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Modern computers need to have RAM installed on RAM sticks. These sticks are called DIMMs because all of the electrical pins are in line, and there are two lines of them, leading to the acronym Dual In-line Memory Module. This wasn’t always the case, though, as DIMMs were invented in the 1990s.

DRAM History

Really early in the development of computers, RAM chips were installed directly on motherboards as integrated circuits using DIP sockets. Because many chips were needed, a lot of space was taken up. The Single In-line Memory Module or SIMM was designed to free up most of that space. The memory chips were installed on a separate circuit board and plugged into the motherboard at a perpendicular angle.

The first generation of SIMMs used electrical pins that went into sockets like a large SIP chip. This design, however, was vulnerable to the pins being bent, and the pins were the most expensive part of the SIMM. To reduce costs and increase the integrity of the connectors, the pins were redesigned to be edge connectors. These edge connectors are still used in modern DIMMs, albeit with some modifications.

The thing about these new edge connectors was that they went over the whole bottom edge. Each connector pad ran over the SIMM’s front, bottom, and back. The overall number of connectors didn’t change, just the type. This is the key difference between SIMMs and DIMMs. On SIMMs, the connectors are redundant on either side because they’re really one pin. The connectors on DIMMs are different on each side, doubling the pin count with no extra effort.

Note: Slightly confusingly, these edge connectors are still generally referred to as pins.

Increased Pin Count

Each pin can only transmit one of two potential values each clock cycle, on or off, the binary 1 or 0. Adding more pins means more data can be transmitted per clock cycle, increasing the bandwidth. Not all of the pins go into improving the actual I/O bandwidth of the SIMM. A range of pins is used to issue commands to the RAM too.

When CPUs process data, they need that data to be in the CPU cache. That cache is significantly faster than RAM but much more expensive, so there’s not much of it. So, data is stored in RAM and then copied to the cache when needed. To efficiently do so, the memory bus is designed to be broad in that it has as many connections as possible. This means that as many bits as possible can be transmitted per clock cycle. Modern computers have a 64-bit memory bus, but in the early 80s, when the SIMM was invented, the memory bus was 8-bits wide. 8 pins were used to transmit data per clock cycle, while the rest of the 30 pins on a SIMM were used to send commands.

As CPU development continued, the memory bus width was increased to 16-bits. The problem is that with only 8 data pins, only 8 bits of data can be transferred per clock cycle. SIMMs were paired up to get around this, providing 16 data pins to fill the memory bus. Of course, CPU development didn’t stop there, and the 32-bit memory bus soon came along. While some systems allow for four 30-pin SIMMs, a new standard was released with a 72-pin SIMM with 32 data pins.

Losing out to DIMM

With the arrival and quick market acceptance of the Intel Pentium P5 with its 64-bit memory bus in 1993, and CPUs with 64-bit memory busses, the same game had to be played. While some systems supported dual 72-pin SIMMs, a new form factor took the lead, DIMM. With twice the number of pins on one stick of RAM, DIMMs were cheaper (at least when compared to two SIMMs) and used less space on the motherboard.

Eventually, the DIMM form factor became the standard, and SIMM dropped out of use. Essentially nothing still uses SIMM now. Indeed no new hardware. However, there are almost certainly legacy devices still running it somewhere. DIMM is still used today and is unlikely to go anywhere soon.


SIMM was the original form factor for the memory stick. They made upgrading or installing RAM a lot easier by making it a single process, rather than needing to plug in the 8 DRAM chips by hand. Using pins and then keeping the edge connectors as single contiguous pins eventually led to their replacement by DIMMs in the early 90s.

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What Is Stakeholder Management? What Is Its Role In Leadership?

blog / Leadership What is Stakeholder Management? What is its Role in Leadership?

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Are you managing a project that involves different people who may be impacted by its results? If so, let’s get into what is stakeholder management, and why it is important, let us begin by first understanding who a stakeholder is. 

A stakeholder refers to an individual, group, or organization with a ‘stake’ in the outcome of a particular project. They could be board members, investors, suppliers, or anyone who may be directly involved in a project and be impacted by its outcome. 

What is Stakeholder Management

It is the practice of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing relationships with internal and external stakeholders who are directly affected by the outcome of a venture or project. It involves proactively implementing the right actions to build trust and foster better communication with multiple stakeholders. 

ALSO READ: What is Project Management and How to Become a Successful PM?

Why is Stakeholder Management Important?

According to Pulse of the Profession (PMI) 2023, 63% of companies have already integrated stakeholder engagement strategies. After all, it enables a deep understanding of stakeholders by establishing trust and strengthening interpersonal communication. Thereby ensuring that all stakeholders have a shared, similar understanding of the organization’s key goals and work together to fulfill these objectives. The main benefits are:

Ensures robust risk management

Creates a strong base for social license 

Aligns project concepts with business goals 

Supports conflict management 

Improves business intelligence 

ALSO READ: 7 Leadership Skills for Managers in Today’s Workplace

What are the Different Types of Stakeholders?

Internal stakeholders work within the organization and are directly invested in the project’s performance. For example, a company’s employees, top management, team members, and board of directors can all be considered internal stakeholders. 

External stakeholders may not be directly employed at the company or engaged with it but are impacted by the project in some way. Customers, shareholders, creditors, and suppliers are a few examples of external stakeholders. 

Stakeholder Management Examples

Looking at an example will help answer the ‘what is stakeholder management’ question. 

Let’s assume a government agency is working on developing a new policy. While refining a policy or developing a new one, there could be competing interests and varied opinions. Local councils, community groups, or certain businesses may not be supportive of this change. This is where stakeholder management can play a transformative role. Through effective stakeholder management, one can engage with these groups, find common ground, and address key changes that will enable a smooth decision-making process. 

What is a Stakeholder Management Plan?

It is a document that outlines core management techniques to effectively understand the stakeholder landscape and engage them throughout the project lifecycle. A stakeholder management plan usually includes: 

All the project stakeholders and their basic information

A detailed power interest matrix or a stakeholder map

The main strategies and tactics that are best suited to key stakeholder groups 

A well-laid-out communication plan

A clear picture of the resources available (budget, expertise, etc.)

Once you get to know what stakeholder management is really about, it’s essential to understand how to create an effective stakeholder management plan. 

How to Make a Stakeholder Management Plan?

Typically, a project manager is responsible for creating a stakeholder management plan. However, it is ideal also to involve all the project members to ensure accuracy. These are some steps to be followed while creating a stakeholder management plan: 

1. Identify Stakeholders

Conduct stakeholder analysis to identify key stakeholders and how they can impact the project’s scope.

2. Prioritize Stakeholders

Learn which stakeholders have influence over what areas of the project. This can be done by creating a power interest grid—a matrix that helps determine the level of impact a stakeholder has on the project. 

3. Establish a Communication Plan

It must include the type of communication, frequency, format, and distribution plan for communicating with each stakeholder. 

4. Manage Expectations

Develop dedicated timelines and share them with individual stakeholders to ensure the project is managed smoothly and also remains true to the stakeholders’ expectations. 

5. Implement the Plan

Make sure that all stakeholders have the final management plan before it is implemented. This helps build trust among teams and promotes transparency. It is also important to track the accuracy of the stakeholder management plan and make any changes based on the overall requirement. 

Stakeholder Management Principles

Now that you have a clear picture of what is stakeholder management, let’s take a look at the Clarkson Principles of Stakeholder Management. Max Clarkson, after whom these principles were named, was a renowned stakeholder management researcher. 

First Principle: Actively monitor and acknowledge the concerns of stakeholders and consider their interests throughout operations and decision-making processes. 

Second Principle: Have open and honest communication with stakeholders regarding any concerns, contributions, or risks that they may assume because of their association with the project.

Third Principle: Adopt practices and behaviors that are considerate toward the capabilities and concerns of all stakeholders. 

Fourth Principle: Recognize the efforts of stakeholders and ensure fair distribution of burdens and benefits of corporate activities while taking potential risks into consideration. 

Fifth Principle: Ensure cooperation with public and private entities to minimize risk from corporate activities. 

Sixth Principle: Avoid any activity that could potentially threaten stakeholders or jeopardize human rights.

Seventh Principle: Acknowledge any conflicts between the project manager and stakeholders. Such conflict should be addressed with open communication and reporting wherever required. 

Stakeholder Management Process

The process is simple to understand once you have in-depth knowledge about what is stakeholder management. These are the five main steps involved: 

Stakeholder Identification

It involves outlining key stakeholders and segregating them into internal and external stakeholder groups. 

Stakeholder Mapping

Once the list of stakeholders is segregated, you can analyze the stakeholders based on their level of influence, involvement, and importance vis-à-vis the project. 

Stakeholder Strategy

Since strategies are formed based on individual stakeholder groups in order of influence, this is your next important step. It defines the type of communication relevant to each stakeholder. 

Stakeholder Responsibility

It is essential to determine which team or individual should be responsible for which aspect of stakeholder engagement is essential. A stakeholder communication plan or template can be of great help here. 

Stakeholder Monitoring

Decide how to track stakeholder activities and integrate changes with ease. This may also involve using related software to boost convenience. 

ALSO READ: How to Develop Leadership Skills in Employees

Stakeholder management plays a vital role in leadership as it enables leaders—or managers in the case of projects—to identify and assess stakeholders’ expectations with a vested interest in a project. They do so by ensuring that everyone involved has a common understanding of the goals and objectives. Furthermore, it enables them to effectively manage any potential conflicts between stakeholders. 

By Neha Menon

Write to us at [email protected] 

What Is Shell In Linux?

Introduction to Shell in Linux

Linux is a code that transmits the system commands., Compilers, Editors, linkers, and command-line interpreters are essential and valuable but are not part of the operating system. We will look briefly at the LINUX command interpreter, called the SHELL, which, although not part of the operating system, makes heavy use of many operating system features and thus serves as an excellent example of how the system calls can be used. It is also the primary interface between a user sitting at his terminal and the operating system.

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Following are the different examples:

It prints the current date and time.



The user can specify that the standard output be redirected to a file,


The user can specify that standard input can be redirected, as in


Which invokes the sort program with input taken from file1 and output sent to file2

The pipe helps connect a particular program’s output as input to other programs.


This invokes the cat program to concatenate three files and send the output to sort to arrange all the lines alphabetically. The output of sort is redirected to the file /dev/lp, a familiar name for the special character file for the printer.

Types of Shell

If you wish to use any of the above shell types as the default shell, the variable must be assigned accordingly. However, after reading a field in the file /etc./passwd, the system makes this assignment. This file must be edited if you wish to change the setting permanently. The system administrator usually sets up your login shell while creating a user account, though you can change it whenever you request.

Shell Keywords

Echo if until trap

read else case wait

set fi esac eval

unset while break exec

read-only do continue ulmit

shift Done exit umask

export For return

1. Unchanging variables- set keyword

In some applications, a need for variables to have a constant or fixed value may arise. For instants, if we want that a’s variable should always remain at 20 and not change, we can achieve this by saying,

Example #1

$a = 20 $readonly a

The shell will not permit to change a value when they are created as read-only. To create read-only variables, type “read-only” at a command prompt.

When there is a need to clear or erase a particular command from the shell, we will use the “unset” keyword as a command.

Example #2

$a = 20 $echo a 20 $unset a $echo a  2. Echo keyword

To print either the value of any variable or words under double quotation.

Example #1

x=20 echo $x


Example #2

echo "Hello World!"


Pwd command



Ls command

mkdir newdir ls


Mkdir command

mkdir imp ls


3. Cd command: read keyword

The read statement is the shell’s internal tool for taking input from the standard input. Functionally, it is similar to the INPUT statement of BASIC and the scanf() function in C. But it has one or two interesting features; it can be used with one or more variables to make shell scripts interactive. These variables read the input supplied through the standard input during an interactive session. The script chúng tôi uses the statement to take the search string and the filenames from the terminal.

Command – Shell in Linux $cat #Script : chúng tôi - Interactive version #The pattern and filename to be supplied by the user echo "nEnter the pattern to be searched : c" read pname echo "nEnter the file to be used :c" read flname echo "nSearching for $pname from the $flnamen" grep "$pname" $flname echo "nSelected records shown above" $_ Run it, and specify the input accordingly $ Enter the pattern to be searched: director Enter the file to be used: emp2.lst Searching for director from file emp2.lst


Conclusion Recommended Articles

This is a guide to What is Shell in Linux? Here we discuss the introduction and types of Shell, Commands, and respective examples. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more–

What Is Procedure In Sql?

Introduction to Procedure in SQL

The following article provides an outline for What is Procedure in SQL? Procedures or Stored Procedures in SQL are logical units of SQL queries that can be created once, fetched, and executed multiple times whenever there is a need to repeat the same operation. It also allows passing parameters, like the stored procedure with arguments in the OOPS concept. It is categorized under DML (Data Manipulation Language) of SQL programming, as it is applicable to operations involving data management and manipulation.

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What is SQL?

Syntax of SQL query to fetch all the records is as follows:

select * from table_name Stored Procedures in SQL

Stored procedures can accept parameters as input and can return multiple values as an output parameter. In SQL Server, stored procedures perform operations in the database and can return a status value to an application or a batch calling procedure. User-defined procedures are created using the user-defined database, with the exception when we have a read-only database. For that, we need to develop it in Transact SQL (T-SQL). Tempdb is where all the temporary procedures are stored.

There are two types of stored procedures.

Local procedures

Global procedures

Local procedures are the one which is only visible for the user using it in the connection, whereas Global procedures are visible to any of the users in the same connection.

Structure of Creating the Procedure

Here, the owner means the database name, and to pass the parameter, we need to add the ‘@’ symbol.


AS Execute a Stored Procedure Exec is the command for the execution of the procedure. EXEC Procedure_name

Comparison Between Stored Procedure and Functions

Stored procedures and functions can be used to achieve the same functionality.

We can customize both procedures as well as functions.

The difference between them is functions are designed to send their output to Transact SQL, and stored procedures are designed to return output to a query, as well as they can return output to T-SQL also.

Applications can have input from the stored procedures, while user-defined functions can return table variables, and they are not privileged to change the environment settings neither operating system environment.

Database Company

Given below are the database company:

Company Category Item

Tarle edibles cookies

Tarle edibles chips

Lakme cosmetics lipstick

Brisket grocery Flax seeds

Brisket edibles biscuits

Brisket grocery oil

ole cosmetics Nail polish

ole cosmetics Hairbrush

Stored Procedure Example

The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure that selects the company.


Execute the stored procedure above as follows:

Executing the above-stored procedure, we can use the following command:


EXEC SelectAllExample; Stored Procedure Example With One Parameter

The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure with a single parameter to be passed that selects a company with an item as a parameter.


CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample @item nvarchar(30) AS SELECT * FROM company WHERE item = @item GO;

Execute the stored procedure above as follows:

To execute the above-stored procedure with one parameter, we can use the following command:

EXEC SelectAllExample item = "cookies"; Stored Procedure Example with Multiple Parameters

The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure with multiple parameters that select company with item and category as a parameter


CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample @item nvarchar(30), @ category nvarchar(10) AS SELECT * FROM company WHERE item = @ item AND category = @ category GO;

Execute the stored procedure above as follows:

To execute the above-stored procedure with multiple parameters, we can use the following command we need to pass the multiple parameters with comma-separated: EXEC SelectAllExample item =”cookies”, category =”edibles”;


Application improvement can be achieved by procedures. If a procedure is called multiple times in a single application, then the compiled version of the procedure is utilized.

Traffic between the database and the application can be reduced as the big statements are already fed into the database, and we don’t have to send it again and again.

Using procedures, code reusability can be achieved, similar to the functions and methods that work in the java and other programming languages.

Stored Procedures consume a lot of memory. It is the duty of a database administrator has to decide an upper bound to how many stored procedures are feasible for a particular application.

Stored procedures cannot be debugged using MySQL.

Conclusion – What is Procedure in SQL

Simple non-select statements, including DML, statements like Insert and delete, also DDL statements such as Drop and Create can be included in the stored programs. Memory consumption is more, but the seek rate can be reduced, and code reusability is beneficial. Stored procedures can be implemented with or without variables and can be executed by passing the parameters if required.

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We hope that this EDUCBA information on “What is Procedure in SQL” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

What Is Directstorage In Windows 11?

Microsoft announced the release of DirectStorage in early 2023. Promising faster loading times and better performance in games, Direct Storage is one of the main reasons to upgrade to Windows 11. Close on the heels of an updated DirectStorage version in late 2023, it’s time to unpack what this new software is all about and what it means for gamers in 2023 and beyond.

What Is DirectStorage? How Does DirectStorage Work

Image source: Wikimedia Commons

Slower HDDs weren’t capable of handling multiple IO (input/output) requests, so game developers have been optimizing games to load large amounts of assets all at once. This limits the degree of detail that can be crammed into open worlds and necessitates tricks like adding long hallways to disguise loading times. Modern SSDs, on the other hand, especially NVMe drives, can handle even tens of thousands of IO requests per second. This enables game developers to optimize games for SSDs, so that games can request a smaller number of assets from the storage but do it more often.

Tip: check out this list of tips meant to optimize your Windows 11 PC for gaming performance.

Important Improvements

Image source: Unsplash

Both these improvements combine to deliver faster asset loading times and allow developers to render incredibly intricate open worlds much faster than ever before.

What Does DirectStorage Mean for Gamers Today?

All this talk of next-gen loading times and unprecedented open worlds probably makes you wonder – where are the games? While it’s true that currently there’s just one game (Forspoken) that supports DirectStorage, more and more games will start to be designed around it. It won’t be another two to three years, though, before gamers start seeing a significant number of DirectStorage titles.

Image source: Square Enix

So what does this mean for you today? Should you start preparing your gaming rig by getting one of the best PCIe 5.0 gaming motherboards and a high-end Gen4 or Gen5 SSD?

If you’re building a new gaming PC this year, you’re probably going to want to invest in the latest platform from Intel or AMD. That means either the Ryzen 7000 CPUs, Intel’s 12th/13th Gen CPUs, or whatever comes next from Team Red or Team Blue. Either way, you’re going to be covered on the CPU and motherboard fronts. Coming to the storage department, any Gen4 or Gen5 SSD you choose will be more than enough to realize the benefits of DirectStorage when they eventually arrive.

Image source: Wikimedia Commons

On the other hand, if you’re not upgrading for a few more years, you’re not really losing out on anything either. By the time we start seeing more DirectStorage-supported games, you can assess the market and decide whether an upgrade makes sense for you based on the hardware and games of that time.

In summary, you don’t need to take any immediate action as far as the impact of DirectStorage is concerned. But you can rest assured that PC gaming will start to look and feel much different in just a few more years.

Tip: did you turn HDR on in Windows, and it looks bad? Learn what you can do about it.

How to Enable DirectStorage in Windows 11

Microsoft ships DirectStorage with Windows 11 by default. Hence, if you’ve already upgraded to Windows 11, you don’t need to manually enable any setting to make use of DirectStorage. However, make sure your Windows installation is updated and that you’ve installed the latest drivers for your GPU. Having the latest software will ensure that you never miss out on any upgraded DirectStorage features or versions.

Can Windows 10 Users Benefit From DirectStorage?

Good to know: if you’re feeling nostalgic, this is how you can make Windows 11 look more like Windows 10.

Frequently Asked Questions Does DirectStorage improve FPS?

DirectStorage is meant to reduce game loading times and allow more complex worlds to be built by developers. It is not meant to improve FPS at all. While some tests have incorrectly concluded that enabling DirectStorage results in an FPS reduction in Forspoken, it might be technically possible. As DirectStorage shifts the burden of asset decompression to the GPU, it seems logical that there would be some performance hit translating into reduced FPS. But without more comprehensive testing on a variety of titles, it can’t yet be concluded one way or the other.

Which GPU should I have for DirectStorage?

Although any graphics card supporting DirectX 12 (NVIDIA 900 series and AMD 200 series and newer) will support DirectStorage, you can expect the best performance from the GPUs supporting DirectX 12 Ultimate, the latest version of the API. NVIDIA’s RTX 2000 series and newer cards support DX12 Ultimate, while the same is true for AMD’s 6000 series and newer cards.

Image credit: Unsplash

Tanveer Singh

Tanveer hunts far and wide for PC Hardware, Windows, and Gaming ideas to write about. An MBA in Marketing and the owner of a PC building business, he has written extensively on Technology, Gaming, and Marketing. When not scouring the web, he can be found binging on The Office, running for his life in GTFO, or wrecking karts in Smash Karts.

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What Is An Attribute In Swift?

Throughout this article, you will learn what an attribute in Swift is and how to use it with code examples.

Swift Attributes

Swift makes it possible to provide some additional info about the declaration or type. We have two types of attributes that can be used in Swift language.

Declaration Attributes

Type Attributes


You can apply an attribute by using the symbol @ followed by the attribute name, as shown below −

@attribute name @attribute name(attribute arguments) Explanation

We can provide arguments in declaration attributes to define the declaration. These arguments can be provided in parentheses and the format.

Declaration Attributes

You can apply a declaration attribute to declarations only.

Below are some declaration attributes −


Available is a declaration attribute that can be used to specify the Swift language version, platform, or iOS version to which the declaration belongs. In other words, it helps you make your code available or unavailable as per platform or version.

Throughout Swift’s history, there have been many additions to APIs introduced which is available in releases and future versions. There is a possibility that some of the code will not run on all platforms (macOS, watchOS, etc.).

This attribute can be specified with two or more arguments separated by a comma. The argument list begins with one of the following platform names or languages −

iOS, iOSApplicationExtension

macOS, macOSApplicationExtension

watchOS, watchOSApplicationExtension

tvOS, tvOSApplicationExtension


Example if #available(iOS 15, *) { print("This code will run on iOS 15 and upper versions.") } else { print("This code will only runs on iOS 14 and lower versions.") } Output This code will run on iOS 15 and upper versions.

You can use the available attribute inside a guard statement as well −

guard #available(iOS 15, *) else { print("This code will only runs on iOS 14 and lower versions.") return } print("This code will run on iOS 15 and upper versions.")

This is helpful for cases in which you’d like to execute specific code only for a specific iOS version.


It is applied to a class to indicate the application delegate declaration. While we use this attribute, we inform the compiler about the delegate class.


This attribute might be useful to override the value of a property. You can specify custom specifications using this attribute in classes or structs.


Remember that you cannot apply this attribute to local and global properties. Let’s see an example of how to use this attribute in the Swift language like below −

import Foundation @propertyWrapper struct UserName { var wrappedValue: String { didSet { wrappedValue = wrappedValue.lowercased() } } init(wrappedValue: String) { self.wrappedValue = wrappedValue.lowercased() } } struct InstagramUser { @UserName var firstName: String @UserName var lastName: String var fullUserName: String { "(firstName).(lastName)" } } let user = InstagramUser(firstName: "Alex", lastName: "Muphy") print(user.fullUserName) Output alex.muphy Explanation

In the above example, we created a property wrapper for UserName using the @propertyWrapper attribute. In here, we are wrapping the given value in lowercased as username should be in lowercased.

In the InstagramUser struct, we declare some properties like first and last name along with the UserName property wrapper. Further, we don’t need to worry about a valid case value as this is done by the property wrapper.


This attribute is used to represent Objective-C properties and methods in Swift code. We can apply this attribute to classes to tell the compiler that a declaration is available to use in Objective-C code.

import Foundation class UserValidator { @objc func authenticateUser() { } } @discardableResult Example

When the result of a method or function that returns a value is unused, the Swift compiler often throws a warning.

var fullName = “Penny” fullName += ” (lastName)” print(“Full name is: (fullName)”) return fullName } appendLastName(“Black”)

Output Full name is: Penny Black

You will get a warning here −

Result of call to 'appendLastName' is unused Example

Below is the way to use @discardableResult in order to suppress the warning generated by the unused value returned by the method returning the value

@discardableResult var fullName = "Penny" fullName += " (lastName)" print("Full name is: (fullName)") return fullName } appendLastName("Black") Output: (no warning this time) Full name is: Penny Black Declaration Attributes Used by Interface Builder

Swift provides us with some attributes to help us declare user interface components using IBAction, IBDesignable, IBInspectable, and IBOutlet.

Method declarations can make use of interface builder attributes such as IBAction and IBSegueAction. The IBOutlet and IBInspectable attributes can be applied to the properties of a class.

Example import UIKit class LoginController: UIViewController { @IBOutlet var sendButton: UIButton! @IBAction func handleSendButtonTapped(_ sender: UIButton) { } } Type Attributes

You can apply type attributes to types only.

autoclosure Example

As the name implies, this attribute automatically creates a closure from the function arguments. Basically, we apply this attribute to a function or method declaration. The autoclosure attribute does not take any parameters and usually returns a value.

print(“Good morning, (name())”) } greetingMessage(“Rahul”)

Output Good morning, Rahul Explanation

In this example, the greetingMessage(_:) function takes a closure that returns a String value. The @autoclosure attribute indicates that a closure should be automatically created to wrap the name argument.

escaping Example

We can apply the escaping attribute in a function or method declaration. It is used to tell the compiler to store the parameter to use to it later. It means, we can store the argument passed in a function.

import UIKit class NetworkManager { let task = URLSession.shared.dataTask(with: url) { data, response, error in completion(data) } task.resume() } completion(nil) return } sendRequest(url: url, completion: completion) } } let networkManager = NetworkManager() networkManager.fetchSampleData { data in print("fetched data: (data)") } Output fetched data: Optional(83 bytes) Explanation

In this example, fetchSampleData() takes a closure as an argument and uses it to return the fetched data to the caller. The closure is marked with the @escaping keyword because it is called after the fetchSampleData() function has returned. The example function uses sendRequest() to fetch some data from the URL and then processes the data in the closure it passes to fetchSampleData().


In the code, you can apply different attributes to classes, structures, properties, etc. Using attributes, your code will look more concise and safe. As a result, you can write code according to the iOS version or platform.

Having these attributes makes your coding easy and clean. These often save a lot of development time.

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