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When it comes to the most optimal GPU temperature, the lower, the better. When your GPU goes under load during intense gaming, it will start running at higher temperatures. Not all GPUs have the same heat tolerance levels, so it’s vital to understand the maximum temperature of your specific GPU and the thermal range at which it will operate most stably.

Your GPU’s ideal idle temperature should not exceed 60 °C or 140 °F. Suppose your room sits at a cool 25 °C degrees, then your GPU should ideally sit between 35 °C (95° F) and 45 °C (113 °F). If your GPU is not cooled via open air solutions or water-cooled, your idle temperature can drop by a good margin.

What is the Best GPU Temperature While Gaming?

The right GPU temperature whilst gaming depends highly on the exact brand, model and condition of the GPU in your system. In general, AMD GPUs run hotter than their NVIDIA counterparts and have higher maximum temperature ceilings.

NVIDIAs GPUs are listed to run stably and safely between 65-85 °Celsius (or 149-185 °F) according to their official specification standards. 

The same goes for AMD, and although your GPU could sometimes exceed the 85 °Celsius limit, it’s not a good idea since this might introduce significant performance penalties. 

Laptops generally run hotter than their workstation counterparts since all PC components sit very closely together, and airflow is restricted. However, your laptop should not exceed GPU temperatures above 85 °C (185 °F).

Having abnormally high GPU temperatures will also make the laptop uncomfortable to touch due to the heat buildup, so you should always strive to have the lowest possible internal temperatures. Proper knowledge and temperature management could be the critical difference in prolonging the lifespan of your laptop’s internal components.

Causes of High GPU Temperatures While Gaming

There are some clear causes of abnormally high GPU temperatures whilst gaming. Being aware of them will help you get your GPU temperatures to run at more optimal levels. Here are a few things to watch out for: 

What GPU Temperature is Too Hot for My PC?

GPU temperatures that exceed 90 °C (or 194 °F) should be a significant warning sign. When temperatures run higher than this, you risk causing permanent damage to your GPU or the surrounding components. Excess heat indicates your system’s cooling is not well optimized. Most GPUs will automatically shut down once their built-in sensors detect a preset heat threshold.

Symptoms of an Overheating GPU

Here are some of the most common symptoms that you might experience when your GPU is not running at an optimal temperature whilst gaming:

Constant Game Crashes: When a GPU overheats, it will cause an instant crash of any game or software that you are running to prevent further damage.

FPS Stuttering and Freezing during high GPU usage: Your GPU will be forced to underclock or undervolted itself to reduce the heat produced. 

BSOD: The blue screen of death is a common symptom of either an overheating GPU or one that is nearing the end of its lifespan

Overly Loud Fan Noises: If your fans are constantly running at 100% full load, even without any intensive applications, it might signal that your GPU has an overheating issue.

Now that you know both the causes and symptoms of an overheating GPU, here are some solutions that can help keep your GPU temperature in check during prolonged heavy gaming usage.

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The Metaverse: What Is It?

It’s not surprising that digital gaming is one of the early adopters of the metaverse.

But, if the metaverse is all about gaming, Mr. Zuckerburg would not have bet his entire company on it.

In 2023, Facebook’s CEO, Mark Zuckerburg, announced the name change of the company he founded two decades ago from Facebook to Meta – and the concept of the “metaverse” emerged from a niched and futuristic idea, to a mainstream business strategy.

In this article, we will explore what exactly the metaverse means, where it came from, and how it has evolved – and will continue to evolve.

Let’s dive in.

What Is The Metaverse?

Meta defines the metaverse as “the next evolution in social connection and the successor to the mobile internet.”

While this definition is generally true, it’s important to know that Meta doesn’t control the metaverse; no company does.

In fact, rather than thinking of one virtual space called the metaverse, it’s more appropriate to use the plural form, metaverses, at the current stage.

A metaverse can be any 3D virtual space powered by technologies – including virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and blockchain – that allows people to interact with each other (and in some cases, with non-human avatars).

There are many metaverses existing today.

Most of them were created by individual companies and serve a particular purpose. There is little to no interoperability among metaverses, as the standards of sharing user identities and data across different metaverse spaces haven’t been developed yet.

The History Of The Metaverse

The term “metaverse” was first used by sci-fi writer Neal Stephenson in his 1992 novel “Snow Crash.” In the novel, Mr. Stephenson describes a 3D virtual world that people could, in a sense, occupy.

The novel’s main character, Hiro, accesses the metaverse via a personal terminal that projects 3D virtual reality images to his goggles. Hiro’s avatar interacts with other people’s avatars in the metaverse, and in fact, “Snow Crash” is the name of a data file Hiro’s avatar received in the metaverse.

Fiction aside, digital gaming is how the metaverse was introduced to and adapted by consumers in scale. Launched in 2024, Pokémon Go, which incorporated augmented reality into mobile gaming, took the world by storm.

Since then, multiplayer games, such as Fortnite, Minecraft, and Roblox, have provided a virtual environment where players can interact with each other in the form of avatars – creating the foundation of the metaverse.

In 2023, the development and adoption of the metaverse has gone beyond gaming and into other industries.

Metaverse marketing is becoming a buzzword among consumer brands. Major multinational companies, from JP Morgan, Nike, and Adidas, to McDonald’s, all have initiatives to capture the marketing potential of the metaverse.

This creates another level of interconnectivity and a new dimension to our global economy.

The management consulting firm, McKinsey & Company, estimated the metaverse could generate $5 trillion in revenue for businesses by 2030.

How Is The Metaverse Different From The Internet?

Even though the metaverse is often considered the next evolution of the internet, there are significant differences between the two.

The internet, as we know it, is a network of websites.

Initially, websites were created for information distribution only.

Today, websites serve various purposes, from shopping, entertainment, to communication. The emergence of social networks made the internet a channel for people to connect and share their lives with each other.

Even as enormous as the internet is, it’s still a place for storing and sharing information its users generate about what happened in the “real world.”

On the contrary, the metaverse is a virtual world where its users “live” their virtual lives. The activities happening in the metaverse and the data it stores may not have any connection with the “real world.”

In other words, the internet is an extension of the real world, while the metaverse is a virtual space that exists in parallel with the real world.

To understand this difference, consider posting pictures of a dinner gathering with your friends on social media versus having a virtual gathering with your friends in the metaverse.

In the metaverse, you can go about many of your everyday life’s day-to-day interactions and occurrences in your avatar form.

Your avatar can interact with other people’s avatars.

You can conduct many activities in the virtual world as you do in the real world, such as buying and selling goods, attending concerts, going to museums, building or renovating a house, and more.

How NFT And Cryptocurrency Made The Metaverse Possible

To enable commercial activities in the metaverse, the metaverse needs a system to support business transactions.

Trading goods and services in the virtual world have two challenges.

First, it needs a way to determine the value. Since any digital goods can be copied and replicated easily, the metaverse needs a way to identify the authenticity of the goods and the owners.

Just as you won’t pay the same price for a faulty car or a fake Gucci knockoff, you likely don’t want to pay the same price for any digital goods that are replicas of the original – even though they look the same.

Secondly, the metaverse needs a way to transact in the virtual world. It needs virtual currency.

This is where non-fungible tokens (NFT) and cryptocurrencies come to the rescue.

Both NFTs and cryptocurrencies are based on blockchain technology. While the technologies are quite complicated, their usages are quite simple to understand.

NFT acts as a certificate, like the title to a house. Even if the digital product itself can be replicated, the NFT cannot, and is always tied to the original. Hence, they’re called non-fungible tokens.

Cryptocurrency is a natural fit with the metaverse. Since the metaverse is virtual, it is always active, self-sustaining, and creates incredible possibilities in business. And many of these possibilities hold a basis in cryptocurrency.

It’s also common for metaverse platforms to create their own versions of cryptocurrency. For example, the popular NFT art collection marketplace, Bored Ape Yacht Club, has its own cryptocurrency called ApeCoin.

How Do You Get Into The Metaverse?

Currently, there is no standard way to access the metaverse. Different metaverse platforms may have different requirements. But, in most cases, you can start exploring the metaverse with the devices you already have – a computer or a mobile device.

Just like accessing any platform on the internet, you’re typically required to set up a user account.

Most platforms allow users to start for free. If you want to engage in any commercial activities, you’d need to set up a cryptocurrency wallet.

How Major Brands Are Getting Involved

Some of the businesses preparing for the metaverse include major names such as Nike, Adidas, and Vans.

In October of 2023, Nike filed several trademark applications for its popular slogans and iconography (like “Just Do It” and the iconic checkmark), allowing it to make and sell virtual goods.

This occurred in tandem with Mark Zuckerberg announcing Meta.

Adidas is making its foray into the metaverse with collaborative NFT projects (which have since sold out), creating exclusive collectibles with other artists. Its NFTs collectively sold for over $22 million.

The brand has affirmed the NFT community by investing in NFTs as a company and has bought a large plot of land in the metaverse to host virtual parties and events.

It is one of the first corporations to not only release NFTs but to actually invest in the metaverse ecosystem itself.

Vans is also getting involved. The company has built an online skate park that’s already seen upwards of 48 million visitors. This type of engagement is unparalleled – in-person events simply can’t hold the same capacity of people. Customers can also shop in Vans’ virtual store to earn points and customize an avatar.

But while some brands are sold on the metaverse, others are more hesitant to get involved. With pandemic restrictions easing, many consumers have been eager to connect in person, drawing their interest away from virtual meeting places.

In addition to this, the rise of generative AI as a tool has become a shiny new tool that has captured the interest of both consumers and brands.

These are just a couple of reasons why the metaverse has taken off with some brands but not others.

Advertising And Marketing To Gen Z

A key objective for brands to get into the metaverse is to reach the next generation of consumers: Gen Z.

Digitally native Gen Z has proven to be tricky to market to; They possess an intuitive understanding of technology unprecedented in previous generations.

According to some reports, Gen Z considers digital lives as important as physical ones; for some, there is little to no differentiation. The virtual world and social media are not separate lives but further extensions of their more present, physical reality.

It also makes friendships around the globe more of a present reality and means exposure to brands they might not normally discover.

This boasts a two-fold impact on marketing and selling potential for brands: exposure is unlimited by physical constraints, and physical and digital goods become players of equal value.

Per Nike’s example, a virtual shoe is not of lesser value because it exists in the digital sphere – it holds the capability to compete.

If a brand’s target audience is going digital, it’s no surprise that brands must pursue digital innovation to compete.

B2B Metaverse: Virtual Conferences And Workplaces

The metaverse is as important in the business-to-business (B2B) space as for business-to-consumer (B2C) brands.

Companies that depended on conferences and trade shows had to pivot – and fast.

The metaverse offers significant opportunities for companies to meet through virtual reality, saving businesses and attendees money on travel, lodging, and other associated costs.

Numerous start-ups, such as Flox and Virtway Events, are trying to seize the opportunities by offering platforms for businesses to create immersive virtual conferences and events.


The metaverse is still in its infancy stage. While its infrastructure is still being set up, some companies and brands are jumping at the opportunity to be a part of this new world.

It is worth noting, however, that while some brands are diving into the metaverse feet-first, others appear to be stepping back from their metaverse initiatives.

In early 2023, both Disney and Microsoft announced they were shutting down their respective metaverse units. Even Meta seems to be paring down its efforts slightly, having let go of some of its metaverse division employees in recent company layoffs.

But this doesn’t mean the metaverse is going away – far from it.

Much like the internet in the 90s, the metaverse has great potential to shape businesses and people’s lives. The technologies, usages, and business models around the metaverse are rapidly evolving.

As the proliferation of websites highlighted Web 1.0 and the adoption of social media represented Web 2.0, the metaverse could be the signature for Web 3.0.

No one knows how the metaverse will evolve in the future. But one thing is certain – it’s no longer science fiction. It’s already here.

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Featured Image: Yuganov Konstantin/Shutterstock

What Is The Role Of The Chair?

Therefore, the chair is responsible for leading the board and focusing it on strategic matters, overseeing the company’s business, and setting high governance standards.

The chair plays a pivotal role in fostering the effectiveness of the board and individual directors, both inside and outside the board room.

This guide explores the role of the chair, the associated duties, and what to bear in mind when choosing someone for this role.

A good chair provides leadership to the board rather than the company

What is the role of the chair of the board?

The role of the chair involves ensuring the effectiveness of the board in implementing company strategy. This can be done through their role in chairing important meetings, determining the agenda and the nature of the information received by the board members.

Good data and information is crucial when it comes to the accurate decision-making of the board.

The role of chair of the board may be a full or part-time position. It can sometimes be combined with that of chief executive or managing director in smaller companies, although such a joint role would not be recommended for public companies.

Following the corporate scandals of previous decades, the chair can play a valuable role in keeping a check on the CEO. However, such division has also created problems where the chair may act as a second CEO, creating conflict between the roles.

It’s essential for an organisation to understand the differences between these two roles to maximise good governance and minimise friction and confusion among senior managers.

One difference is that a good chair provides leadership to the board rather than the company.

As the board’s leading representative, the chair presents its aims outside the boardroom. One of their duties involves providing a summary of discussions that can be agreed upon by the board.

The chair also makes sure that meetings are well ordered and helps facilitate good decision making.

In addition to the duties described above, the chair is also responsible for regularly reviewing the board’s composition, which is highly important for the effective running of the organisation.

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Essentially the role of the chair can be broken down as follows:

Leadership to the board

Responsibility for the composition and development of the organisation

Providing information to the board

Conducting board meetings

Involving and facilitating all directors in board meetings

Giving focus to the board on critical tasks

Reviewing the development and induction of directors

Support of the chief executive or managing director

The following list provides further detail on the duties of the chair:

The chair will set the board agenda, ensuring that directors receive accurate, timely and precise information to enable them to take accurate and authoritative decisions.

The chair will ensure that sufficient time is allowed for complex or contentious issues and encourage active engagement by all board members.

The chair should take the lead in ensuring that there is a formal induction programme for new directors. They should also make sure to address and resolve the various ongoing development needs of individual directors to ensure that they have a comprehensive understanding of what is required for them to fulfil their role on the board.

Evaluating the performance of each board member in their role as a director annually and ensuring that the board’s performance as a whole and its committees are evaluated annually.

Holding meetings with the non-executive directors without the executives being present.

Ensuring effective communication with shareholders and particularly that the company maintains contact with its principal shareholders on matters relating to strategy, governance and directors’ remuneration.

Ensuring that the views of shareholders are communicated to the board as a whole.

As chair of the nominations committee, initiating diversity, change and planning succession in board appointments (other than concerning the appointment of a successor as chair) following procedures agreed from time to time by the board.

Together with the chief executive, providing input to the remuneration committee concerning its recommendations to the board on the policy for the remuneration of the executive directors and its approval of the detailed terms of service of the executive directors and the company secretary.

In conjunction with the chief executive, representing the company to customers, suppliers, government, shareholders, financial institutions and the community.

We can see that the role of the chair is an essential one in ensuring good corporate governance and that they must act independently and be free of conflicts of interest.

It is helpful to choose someone for this role who possesses good organisational skills and will effectively review the involvement and coordination of board members.

It’s important to mention that the chair of a charity has no less importance than that of any other organisation, either private or public.

Charity trustees are the people who ultimately exercise control over, and are legally responsible for, the charity.

Each board of charity trustees should have a chairperson whose duties include:

Leading the board and providing ongoing leadership for the board and its appointees

Along with the company secretary, ensuring the smooth running of board meetings

Promoting good governance among fellow charity trustees

Providing supervision and support to the manager/CEO (where applicable)

Acting as a figurehead or spokesperson, where required

What Is The Microsoft Surface Neo?

There’s been a lot of hubbub about the Microsoft Surface Neo, and for good reason. Recently, Microsoft revealed plans for a new kind of portable device that redefines portable computing.

So, what is the Microsoft Surface Neo, and why are people talking about it?

What Is the Surface Neo?

In short, the Surface Neo is a “dual-screen laptop.” It achieves duality by turning what is traditionally the keyboard part of the laptop into a second screen. The end result looks like two tablets attached to one another.

The hinge on the Surface Neo allows for a lot of different positions. You can open and close it like a regular laptop, hold it open like a book, and even put the screens back to back.

This is all well and good, but the keyboard part of a traditional laptop is important for typing! Thankfully, the Surface Neo doesn’t force the user to use a software keyboard. It comes with a Bluetooth keyboard that magnetically sticks onto the unit.

The Bluetooth keyboard can be used on its own, but you can also stick it on one of the screens on the Surface Neo. The device will detect this and turn that screen into a keyboard-dedicated display. This means displaying the “WonderBar,” which includes some emojis you can select from.

The Surface Neo runs a special version of Windows 10,called Windows 10X. Compared to the desktop version of Windows 10, it’s not a great deal different; after all, 10X’s primary function is to understand and adapt to the unique layout of the Surface Neo.

What’s the Release Plan?

Unfortunately, at the time of writing, Microsoft hasn’t revealed how much the Surface Neo will be, let alone the date it will be released. The release video hints that the Surface Neo will release during “holiday 2023,” but like all things in the tech world, it’s prone to delays and slips.

Is this Technology New?

While the idea of having two screens attached to a hinge is relatively new to the computer world, its design is based on existing technology. For instance, you can currently buy a 2-in-1 laptop or “transformer laptop,” which is somewhat similar to a Surface Neo.

While 2-in-1s don’t use two screens, they do have the main tablet screen and a detachable keyboard. The idea behind these devices is that you can combine the two and use it as a laptop, then split them apart and use the screen as a standalone tablet.

It’s not quite as impressive as a two-screen device with a magnetic Bluetooth keyboard, but it is a nice alternative for someone who wants a good balance between leisure and productivity.

Skimming the Surface

Microsoft is looking to revolutionize portable computing with the Surface Neo. While we don’t know the fine details just yet, we do know that it’s a dual-screen laptop with an attachable Bluetooth keyboard. Its flexibility and adaptability show good potential for being a handy mobile note-taker and media center.

Do you think the Surface Neo will be revolutionary? Let us know below!

Simon Batt

Simon Batt is a Computer Science graduate with a passion for cybersecurity.

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What Is The Corporate Enforcement Authority?

Ian Drennan, director of corporate enforcement at the CEA, said the authority marks a watershed moment for Ireland’s strategy on addressing economic and white-collar crime.

“With enhanced autonomy and significantly increased levels of investigative assets – including additional legal and digital forensics professionals and seconded members of An Garda Síochána – the Corporate Enforcement Authority will assume the ODCE’s current caseload and will, I anticipate, continue to build on the ODCE’s forensic and robust approach towards tackling serious breaches of company law and associated wrongdoing in both civil and criminal realms,” says Drennan.

The authority will have all the necessary human resources required, both Civil Service and members of An Garda Síochána, to pursue breaches of company law.

The Corporate Enforcement Authority’s powers

Since the CEA is statutorily independent, it will have more flexibility in recruiting specialist staff. (This is the main additional power, the ability to recruit experts when they are needed.) The CEA also works more closely with the police.

“I am pleased that this authority will have all the necessary human resources required, both Civil Service and members of An Garda Síochána, to pursue breaches of company law,” said Leo Varadkar at the launch of the CEA.

“Already, the budget of the ODCE has been increased by 20% or €1 million to €6.057 million, and my Department has sanctioned 14 additional staff to be assigned to the CEA.”

“The permanent complement of members of An Garda Síochána will double from seven to 16, and so the CEA’s total headcount will have increased nearly 50% over existing levels.”

The CEA will have a forensic and robust approach towards tackling serious breaches of company law and associated wrongdoing in both civil and criminal realms.

How will the CEA investigate breaches of company law?

“With enhanced autonomy and significantly increased levels of investigative assets, including additional legal and digital forensics professionals and seconded members of An Garda Síochána, the CEA will have a forensic and robust approach towards tackling serious breaches of company law and associated wrongdoing in both civil and criminal realms,” says Ian Drennan.

Why was the Corporate Enforcement Authority established?

The CEA was established because the ODCE lacked ‘proper teeth’.

The ODCE’s establishment as an independent agency was part of the Irish government’s ‘White-collar crime package’ of measures to enhance Ireland’s capability to combat corporate, economic, and regulatory crime.

ODCE’s historic under-funding has been well-documented and came into sharp focus when the trial of Sean Fitzpatrick collapsed.

In December 2023, the Department of Business, Enterprise and Innovation reviewed the ODCE investigation. They found it lacked the skills, experience, and risk management processes needed to launch multiple complex investigations simultaneously.

The CEA is an independent agency rather than an office in the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, which allows it to hire staff and determine their pay grades with the approval of the Minister.

What is the difference between the ODCE and the CEA?

The CEA’s statutory duties are similar to those of ODCE. However, the critical difference is that the CEA is an independent agency rather than an office in the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, which allows it to hire staff and determine their pay grades with the approval of the Minister.

Therefore, the authority will have a greater degree of autonomy in recruiting specialists to handle the investigations.

As part of this autonomy, the budgetary allowance was increased by one million euros to six million in 2023.

Additional specialist staff, including legal and digital forensic experts, will be needed to allow the CEA to carry out investigations.

The CEA will be able to acquire passwords for electronic devices, conduct surveillance, and permit officials to participate in interviews alongside Gardai.

Will the CEA have any new investigatory powers?

The CEA’s powers will be similar to those of the ODCE, but somewhat stronger.

The additional powers are the ability to acquire passwords for electronic devices, conduct surveillance, and permit officials to participate in interviews alongside Gardai.

What Is The Latest Version Of Macos?

To keep your Mac secure, you should run the latest version of macOS. Apple continually issues software updates and security patches along with new features. Here’s how to ensure you have the latest version of the macOS operating system.

The Latest Version of macOS is macOS Monterey

The latest stable version of Apple’s Mac operating system is macOS 12 Monterey. At the time of writing, the latest version number for macOS Monterey is 12.4.

Table of Contents

Apple announces new macOS versions at the WWDC (Worldwide Developers Conference) keynote every year. The company unveiled macOS Monterey at WWDC in June 2023 and released it to the public in October 2023. The latest update introduced features such as SharePlay, AirPlay to Mac, Shortcuts for macOS, and Universal Control.

If you’re wondering if your Mac is compatible with macOS Monterey, here’s the complete list of devices that support the latest release of macOS:

MacBook Pro (2024 or newer)

MacBook Air (2024 or newer)

MacBook (2024 or newer)

Mac mini (2014 or newer)

iMac (2024 or newer)

iMac Pro

Mac Studio

Mac Pro (2013 or newer)

If you have an older Mac, you may have to use an older version of macOS.

How to Check What Version of macOS You Have

How to Update to the Latest Version of macOS

Up until a few versions ago, macOS updates appeared in the Mac App Store, but that has changed now. You can use the methods described above to find the latest version of macOS.

What macOS Version Numbers Mean

Each version of macOS has a number associated with it. Previously Apple used to call the operating system Mac OS X, where X is pronounced as 10, and the version numbers for major operating systems would reflect that. Each new update used a number such as macOS 10.13 for High Sierra and macOS 10.15 for Catalina.

The new macOS version number system changes the first number each year and adds additional digits after the decimal to denote minor or major updates within that version number. For example, macOS 11 is Big Sur, macOS 12 is Monterey, and macOS 12.3 was a software update that introduced the Universal Control feature.

This version numbering system is similar to iOS or iPadOS, which you can find on the iPhone or the iPad, respectively.

Big feature releases such as dark mode, SharePlay, and other major functionality updates are usually reserved for new versions of macOS. Smaller decimal-point version number updates are more likely to feature security updates, bug fixes, and sometimes updates to the Safari browser or other Apple apps.

Which Is the Latest Version of macOS for My Mac?

If you don’t have a Mac that supports macOS Monterey, you should know which version of macOS is the latest one for your computer. Here’s the complete list:

macOS Big Sur: 11.6.6

macOS Catalina: 10.15.7

macOS Mojave: 10.14.6

macOS High Sierra: 10.13.6

macOS Sierra: 10.12.6

OS X El Capitan: 10.11.6

OS X Yosemite: 10.10.5

OS X Mavericks: 10.9.5

OS X Mountain Lion: 10.8.5

OS X Lion: 10.7.5

Mac OS X Snow Leopard: 10.6.8

Mac OS X Leopard: 10.5.8

Mac OS X Tiger: 10.4.11

Mac OS X Panther: 10.3.9

Mac OS X Jaguar: 10.2.8

Mac OS X Puma: 10.1.5

Mac OS X Cheetah: 10.0.4

As Apple releases new versions of macOS, the company updates this page on its website to tell you which is the latest version. You can check it anytime you want to check the newest version of macOS.

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