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What is chúng tôi & How to Fix its High CPU Usage? Performing a system restore should fix this issue quickly




The chúng tôi process is a crucial part of the log collection software NXLog.

If this process is causing high CPU usage, you can fix it by ending it in Task Manager.

Another effective solution is to perform a malware scan.



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Several processes are installed with third-party software, and chúng tôi is one of them. It runs silently in the background when its parent software is active.

However, this process can sometimes encounter issues due to one or two factors. If you are facing problems with the chúng tôi process, rest assured that it can be easily fixed, and we will show you how to go about it in this guide.

What is the use of NXLog EXE?

The chúng tôi is part of the reputable log collection software NXLog. Its parent software is pretty reliable and trusted, so this process is trustworthy.

The original version of the process poses no threat to your PC. When its parent software is active, the process will be loaded into memory and can be viewed in Task Manager.

This process normally does not hog your PC resources, as it only registers low CPU and memory usage. However, just like other processes, malware can take over this process and consume your PC resources.

If you are experiencing unusual resource usage from the chúng tôi process, we will show you how to fix it in the next section of this guide.

How can I fix chúng tôi if it is registering high CPU usage? 1. Close the process in Task Manager

If the chúng tôi process is registering high CPU usage, it might be because there are multiple instances of it running or the demand for its parent software is high. In this case, you should end it forcibly using Task Manager.

If there are multiple instances of the process running, ensure to close them all.

2. Scan for malware

There are a series of ways malware can attack your PC. One prominent method is disguising as one of the trusted processes on your PC to consume your resources.

This might be the reason chúng tôi is registering high CPU usage. The solution to this is to perform a full malware scan to eliminate the virus.

Another option is to use ESET NOD32 to perform the task instead of Windows Defender. This excellent software will eliminate even the most hidden viruses on your PC, including the ones hidden in your system files.

⇒ Get ESET NOD32

3. Uninstall third-party software

There are times when malware might be the cause of the chúng tôi high CPU usage issue. In this case, the problem might be due to issues with the NXLog app.

4. Perform a system restore

If you can’t trace the cause of the chúng tôi high CPU usage on your PC, you need to perform a system restore. This will help reverse the changes made to your PC that might be causing the problem.

There you have it: everything you need to know about the chúng tôi process. You should now be equipped with the needed information about this process and fix its related issue.

In the same vein, if you are looking for detailed information about the ntkrnlpa.exe process, you will find it in our comprehensive guide.

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What Is Stakeholder Management? What Is Its Role In Leadership?

blog / Leadership What is Stakeholder Management? What is its Role in Leadership?

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Are you managing a project that involves different people who may be impacted by its results? If so, let’s get into what is stakeholder management, and why it is important, let us begin by first understanding who a stakeholder is. 

A stakeholder refers to an individual, group, or organization with a ‘stake’ in the outcome of a particular project. They could be board members, investors, suppliers, or anyone who may be directly involved in a project and be impacted by its outcome. 

What is Stakeholder Management

It is the practice of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing relationships with internal and external stakeholders who are directly affected by the outcome of a venture or project. It involves proactively implementing the right actions to build trust and foster better communication with multiple stakeholders. 

ALSO READ: What is Project Management and How to Become a Successful PM?

Why is Stakeholder Management Important?

According to Pulse of the Profession (PMI) 2023, 63% of companies have already integrated stakeholder engagement strategies. After all, it enables a deep understanding of stakeholders by establishing trust and strengthening interpersonal communication. Thereby ensuring that all stakeholders have a shared, similar understanding of the organization’s key goals and work together to fulfill these objectives. The main benefits are:

Ensures robust risk management

Creates a strong base for social license 

Aligns project concepts with business goals 

Supports conflict management 

Improves business intelligence 

ALSO READ: 7 Leadership Skills for Managers in Today’s Workplace

What are the Different Types of Stakeholders?

Internal stakeholders work within the organization and are directly invested in the project’s performance. For example, a company’s employees, top management, team members, and board of directors can all be considered internal stakeholders. 

External stakeholders may not be directly employed at the company or engaged with it but are impacted by the project in some way. Customers, shareholders, creditors, and suppliers are a few examples of external stakeholders. 

Stakeholder Management Examples

Looking at an example will help answer the ‘what is stakeholder management’ question. 

Let’s assume a government agency is working on developing a new policy. While refining a policy or developing a new one, there could be competing interests and varied opinions. Local councils, community groups, or certain businesses may not be supportive of this change. This is where stakeholder management can play a transformative role. Through effective stakeholder management, one can engage with these groups, find common ground, and address key changes that will enable a smooth decision-making process. 

What is a Stakeholder Management Plan?

It is a document that outlines core management techniques to effectively understand the stakeholder landscape and engage them throughout the project lifecycle. A stakeholder management plan usually includes: 

All the project stakeholders and their basic information

A detailed power interest matrix or a stakeholder map

The main strategies and tactics that are best suited to key stakeholder groups 

A well-laid-out communication plan

A clear picture of the resources available (budget, expertise, etc.)

Once you get to know what stakeholder management is really about, it’s essential to understand how to create an effective stakeholder management plan. 

How to Make a Stakeholder Management Plan?

Typically, a project manager is responsible for creating a stakeholder management plan. However, it is ideal also to involve all the project members to ensure accuracy. These are some steps to be followed while creating a stakeholder management plan: 

1. Identify Stakeholders

Conduct stakeholder analysis to identify key stakeholders and how they can impact the project’s scope.

2. Prioritize Stakeholders

Learn which stakeholders have influence over what areas of the project. This can be done by creating a power interest grid—a matrix that helps determine the level of impact a stakeholder has on the project. 

3. Establish a Communication Plan

It must include the type of communication, frequency, format, and distribution plan for communicating with each stakeholder. 

4. Manage Expectations

Develop dedicated timelines and share them with individual stakeholders to ensure the project is managed smoothly and also remains true to the stakeholders’ expectations. 

5. Implement the Plan

Make sure that all stakeholders have the final management plan before it is implemented. This helps build trust among teams and promotes transparency. It is also important to track the accuracy of the stakeholder management plan and make any changes based on the overall requirement. 

Stakeholder Management Principles

Now that you have a clear picture of what is stakeholder management, let’s take a look at the Clarkson Principles of Stakeholder Management. Max Clarkson, after whom these principles were named, was a renowned stakeholder management researcher. 

First Principle: Actively monitor and acknowledge the concerns of stakeholders and consider their interests throughout operations and decision-making processes. 

Second Principle: Have open and honest communication with stakeholders regarding any concerns, contributions, or risks that they may assume because of their association with the project.

Third Principle: Adopt practices and behaviors that are considerate toward the capabilities and concerns of all stakeholders. 

Fourth Principle: Recognize the efforts of stakeholders and ensure fair distribution of burdens and benefits of corporate activities while taking potential risks into consideration. 

Fifth Principle: Ensure cooperation with public and private entities to minimize risk from corporate activities. 

Sixth Principle: Avoid any activity that could potentially threaten stakeholders or jeopardize human rights.

Seventh Principle: Acknowledge any conflicts between the project manager and stakeholders. Such conflict should be addressed with open communication and reporting wherever required. 

Stakeholder Management Process

The process is simple to understand once you have in-depth knowledge about what is stakeholder management. These are the five main steps involved: 

Stakeholder Identification

It involves outlining key stakeholders and segregating them into internal and external stakeholder groups. 

Stakeholder Mapping

Once the list of stakeholders is segregated, you can analyze the stakeholders based on their level of influence, involvement, and importance vis-à-vis the project. 

Stakeholder Strategy

Since strategies are formed based on individual stakeholder groups in order of influence, this is your next important step. It defines the type of communication relevant to each stakeholder. 

Stakeholder Responsibility

It is essential to determine which team or individual should be responsible for which aspect of stakeholder engagement is essential. A stakeholder communication plan or template can be of great help here. 

Stakeholder Monitoring

Decide how to track stakeholder activities and integrate changes with ease. This may also involve using related software to boost convenience. 

ALSO READ: How to Develop Leadership Skills in Employees

Stakeholder management plays a vital role in leadership as it enables leaders—or managers in the case of projects—to identify and assess stakeholders’ expectations with a vested interest in a project. They do so by ensuring that everyone involved has a common understanding of the goals and objectives. Furthermore, it enables them to effectively manage any potential conflicts between stakeholders. 

By Neha Menon

Write to us at [email protected] 

What Is Data Lineage?

Currently, most businesses and big-scale companies are generating and storing a large amount of data in their data storage. Many companies are there which are entirely data-driven. Businesses and companies are using data to get insights about the progress and future steps for business growth. In this article, we will study the data lineage and its process, the significant reasons behind businesses investing in it, and the benefits of it, with its core intuition. This article will help one understand the whole data lineage process and its applications related to business problems.

What is Data Lineage?

Data lineage is a process of getting an idea about where the data is coming from, analyzing it, and consuming it. It reveals where the data has come from and how it has evolved through its lifecycle. It traces where the data was generated and the steps in between it went through. A clear flowchart for each step helps the user understand the entire process of the data lifecycle, which can enhance the quality of the data and risk-free data management.

Data lineage enables companies to track and solve problems in the path of the data lifecycle.

It provides a thorough understanding of the solutions to errors in the way of the data lifecycle with lower risk and easy solution methods.

It allows companies to combine and preprocess the data from the source to the data mapping framework.

Data lineage helps companies to perform system migration confidently with lower risk.

Data lineage tools help organizations manage and govern their data effectively by providing end-to-end data lineage across various data sources, enabling data discovery, mapping, and data lineage visualization, and providing impact analysis and data governance features.

Here are some of the top data lineage tools and their features:

1. Alation

Alation provides a unified view of data lineage across various data sources. It automatically tracks data changes, lineage, and impact analysis. It also enables collaboration among data users.

2. Collibra

Collibra provides end-to-end data lineage across various data sources. It enables data discovery, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also provides a business glossary and data dictionary management.

3. Informatica

Informatica provides data lineage across various data sources, including cloud and on-premise. It enables data profiling, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also includes impact analysis and metadata management.

4. Apache Atlas

Apache Atlas provides data lineage for Hadoop ecosystem components. It tracks metadata changes, lineage, and impact analysis for data stored in Hadoop. It also enables data classification and data access policies.


MANTA provides data lineage for various data sources, including cloud and on-premise. It enables data discovery, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also provides impact analysis and data governance features.

6. Octopai

Octopai provides automated data lineage for various data sources, including cloud and on-premise. It enables data discovery, data mapping, and data lineage visualization. It also includes impact analysis and data governance features.

Data Lineage Application Across Industries

Data lineage is a critical process across various industries. Here are some examples:

Healthcare: In the healthcare industry, data lineage is important for ensuring patient data privacy, tracking data lineage for medical trials, and tracking data for regulatory compliance.

Finance: Data lineage helps financial institutions comply with Basel III, Solvency II, and CCAR regulations. It also helps prevent financial fraud, risk management, and transparency in financial reporting.

Retail: In the retail industry, data lineage helps in tracking inventory levels, monitoring supply chain performance, and improving customer experience. It also helps in fraud detection and prevention.

Manufacturing: In manufacturing, data lineage tracks the production process and ensures the quality of the finished product. It helps identify improvement areas, reduce waste, and improve efficiency.

Government: Data lineage is critical for ensuring transparency and accountability. It supports regulatory compliance, public data management, and security.

Why Are Businesses Eager to Invest in Data Lineage?

Just the information about the source of the data is not enough to understand the importance of the data. Some preprocessing on data, error solution in between the path of data, and getting key insights from the data is also important for a business or company to focus on.

Knowledge about the source, updating of the data, and consumption of the data improves the quality of the data and helps businesses get an idea about further investing in it.

Profit Generation: For every organization, generating revenue is the primary need to grow the business. The information tracked from data lineage helps improve risk management, data storage, migration process, and hunting of some bugs in between the path of the data lifecycle, etc. Also, the insights from the data lineage process help the organizations understand the scope of profit and can generate revenue.

Reliance on the data: Good quality data always helps to keep the business running and improving. All the fields or departments, including IT, Human resources, and marketing, can be enhanced through data lineage, and companies can rely on data to improve and keep tracking things.

Better Data Migration: There are some cases where there is a need to transfer the data from one storage to another. The data migration process carries out very carefully as there is a high amount of risk involved in it. When the IT department needs to migrate the data, data lineage can provide all the information about the data for the soft data migration process.

How to Implement Data Lineage? Benefits of Data Lineage

There are some obvious benefits of the data lineage, which is why businesses are eager to invest in the same.

Some major benefits are listed below:

1. Better Data Governance

Data governance is the process in which data is governed, and analysis of the source of the data, the risk attached to it, data storage, data pipelines, and data migration is performed. Better data lineage can help conduct better data governance. Good quality of it can provide all this information about the data from its source to consumption and help achieve a better data governance process.

2. Better Compliance and Risk Management

Major data-driven companies have a huge amount of data, which is tedious to handle and keep organized. There are some cases where there is a need for data transformation or preprocessing data; during these types of processes, there is a huge risk involved lose the data. Better data lineage can help the organization keep the data organized and reduce the risk involved in the process of migration or preprocessing.

3. Quick and Easy Root Cause Analysis

During the entire data lifecycle, many steps are in between, and many bugs and errors are involved. With a good-quality data lineage, it can help businesses to find the cause of the error easily and solve it efficiently with less amount of time.

4. Easy Visibility of the Data

In a data-driven organization, due to a very high amount of data stored, it is necessary to have easy visibility of the data to access it quickly while spending less time searching for it. Good-quality data lineage can help the organization access the data quickly with easy data visibility.

5. Risk-free Data Migration

There are some cases where data-driven companies or organizations need the migrations of the data due to some errors occurring in existing storage. Data migration is a very risky and hectic process with a higher rate of data loss risk involved. It can help these organizations conduct a risk-free data migration process to transfer the data from one to another data storage.

Data Lineage Challenges Lack of Standardized Data Lineage Metadata 

It becomes difficult to track data lineage consistently across different systems and applications. Solution: Standardizing metadata and using common data models and schemas can help overcome this challenge.

Complex Data Architectures Data Lineage Gaps

There can be gaps in data lineage due to incomplete or inconsistent data, missing metadata, or gaps in the data collection process. Solution: Establishing a comprehensive data governance framework that includes regular data monitoring and auditing can help identify and fill data lineage gaps.

Data Lineage Security and Privacy Concerns

Data lineage information can be sensitive and require protection to avoid security and privacy breaches. Solution: Implementing appropriate security measures, such as data encryption and access controls, and complying with data privacy regulations can help to ensure data lineage security and privacy.

Lack of Awareness and Training

Lack of awareness and training among data stakeholders on the importance and use of data lineage can lead to limited adoption and usage. Solution: Providing training and awareness programs to educate data stakeholders on the importance and benefits of data lineage can help to overcome this challenge.

Data Lineage vs Other Data Governance Practices

Data lineage is a critical component of data governance and is closely related to other data governance practices, such as data cataloging and metadata management. However, data cataloging is the process of creating a centralized inventory of all the data assets in an organization. At the same time, metadata management involves creating and managing metadata associated with these assets.

Data lineage helps establish the relationships between data elements, sources, and flows and provides a clear understanding of how data moves throughout an organization. It complements data cataloging and metadata management by providing a deeper insight into data’s origin, quality, and usage.

While data cataloging and metadata management provide a high-level view of an organization’s data assets, data lineage provides a granular understanding of how data is processed, transformed, and used. Data lineage helps to identify potential data quality issues, track changes to data over time, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

Data Mapping vs Data Lineage

Data MappingData LineageFocuses on identifying the relationships between data elements and their corresponding data sources, destinations, and transformations.Focuses on tracking the complete journey of data from its origin to its final destination, including all the data sources, transformations, and destinations in between.Primarily used to understand data flow between systems and applications.Primarily used to understand the history and lifecycle of data within an organization.Typically involves manual or semi-manual documentation of data chúng tôi be automated or semi-automated using tools and platforms that capture and track metadata.Often used for specific projects or initiatives, such as data integration or data chúng tôi for ongoing data governance and compliance efforts, as well as for specific projects.Helps ensure consistency and accuracy in data movement across systems.Helps ensure data quality and compliance with regulatory requirements by providing a clear understanding of data lineage.

Regulatory Compliance

Compliance with regulations like GDPR and CCPA requires companies to comprehensively understand their data.

Data lineage provides a detailed data usage history, making it easier to comply with regulations like GDPR and CCPA.

With data lineage, organizations can easily identify where data is being stored, who has access to it, and how it is being used.

By maintaining a clear data lineage, organizations can demonstrate compliance to regulatory bodies and provide evidence of their data privacy and security practices.

Data lineage can also help with compliance by enabling organizations to easily audit their data usage and identify areas that may be non-compliant.

Data lineage can be particularly useful in the case of data breaches, as it allows organizations to quickly identify what data was affected and take appropriate action to notify affected individuals and regulatory bodies.

Future of Data Lineage

Adoption by More Industries: As more industries recognize the importance of data governance, data lineage will become more widely adopted as a critical tool for ensuring regulatory compliance and data quality.

Increased Automation: Automation will play a more significant role in data lineage, reducing the amount of manual effort required to maintain data lineage and providing more timely and accurate data lineage information.

Integration with Machine Learning and AI: Data lineage will be integrated with machine learning and artificial intelligence to enhance its capabilities for data discovery, quality management, and governance.

Improved Interoperability: Improved interoperability between data lineage tools and other data management systems will allow for more comprehensive data governance across organizations.

Greater Emphasis on Security: With increased concerns about data breaches and cyber threats, data lineage will be essential in ensuring data security by tracking data access and providing visibility into how data is used.

Emergence of Blockchain-based Data Lineage: Blockchain technology is being explored to provide more secure and transparent data lineage by creating an immutable record of data transactions.

Way Ahead

Data lineage is a crucial step for any organization that deals with data. By implementing data lineage, companies can achieve better data governance, manage risks more effectively, and gain easy access to data. Top companies like Netflix, Google, and Microsoft have already embraced data lineage and have significantly benefited from it. So, if you want to learn more about data lineage and other essential data skills, consider enrolling in our Blackbelt program. It’s a comprehensive program that will help you become an expert in data science and analytics.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is data lineage in ETL?

A. Data lineage in ETL refers to the complete end-to-end history of the data from its source to destination, including transformations and metadata changes.

Q2. What are the two types of data lineage?

A. The two types of data lineage are forward lineage and backward lineage. Forward lineage tracks data flow from source to destination, and backward lineage tracks data flow from destination to source.

Q3. What is data governance and data lineage?

A. Data governance is a process of managing data quality, security, and compliance, while data lineage is a part of data governance that tracks the data flow across the organization.

Q4. What is the difference between data mapping and data lineage?

A. Data mapping involves associating source data with target data, while data lineage tracks the flow of data and metadata across various systems.

Q5. What is data lineage of a dataset?

A. Data lineage of a dataset refers to the origin of the data, its transformations, and the places where it has been stored or used.

Q6. Is data lineage a metadata?

A. Yes, data lineage is a type of metadata that provides information on the movement and transformation of data across different systems.


What Is Shell In Linux?

Introduction to Shell in Linux

Linux is a code that transmits the system commands., Compilers, Editors, linkers, and command-line interpreters are essential and valuable but are not part of the operating system. We will look briefly at the LINUX command interpreter, called the SHELL, which, although not part of the operating system, makes heavy use of many operating system features and thus serves as an excellent example of how the system calls can be used. It is also the primary interface between a user sitting at his terminal and the operating system.

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Following are the different examples:

It prints the current date and time.



The user can specify that the standard output be redirected to a file,


The user can specify that standard input can be redirected, as in


Which invokes the sort program with input taken from file1 and output sent to file2

The pipe helps connect a particular program’s output as input to other programs.


This invokes the cat program to concatenate three files and send the output to sort to arrange all the lines alphabetically. The output of sort is redirected to the file /dev/lp, a familiar name for the special character file for the printer.

Types of Shell

If you wish to use any of the above shell types as the default shell, the variable must be assigned accordingly. However, after reading a field in the file /etc./passwd, the system makes this assignment. This file must be edited if you wish to change the setting permanently. The system administrator usually sets up your login shell while creating a user account, though you can change it whenever you request.

Shell Keywords

Echo if until trap

read else case wait

set fi esac eval

unset while break exec

read-only do continue ulmit

shift Done exit umask

export For return

1. Unchanging variables- set keyword

In some applications, a need for variables to have a constant or fixed value may arise. For instants, if we want that a’s variable should always remain at 20 and not change, we can achieve this by saying,

Example #1

$a = 20 $readonly a

The shell will not permit to change a value when they are created as read-only. To create read-only variables, type “read-only” at a command prompt.

When there is a need to clear or erase a particular command from the shell, we will use the “unset” keyword as a command.

Example #2

$a = 20 $echo a 20 $unset a $echo a  2. Echo keyword

To print either the value of any variable or words under double quotation.

Example #1

x=20 echo $x


Example #2

echo "Hello World!"


Pwd command



Ls command

mkdir newdir ls


Mkdir command

mkdir imp ls


3. Cd command: read keyword

The read statement is the shell’s internal tool for taking input from the standard input. Functionally, it is similar to the INPUT statement of BASIC and the scanf() function in C. But it has one or two interesting features; it can be used with one or more variables to make shell scripts interactive. These variables read the input supplied through the standard input during an interactive session. The script chúng tôi uses the statement to take the search string and the filenames from the terminal.

Command – Shell in Linux $cat #Script : chúng tôi - Interactive version #The pattern and filename to be supplied by the user echo "nEnter the pattern to be searched : c" read pname echo "nEnter the file to be used :c" read flname echo "nSearching for $pname from the $flnamen" grep "$pname" $flname echo "nSelected records shown above" $_ Run it, and specify the input accordingly $ Enter the pattern to be searched: director Enter the file to be used: emp2.lst Searching for director from file emp2.lst


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What Is Procedure In Sql?

Introduction to Procedure in SQL

The following article provides an outline for What is Procedure in SQL? Procedures or Stored Procedures in SQL are logical units of SQL queries that can be created once, fetched, and executed multiple times whenever there is a need to repeat the same operation. It also allows passing parameters, like the stored procedure with arguments in the OOPS concept. It is categorized under DML (Data Manipulation Language) of SQL programming, as it is applicable to operations involving data management and manipulation.

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What is SQL?

Syntax of SQL query to fetch all the records is as follows:

select * from table_name Stored Procedures in SQL

Stored procedures can accept parameters as input and can return multiple values as an output parameter. In SQL Server, stored procedures perform operations in the database and can return a status value to an application or a batch calling procedure. User-defined procedures are created using the user-defined database, with the exception when we have a read-only database. For that, we need to develop it in Transact SQL (T-SQL). Tempdb is where all the temporary procedures are stored.

There are two types of stored procedures.

Local procedures

Global procedures

Local procedures are the one which is only visible for the user using it in the connection, whereas Global procedures are visible to any of the users in the same connection.

Structure of Creating the Procedure

Here, the owner means the database name, and to pass the parameter, we need to add the ‘@’ symbol.


AS Execute a Stored Procedure Exec is the command for the execution of the procedure. EXEC Procedure_name

Comparison Between Stored Procedure and Functions

Stored procedures and functions can be used to achieve the same functionality.

We can customize both procedures as well as functions.

The difference between them is functions are designed to send their output to Transact SQL, and stored procedures are designed to return output to a query, as well as they can return output to T-SQL also.

Applications can have input from the stored procedures, while user-defined functions can return table variables, and they are not privileged to change the environment settings neither operating system environment.

Database Company

Given below are the database company:

Company Category Item

Tarle edibles cookies

Tarle edibles chips

Lakme cosmetics lipstick

Brisket grocery Flax seeds

Brisket edibles biscuits

Brisket grocery oil

ole cosmetics Nail polish

ole cosmetics Hairbrush

Stored Procedure Example

The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure that selects the company.


Execute the stored procedure above as follows:

Executing the above-stored procedure, we can use the following command:


EXEC SelectAllExample; Stored Procedure Example With One Parameter

The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure with a single parameter to be passed that selects a company with an item as a parameter.


CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample @item nvarchar(30) AS SELECT * FROM company WHERE item = @item GO;

Execute the stored procedure above as follows:

To execute the above-stored procedure with one parameter, we can use the following command:

EXEC SelectAllExample item = "cookies"; Stored Procedure Example with Multiple Parameters

The following SQL statement creates a stored procedure with multiple parameters that select company with item and category as a parameter


CREATE PROCEDURE SelectAllExample @item nvarchar(30), @ category nvarchar(10) AS SELECT * FROM company WHERE item = @ item AND category = @ category GO;

Execute the stored procedure above as follows:

To execute the above-stored procedure with multiple parameters, we can use the following command we need to pass the multiple parameters with comma-separated: EXEC SelectAllExample item =”cookies”, category =”edibles”;


Application improvement can be achieved by procedures. If a procedure is called multiple times in a single application, then the compiled version of the procedure is utilized.

Traffic between the database and the application can be reduced as the big statements are already fed into the database, and we don’t have to send it again and again.

Using procedures, code reusability can be achieved, similar to the functions and methods that work in the java and other programming languages.

Stored Procedures consume a lot of memory. It is the duty of a database administrator has to decide an upper bound to how many stored procedures are feasible for a particular application.

Stored procedures cannot be debugged using MySQL.

Conclusion – What is Procedure in SQL

Simple non-select statements, including DML, statements like Insert and delete, also DDL statements such as Drop and Create can be included in the stored programs. Memory consumption is more, but the seek rate can be reduced, and code reusability is beneficial. Stored procedures can be implemented with or without variables and can be executed by passing the parameters if required.

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What Is Simm (Single In

Modern computers need to have RAM installed on RAM sticks. These sticks are called DIMMs because all of the electrical pins are in line, and there are two lines of them, leading to the acronym Dual In-line Memory Module. This wasn’t always the case, though, as DIMMs were invented in the 1990s.

DRAM History

Really early in the development of computers, RAM chips were installed directly on motherboards as integrated circuits using DIP sockets. Because many chips were needed, a lot of space was taken up. The Single In-line Memory Module or SIMM was designed to free up most of that space. The memory chips were installed on a separate circuit board and plugged into the motherboard at a perpendicular angle.

The first generation of SIMMs used electrical pins that went into sockets like a large SIP chip. This design, however, was vulnerable to the pins being bent, and the pins were the most expensive part of the SIMM. To reduce costs and increase the integrity of the connectors, the pins were redesigned to be edge connectors. These edge connectors are still used in modern DIMMs, albeit with some modifications.

The thing about these new edge connectors was that they went over the whole bottom edge. Each connector pad ran over the SIMM’s front, bottom, and back. The overall number of connectors didn’t change, just the type. This is the key difference between SIMMs and DIMMs. On SIMMs, the connectors are redundant on either side because they’re really one pin. The connectors on DIMMs are different on each side, doubling the pin count with no extra effort.

Note: Slightly confusingly, these edge connectors are still generally referred to as pins.

Increased Pin Count

Each pin can only transmit one of two potential values each clock cycle, on or off, the binary 1 or 0. Adding more pins means more data can be transmitted per clock cycle, increasing the bandwidth. Not all of the pins go into improving the actual I/O bandwidth of the SIMM. A range of pins is used to issue commands to the RAM too.

When CPUs process data, they need that data to be in the CPU cache. That cache is significantly faster than RAM but much more expensive, so there’s not much of it. So, data is stored in RAM and then copied to the cache when needed. To efficiently do so, the memory bus is designed to be broad in that it has as many connections as possible. This means that as many bits as possible can be transmitted per clock cycle. Modern computers have a 64-bit memory bus, but in the early 80s, when the SIMM was invented, the memory bus was 8-bits wide. 8 pins were used to transmit data per clock cycle, while the rest of the 30 pins on a SIMM were used to send commands.

As CPU development continued, the memory bus width was increased to 16-bits. The problem is that with only 8 data pins, only 8 bits of data can be transferred per clock cycle. SIMMs were paired up to get around this, providing 16 data pins to fill the memory bus. Of course, CPU development didn’t stop there, and the 32-bit memory bus soon came along. While some systems allow for four 30-pin SIMMs, a new standard was released with a 72-pin SIMM with 32 data pins.

Losing out to DIMM

With the arrival and quick market acceptance of the Intel Pentium P5 with its 64-bit memory bus in 1993, and CPUs with 64-bit memory busses, the same game had to be played. While some systems supported dual 72-pin SIMMs, a new form factor took the lead, DIMM. With twice the number of pins on one stick of RAM, DIMMs were cheaper (at least when compared to two SIMMs) and used less space on the motherboard.

Eventually, the DIMM form factor became the standard, and SIMM dropped out of use. Essentially nothing still uses SIMM now. Indeed no new hardware. However, there are almost certainly legacy devices still running it somewhere. DIMM is still used today and is unlikely to go anywhere soon.


SIMM was the original form factor for the memory stick. They made upgrading or installing RAM a lot easier by making it a single process, rather than needing to plug in the 8 DRAM chips by hand. Using pins and then keeping the edge connectors as single contiguous pins eventually led to their replacement by DIMMs in the early 90s.

What Is A Refresh Cycle?

In your computer, there are likely two types of RAM class memory. Only one is referred to as RAM: the system memory or system RAM. This class of RAM is called DRAM. In this class, you may also have some SSDs with integrated DRAM. The VRAM on a graphics card is also a subset of DRAM. You’ll have a different type of RAM on the actual CPU and GPU dies themselves. SRAM is used for on-die caches.

SRAM is speedy. However, it is not particularly dense in terms of gigabytes per square centimeter, which also contributes to its high price. DRAM is slower. However, it has a much higher storage density and is much cheaper. For this reason, SRAM is used in small quantities on processor dies as high-speed memory, and DRAM is used for larger memory pools like the ones described above.

The distinction between SRAM and DRAM is evident in their actual structure. SRAM uses four to six transistors, while DRAM uses a single transistor and a capacitor. This is where the storage density comparison comes in. There are simply fewer parts in DRAM, making each memory cell smaller.

The design differences have another effect, however, one large enough to be the titular naming factor of the two. The S in SRAM stands for Static, while the D in DRAM stands for Dynamic. This represents that SRAM can retain its contents indefinitely, while DRAM needs to be regularly refreshed.

Note: This assumes that a constant power supply is available. SRAM is still volatile memory, and if power is lost, it will lose the data it holds. Just like DRAM.

What Is a Memory Refresh?

The circuit-level architecture of DRAM means that the charge of a memory cell decays over time. Each memory cell must be regularly refreshed to allow DRAM to store data for long periods. There are a couple of essential things to know about this. The first is that the memory can’t be accessed while refreshed. This also means that performance can be limited by how often the DRAM cells need refreshing.

Generally, DRAM cells are refreshed every 64 milliseconds, though this halves at high temperatures. Each row of cells is refreshed independently to prevent this from happening all at once, causing a significant hiccup every 64 milliseconds.

Cleverly the memory controller also times refresh cycles to occur while the RAM module does other things that prevent it from reading or writing memory, such as transmitting read data. Thankfully, the amount of time needed to refresh a cell is small, generally 75 or 120 nanoseconds. This means a DRAM chip spends roughly 0.4% to 5% of its time performing a refresh operation.

How to Refresh DRAM

All this happens automatically. The memory controller manages it all without the CPU being aware of it.


DRAM charge does decay, but research has shown that the rate varies wildly between DRAM cells, even on a single chip. The top percent or so may be able to hold their data for up to 50 seconds without needing a refresh at standard temperatures. 90% can store data for 10 seconds, 99% for three seconds, and 99.9% for one second.

Unfortunately, some outliers need to be refreshed much more often. To allow for even the worst-case scenarios, DRAM refresh times are low. This choice does ensure that no data is ever lost, but it also affects power usage and performance.

Some researchers have proposed alternative methods of analyzing and binning the RAM cells and prefer using the ones with better decay times. This would lead to improved power usage, especially useful on low-power battery-powered devices. It would also, however, lead to variable levels of RAM performance.

Additionally, the change in decay time based on temperature would have to be factored in. Even worse, some cells simply lose charge retention performance occasionally, meaning relying on this too much could sometimes result in a presumed good memory cell being bad, requiring regular rebinning.


The refresh cycle is the process in DRAM modules by which the memory cells are refreshed. This is necessary because the circuit design of DRAM results in charge decay. Regularly refreshing memory cells prevents data loss. SRAM doesn’t need to be refreshed as its circuit design does not result in a charge drain.

Note: Refresh cycle may also refer to a user or organization’s regular updating of hardware.

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