operating system.

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Following are the different examples:

It prints the current date and time.



The user can specify that the standard output be redirected to a file,


The user can specify that standard input can be redirected, as in


Which invokes the sort program with input taken from file1 and output sent to file2

The pipe helps connect a particular program’s output as input to other programs.


This invokes the cat program to concatenate three files and send the output to sort to arrange all the lines alphabetically. The output of sort is redirected to the file /dev/lp, a familiar name for the special character file for the printer.

Types of Shell

If you wish to use any of the above shell types as the default shell, the variable must be assigned accordingly. However, after reading a field in the file /etc./passwd, the system makes this assignment. This file must be edited if you wish to change the setting permanently. The system administrator usually sets up your login shell while creating a user account, though you can change it whenever you request.

Shell Keywords

Echo if until trap

read else case wait

set fi esac eval

unset while break exec

read-only do continue ulmit

shift Done exit umask

export For return

1. Unchanging variables- set keyword

In some applications, a need for variables to have a constant or fixed value may arise. For instants, if we want that a’s variable should always remain at 20 and not change, we can achieve this by saying,

Example #1

$a = 20 $readonly a

The shell will not permit to change a value when they are created as read-only. To create read-only variables, type “read-only” at a command prompt.

When there is a need to clear or erase a particular command from the shell, we will use the “unset” keyword as a command.

Example #2

$a = 20 $echo a 20 $unset a $echo a  2. Echo keyword

To print either the value of any variable or words under double quotation.

Example #1

x=20 echo $x


Example #2

echo "Hello World!"


Pwd command



Ls command

mkdir newdir ls


Mkdir command

mkdir imp ls


3. Cd command: read keyword

The read statement is the shell’s internal tool for taking input from the standard input. Functionally, it is similar to the INPUT statement of BASIC and the scanf() function in C. But it has one or two interesting features; it can be used with one or more variables to make shell scripts interactive. These variables read the input supplied through the standard input during an interactive session. The script chúng tôi uses the statement to take the search string and the filenames from the terminal.

Command – Shell in Linux $cat #Script : chúng tôi - Interactive version #The pattern and filename to be supplied by the user echo "nEnter the pattern to be searched : c" read pname echo "nEnter the file to be used :c" read flname echo "nSearching for $pname from the $flnamen" grep "$pname" $flname echo "nSelected records shown above" $_ Run it, and specify the input accordingly $ Enter the pattern to be searched: director Enter the file to be used: emp2.lst Searching for director from file emp2.lst


Conclusion Recommended Articles

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