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Linux is a code that transmits the system commands., Compilers, Editors, linkers, and command-line interpreters are essential and valuable but are not part of the operating system. We will look briefly at the LINUX command interpreter, called the SHELL, which, although not part of the operating system, makes heavy use of many operating system features and thus serves as an excellent example of how the system calls can be used. It is also the primary interface between a user sitting at his terminal and the operating system.
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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & othersExamples
Following are the different examples:
It prints the current date and time.
The user can specify that the standard output be redirected to a file,
The user can specify that standard input can be redirected, as in
Which invokes the sort program with input taken from file1 and output sent to file2
The pipe helps connect a particular program’s output as input to other programs.
This invokes the cat program to concatenate three files and send the output to sort to arrange all the lines alphabetically. The output of sort is redirected to the file /dev/lp, a familiar name for the special character file for the printer.Types of Shell
If you wish to use any of the above shell types as the default shell, the variable must be assigned accordingly. However, after reading a field in the file /etc./passwd, the system makes this assignment. This file must be edited if you wish to change the setting permanently. The system administrator usually sets up your login shell while creating a user account, though you can change it whenever you request.
Echo if until trap
read else case wait
set fi esac eval
unset while break exec
read-only do continue ulmit
shift Done exit umask
export For return1. Unchanging variables- set keyword
In some applications, a need for variables to have a constant or fixed value may arise. For instants, if we want that a’s variable should always remain at 20 and not change, we can achieve this by saying,
Example #1$a = 20 $readonly a
The shell will not permit to change a value when they are created as read-only. To create read-only variables, type “read-only” at a command prompt.
When there is a need to clear or erase a particular command from the shell, we will use the “unset” keyword as a command.
Example #2$a = 20 $echo a 20 $unset a $echo a 2. Echo keyword
To print either the value of any variable or words under double quotation.
Example #1x=20 echo $x
Example #2echo "Hello World!"
Ls commandmkdir newdir ls
Mkdir commandmkdir imp ls
Output:3. Cd command: read keyword
The read statement is the shell’s internal tool for taking input from the standard input. Functionally, it is similar to the INPUT statement of BASIC and the scanf() function in C. But it has one or two interesting features; it can be used with one or more variables to make shell scripts interactive. These variables read the input supplied through the standard input during an interactive session. The script chúng tôi uses the statement to take the search string and the filenames from the terminal.Command – Shell in Linux $cat emp1.sh #Script : chúng tôi - Interactive version #The pattern and filename to be supplied by the user echo "nEnter the pattern to be searched : c" read pname echo "nEnter the file to be used :c" read flname echo "nSearching for $pname from the $flnamen" grep "$pname" $flname echo "nSelected records shown above" $_ Run it, and specify the input accordingly $emp1.sh Enter the pattern to be searched: director Enter the file to be used: emp2.lst Searching for director from file emp2.lst
Output:Conclusion Recommended Articles
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blog / Leadership What is Stakeholder Management? What is its Role in Leadership?
Are you managing a project that involves different people who may be impacted by its results? If so, let’s get into what is stakeholder management, and why it is important, let us begin by first understanding who a stakeholder is.
A stakeholder refers to an individual, group, or organization with a ‘stake’ in the outcome of a particular project. They could be board members, investors, suppliers, or anyone who may be directly involved in a project and be impacted by its outcome.What is Stakeholder Management
It is the practice of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing relationships with internal and external stakeholders who are directly affected by the outcome of a venture or project. It involves proactively implementing the right actions to build trust and foster better communication with multiple stakeholders.
ALSO READ: What is Project Management and How to Become a Successful PM?Why is Stakeholder Management Important?
According to Pulse of the Profession (PMI) 2023, 63% of companies have already integrated stakeholder engagement strategies. After all, it enables a deep understanding of stakeholders by establishing trust and strengthening interpersonal communication. Thereby ensuring that all stakeholders have a shared, similar understanding of the organization’s key goals and work together to fulfill these objectives. The main benefits are:
Ensures robust risk management
Creates a strong base for social license
Aligns project concepts with business goals
Supports conflict management
Improves business intelligence
ALSO READ: 7 Leadership Skills for Managers in Today’s WorkplaceWhat are the Different Types of Stakeholders?
Internal stakeholders work within the organization and are directly invested in the project’s performance. For example, a company’s employees, top management, team members, and board of directors can all be considered internal stakeholders.
External stakeholders may not be directly employed at the company or engaged with it but are impacted by the project in some way. Customers, shareholders, creditors, and suppliers are a few examples of external stakeholders.Stakeholder Management Examples
Looking at an example will help answer the ‘what is stakeholder management’ question.
Let’s assume a government agency is working on developing a new policy. While refining a policy or developing a new one, there could be competing interests and varied opinions. Local councils, community groups, or certain businesses may not be supportive of this change. This is where stakeholder management can play a transformative role. Through effective stakeholder management, one can engage with these groups, find common ground, and address key changes that will enable a smooth decision-making process.What is a Stakeholder Management Plan?
It is a document that outlines core management techniques to effectively understand the stakeholder landscape and engage them throughout the project lifecycle. A stakeholder management plan usually includes:
All the project stakeholders and their basic information
A detailed power interest matrix or a stakeholder map
The main strategies and tactics that are best suited to key stakeholder groups
A well-laid-out communication plan
A clear picture of the resources available (budget, expertise, etc.)
Once you get to know what stakeholder management is really about, it’s essential to understand how to create an effective stakeholder management plan.How to Make a Stakeholder Management Plan?
Typically, a project manager is responsible for creating a stakeholder management plan. However, it is ideal also to involve all the project members to ensure accuracy. These are some steps to be followed while creating a stakeholder management plan:1. Identify Stakeholders
Conduct stakeholder analysis to identify key stakeholders and how they can impact the project’s scope.2. Prioritize Stakeholders
Learn which stakeholders have influence over what areas of the project. This can be done by creating a power interest grid—a matrix that helps determine the level of impact a stakeholder has on the project.3. Establish a Communication Plan
It must include the type of communication, frequency, format, and distribution plan for communicating with each stakeholder.4. Manage Expectations
Develop dedicated timelines and share them with individual stakeholders to ensure the project is managed smoothly and also remains true to the stakeholders’ expectations.5. Implement the Plan
Make sure that all stakeholders have the final management plan before it is implemented. This helps build trust among teams and promotes transparency. It is also important to track the accuracy of the stakeholder management plan and make any changes based on the overall requirement.Stakeholder Management Principles
Now that you have a clear picture of what is stakeholder management, let’s take a look at the Clarkson Principles of Stakeholder Management. Max Clarkson, after whom these principles were named, was a renowned stakeholder management researcher.
First Principle: Actively monitor and acknowledge the concerns of stakeholders and consider their interests throughout operations and decision-making processes.
Second Principle: Have open and honest communication with stakeholders regarding any concerns, contributions, or risks that they may assume because of their association with the project.
Third Principle: Adopt practices and behaviors that are considerate toward the capabilities and concerns of all stakeholders.
Fourth Principle: Recognize the efforts of stakeholders and ensure fair distribution of burdens and benefits of corporate activities while taking potential risks into consideration.
Fifth Principle: Ensure cooperation with public and private entities to minimize risk from corporate activities.
Sixth Principle: Avoid any activity that could potentially threaten stakeholders or jeopardize human rights.
Seventh Principle: Acknowledge any conflicts between the project manager and stakeholders. Such conflict should be addressed with open communication and reporting wherever required.Stakeholder Management Process
The process is simple to understand once you have in-depth knowledge about what is stakeholder management. These are the five main steps involved:Stakeholder Identification
It involves outlining key stakeholders and segregating them into internal and external stakeholder groups.Stakeholder Mapping
Once the list of stakeholders is segregated, you can analyze the stakeholders based on their level of influence, involvement, and importance vis-à-vis the project.Stakeholder Strategy
Since strategies are formed based on individual stakeholder groups in order of influence, this is your next important step. It defines the type of communication relevant to each stakeholder.Stakeholder Responsibility
It is essential to determine which team or individual should be responsible for which aspect of stakeholder engagement is essential. A stakeholder communication plan or template can be of great help here.Stakeholder Monitoring
Decide how to track stakeholder activities and integrate changes with ease. This may also involve using related software to boost convenience.
ALSO READ: How to Develop Leadership Skills in Employees
Stakeholder management plays a vital role in leadership as it enables leaders—or managers in the case of projects—to identify and assess stakeholders’ expectations with a vested interest in a project. They do so by ensuring that everyone involved has a common understanding of the goals and objectives. Furthermore, it enables them to effectively manage any potential conflicts between stakeholders.
By Neha Menon
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Introduction to Procedure in SQL
The following article provides an outline for What is Procedure in SQL? Procedures or Stored Procedures in SQL are logical units of SQL queries that can be created once, fetched, and executed multiple times whenever there is a need to repeat the same operation. It also allows passing parameters, like the stored procedure with arguments in the OOPS concept. It is categorized under DML (Data Manipulation Language) of SQL programming, as it is applicable to operations involving data management and manipulation.
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Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & othersWhat is SQL?
Syntax of SQL query to fetch all the records is as follows:select * from table_name Stored Procedures in SQL
Stored procedures can accept parameters as input and can return multiple values as an output parameter. In SQL Server, stored procedures perform operations in the database and can return a status value to an application or a batch calling procedure. User-defined procedures are created using the user-defined database, with the exception when we have a read-only database. For that, we need to develop it in Transact SQL (T-SQL). Tempdb is where all the temporary procedures are stored.
There are two types of stored procedures.
Local procedures are the one which is only visible for the user using it in the connection, whereas Global procedures are visible to any of the users in the same connection.Structure of Creating the Procedure
Here, the owner means the database name, and to pass the parameter, we need to add the ‘@’ symbol.
AS Execute a Stored Procedure Exec is the command for the execution of the procedure. EXEC Procedure_nameComparison Between Stored Procedure and Functions
Stored procedures and functions can be used to achieve the same functionality.
We can customize both procedures as well as functions.
The difference between them is functions are designed to send their output to Transact SQL, and stored procedures are designed to return output to a query, as well as they can return output to T-SQL also.
Applications can have input from the stored procedures, while user-defined functions can return table variables, and they are not privileged to change the environment settings neither operating system environment.Database Company
Given below are the database company:
Company Category Item
Tarle edibles cookies
Tarle edibles chips
Lakme cosmetics lipstick
Brisket grocery Flax seeds
Brisket edibles biscuits
Brisket grocery oil
ole cosmetics Nail polish
ole cosmetics HairbrushStored Procedure Example
The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure that selects the company.CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample AS SELECT * FROM company GO;
Execute the stored procedure above as follows:
Executing the above-stored procedure, we can use the following command:
Code:EXEC SelectAllExample; Stored Procedure Example With One Parameter
The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure with a single parameter to be passed that selects a company with an item as a parameter.
Code:CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample @item nvarchar(30) AS SELECT * FROM company WHERE item = @item GO;
Execute the stored procedure above as follows:
To execute the above-stored procedure with one parameter, we can use the following command:EXEC SelectAllExample item = "cookies"; Stored Procedure Example with Multiple Parameters
The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure with multiple parameters that select company with item and category as a parameter
Code:CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample @item nvarchar(30), @ category nvarchar(10) AS SELECT * FROM company WHERE item = @ item AND category = @ category GO;
Execute the stored procedure above as follows:
To execute the above-stored procedure with multiple parameters, we can use the following command we need to pass the multiple parameters with comma-separated: EXEC SelectAllExample item =”cookies”, category =”edibles”;Advantages:
Application improvement can be achieved by procedures. If a procedure is called multiple times in a single application, then the compiled version of the procedure is utilized.
Traffic between the database and the application can be reduced as the big statements are already fed into the database, and we don’t have to send it again and again.
Using procedures, code reusability can be achieved, similar to the functions and methods that work in the java and other programming languages.
Stored Procedures consume a lot of memory. It is the duty of a database administrator has to decide an upper bound to how many stored procedures are feasible for a particular application.
Stored procedures cannot be debugged using MySQL.Conclusion – What is Procedure in SQL
Simple non-select statements, including DML, statements like Insert and delete, also DDL statements such as Drop and Create can be included in the stored programs. Memory consumption is more, but the seek rate can be reduced, and code reusability is beneficial. Stored procedures can be implemented with or without variables and can be executed by passing the parameters if required.Recommended Articles
We hope that this EDUCBA information on “What is Procedure in SQL” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.
Modern computers need to have RAM installed on RAM sticks. These sticks are called DIMMs because all of the electrical pins are in line, and there are two lines of them, leading to the acronym Dual In-line Memory Module. This wasn’t always the case, though, as DIMMs were invented in the 1990s.DRAM History
Really early in the development of computers, RAM chips were installed directly on motherboards as integrated circuits using DIP sockets. Because many chips were needed, a lot of space was taken up. The Single In-line Memory Module or SIMM was designed to free up most of that space. The memory chips were installed on a separate circuit board and plugged into the motherboard at a perpendicular angle.
The first generation of SIMMs used electrical pins that went into sockets like a large SIP chip. This design, however, was vulnerable to the pins being bent, and the pins were the most expensive part of the SIMM. To reduce costs and increase the integrity of the connectors, the pins were redesigned to be edge connectors. These edge connectors are still used in modern DIMMs, albeit with some modifications.
The thing about these new edge connectors was that they went over the whole bottom edge. Each connector pad ran over the SIMM’s front, bottom, and back. The overall number of connectors didn’t change, just the type. This is the key difference between SIMMs and DIMMs. On SIMMs, the connectors are redundant on either side because they’re really one pin. The connectors on DIMMs are different on each side, doubling the pin count with no extra effort.
Note: Slightly confusingly, these edge connectors are still generally referred to as pins.Increased Pin Count
Each pin can only transmit one of two potential values each clock cycle, on or off, the binary 1 or 0. Adding more pins means more data can be transmitted per clock cycle, increasing the bandwidth. Not all of the pins go into improving the actual I/O bandwidth of the SIMM. A range of pins is used to issue commands to the RAM too.
When CPUs process data, they need that data to be in the CPU cache. That cache is significantly faster than RAM but much more expensive, so there’s not much of it. So, data is stored in RAM and then copied to the cache when needed. To efficiently do so, the memory bus is designed to be broad in that it has as many connections as possible. This means that as many bits as possible can be transmitted per clock cycle. Modern computers have a 64-bit memory bus, but in the early 80s, when the SIMM was invented, the memory bus was 8-bits wide. 8 pins were used to transmit data per clock cycle, while the rest of the 30 pins on a SIMM were used to send commands.
As CPU development continued, the memory bus width was increased to 16-bits. The problem is that with only 8 data pins, only 8 bits of data can be transferred per clock cycle. SIMMs were paired up to get around this, providing 16 data pins to fill the memory bus. Of course, CPU development didn’t stop there, and the 32-bit memory bus soon came along. While some systems allow for four 30-pin SIMMs, a new standard was released with a 72-pin SIMM with 32 data pins.Losing out to DIMM
With the arrival and quick market acceptance of the Intel Pentium P5 with its 64-bit memory bus in 1993, and CPUs with 64-bit memory busses, the same game had to be played. While some systems supported dual 72-pin SIMMs, a new form factor took the lead, DIMM. With twice the number of pins on one stick of RAM, DIMMs were cheaper (at least when compared to two SIMMs) and used less space on the motherboard.
Eventually, the DIMM form factor became the standard, and SIMM dropped out of use. Essentially nothing still uses SIMM now. Indeed no new hardware. However, there are almost certainly legacy devices still running it somewhere. DIMM is still used today and is unlikely to go anywhere soon.Conclusion
SIMM was the original form factor for the memory stick. They made upgrading or installing RAM a lot easier by making it a single process, rather than needing to plug in the 8 DRAM chips by hand. Using pins and then keeping the edge connectors as single contiguous pins eventually led to their replacement by DIMMs in the early 90s.
Unfortunately for Linux fans, screen tearing is, and has been, a persistent annoyance that doesn’t seem to be going anywhere. There are a couple of factors enabling the longevity of the screen tearing issue.
First, and probably most obviously, is the dated, broken, and bloated X server. Even with the progress of Wayland, X is here to stay for the immediate future. Next is the strange and inconsistent graphics driver picture. One of the biggest offenders in causing screen tearing is also the most popular GPU manufacturer on Linux, NVIDIA. Throw in different desktop environments with their own display settings and compositors, and you have a real mess.
These methods will hopefully eliminate screen tearing in most situations, but it’s impossible to provide a one-size-fits-all solution, thanks to the amount of variables involved. Try what applies to your system, and keep in mind that there might be new factors involved.NVIDIA
This isn’t the only solution for NVIDIA, and there are certainly situations that it doesn’t apply to, but it’s one of the better options, and it doesn’t rely on NVIDIA’s graphical utility that doesn’t always play nice with desktop environment configurations.
To start, you’ll need to enable setting for the NVIDIA DRM module (modsetting). Start by making a configuration file in the modprobe directory.
Open that file with your favorite text editor, and insert the following line:
Update your kernel’s initramfs to apply your change.
When that’s done, reboot. Your computer will come back up, and everything should be smoother, but you aren’t quite done yet.
Swap can save you in a pinch, but for something like graphics, its pretty terrible. The best thing you can do here to increase performance is reduce your computer’s tendency to use swap space. Start by checking your current “swappiness.”
That will probably return “60.” That’s the default value, but you can set it much lower. Open “/etc/sysctl.conf,” and add the following line at the bottom of the file:vm.swappiness=
You can set the value based on how much RAM you have. 5 to 15 is usually the range you can safely work with. Reset your computer, and everything should be smoother.Intel
Intel graphics on Linux usually aren’t too much of a problem. That’s probably because integrated graphics usually have fewer features, and the Intel driver stack is mostly open source. For screen tearing on Intel, the solution usually comes in the form of some additional configuration.
Because Intel uses open source drivers, the Xorg configuration is going to be your most direct route. Create a file at “/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf,” then place the following block of code inside:Section
When you’re done, save and reboot.VSYNC
Vsync is an attempt to synchronize your software refresh rate to your monitor hardware’s default refresh rate. In theory, it’s a great idea to make everything as smooth as possible. In reality, sometimes it lives up to its potential, and others, it makes your graphics an unstable mess. If you are using Vsync, and you’re experiencing screen tearing, try disabling it. If you aren’t using Vsync, it might be the very thing that gets things in line.KDE
Kwin, the KDE compositor is sometimes part of the problem, too. It follows its own rules. There’s a simple bit of configuration that you can add to make Kwin smoother.
Create a new file at “/etc/profile.d/kwin.sh.” Open that file, and place the line below in it:
Log out of KDE, and log back in for the change to take effect.GNOME
This is a pretty terrible answer, but there isn’t a setting directly in GNOME to manage vsync, but it can still really help. If you’re running GNOME with either Intel or NVIDIA graphics, follow the above instructions. If you’re on AMD, add the following line to your Xorg configuration:Option
XFCE is notorious for screen tearing. It’s always been a problem, and it can seriously get in the way. However, there’s a fairly simple solution. All you need to do is rip out XFCE’s compositor and replace it with a different one, in this case Compton.
Next, install Compton. It’s an independent compositor that works very well with lightweight desktops. The command here is for Debian-based distributions, but Compton is available on just about every popular distro.
Save and exit. You can either log out and log back in or run the command to start Compton.
These methods are all excellent ways to try and solve your screen tearing problems under Linux. They might not work for everyone, but with any luck, they’ll work for you. Hopefully, as more progress is made in Linux graphics drivers, desktop environments, and Wayland, the screen tearing problem will finally be resolved permanently.
Nick is a freelance tech. journalist, Linux enthusiast, and a long time PC gamer.
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Microsoft announced the release of DirectStorage in early 2023. Promising faster loading times and better performance in games, Direct Storage is one of the main reasons to upgrade to Windows 11. Close on the heels of an updated DirectStorage version in late 2023, it’s time to unpack what this new software is all about and what it means for gamers in 2023 and beyond.What Is DirectStorage? How Does DirectStorage Work
Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Slower HDDs weren’t capable of handling multiple IO (input/output) requests, so game developers have been optimizing games to load large amounts of assets all at once. This limits the degree of detail that can be crammed into open worlds and necessitates tricks like adding long hallways to disguise loading times. Modern SSDs, on the other hand, especially NVMe drives, can handle even tens of thousands of IO requests per second. This enables game developers to optimize games for SSDs, so that games can request a smaller number of assets from the storage but do it more often.
Tip: check out this list of tips meant to optimize your Windows 11 PC for gaming performance.Important Improvements
Image source: Unsplash
Both these improvements combine to deliver faster asset loading times and allow developers to render incredibly intricate open worlds much faster than ever before.What Does DirectStorage Mean for Gamers Today?
All this talk of next-gen loading times and unprecedented open worlds probably makes you wonder – where are the games? While it’s true that currently there’s just one game (Forspoken) that supports DirectStorage, more and more games will start to be designed around it. It won’t be another two to three years, though, before gamers start seeing a significant number of DirectStorage titles.
Image source: Square Enix
So what does this mean for you today? Should you start preparing your gaming rig by getting one of the best PCIe 5.0 gaming motherboards and a high-end Gen4 or Gen5 SSD?
If you’re building a new gaming PC this year, you’re probably going to want to invest in the latest platform from Intel or AMD. That means either the Ryzen 7000 CPUs, Intel’s 12th/13th Gen CPUs, or whatever comes next from Team Red or Team Blue. Either way, you’re going to be covered on the CPU and motherboard fronts. Coming to the storage department, any Gen4 or Gen5 SSD you choose will be more than enough to realize the benefits of DirectStorage when they eventually arrive.
Image source: Wikimedia Commons
On the other hand, if you’re not upgrading for a few more years, you’re not really losing out on anything either. By the time we start seeing more DirectStorage-supported games, you can assess the market and decide whether an upgrade makes sense for you based on the hardware and games of that time.
In summary, you don’t need to take any immediate action as far as the impact of DirectStorage is concerned. But you can rest assured that PC gaming will start to look and feel much different in just a few more years.
Tip: did you turn HDR on in Windows, and it looks bad? Learn what you can do about it.How to Enable DirectStorage in Windows 11
Microsoft ships DirectStorage with Windows 11 by default. Hence, if you’ve already upgraded to Windows 11, you don’t need to manually enable any setting to make use of DirectStorage. However, make sure your Windows installation is updated and that you’ve installed the latest drivers for your GPU. Having the latest software will ensure that you never miss out on any upgraded DirectStorage features or versions.Can Windows 10 Users Benefit From DirectStorage?
Good to know: if you’re feeling nostalgic, this is how you can make Windows 11 look more like Windows 10.Frequently Asked Questions Does DirectStorage improve FPS?
DirectStorage is meant to reduce game loading times and allow more complex worlds to be built by developers. It is not meant to improve FPS at all. While some tests have incorrectly concluded that enabling DirectStorage results in an FPS reduction in Forspoken, it might be technically possible. As DirectStorage shifts the burden of asset decompression to the GPU, it seems logical that there would be some performance hit translating into reduced FPS. But without more comprehensive testing on a variety of titles, it can’t yet be concluded one way or the other.Which GPU should I have for DirectStorage?
Although any graphics card supporting DirectX 12 (NVIDIA 900 series and AMD 200 series and newer) will support DirectStorage, you can expect the best performance from the GPUs supporting DirectX 12 Ultimate, the latest version of the API. NVIDIA’s RTX 2000 series and newer cards support DX12 Ultimate, while the same is true for AMD’s 6000 series and newer cards.
Image credit: Unsplash
Tanveer hunts far and wide for PC Hardware, Windows, and Gaming ideas to write about. An MBA in Marketing and the owner of a PC building business, he has written extensively on Technology, Gaming, and Marketing. When not scouring the web, he can be found binging on The Office, running for his life in GTFO, or wrecking karts in Smash Karts.
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