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Have you ever looked at a file extension and wondered exactly what in the world you were looking at? With hundreds of different file extensions, it’s impossible to keep track of them all.

For example, what is an OGG file? Where did it come from, and what is it used for? Simply put, an OGG file is one of two file types: either an Ogg Vorbis Audio File or an Origin graph file.

Table of Contents

Ogg Vorbis Compressed Audio File

The .Ogg extension is a free, open container format originally created by the chúng tôi Foundation. This organization is a nonprofit group that creates and maintains various multimedia formats and software tools, giving creators and everyday users the ability to work with multimedia without paying exorbitant prices.

Vorbis is the most popular and common type of .ogg file, but there are numerous others. In addition to the .ogg extension, you may also see .ogv, .oga, .ogx, .ogm, .spx, and .opus.

If the name “Ogg” seems odd to you, it’s because it derives from an old gaming term called “ogging.” The 1988 game Netrek was one of the first online multiplayer games, and “ogging” referred to a kamikaze-style attack on an enemy ship or base. The .ogg extension is in homage to that history.

Like a kamikaze attack, the OGG Project was thought to be ambitious and not entirely possible due to the powers of computers at that time. The creators of the format sought to push the boundaries.

As an additional bit of interesting trivia, the “Vorbis” aspect of the name originates from a character in Terr Pratchett’s book Small Gods.

Opening An Ogg Vorbis File

OGG files are common. As a result, most major media players can open them, including VLC, Windows Media Player, and many more. You can even open an OGG file through Google Drive. However, Apple does not natively support OGG files. If you want to open one on an Apple device, you will need to download a compatible third-party application like VLC.

Opera and Mozilla Firefox also support OGG files without the need for a separate program. Simply drag or open the file in your browser and you can listen to its contents without opening another application.

OGG files can also be accepted by GPS devices. However, this is most commonly used whe audio mapping. It’s unlikely that you would ever use a GPS device to play music, but anything is possible. Maybe you want to hear your Tom Tom sing Bowie’s “Space Oddity.”

Converting Ogg Vorbis Files

If you need to switch an OGG file to something more universally acceptable, like an MP3 or WAV file, there are several easy options out there.

One of the easiest options is an online converter like FileZigZag. You don’t have to download anything and you can convert more than one file at once. The downside is you’re limited to 10 conversions per day.

Another option is something like Convertio. It works entirely in your browser, but there is also a Chrome extension available for easy conversions. There doesn’t seem to be a daily limit to the number of conversions, but the max file size is capped at 100 MB.

Origin Graph Files

A less common type of OGG file is an Origin Graph. What is an Origin Graph OGG file? This is a data analysis tool and graphing application created by OriginLab Corporation and used most often by scientiests and engineers. It creates graphs that display a variety of types of data.

The only way to open an Origin Graph file is through Origin and Origin Viewer. Origin is only available through Windows, but Origin Viewer is a free alternative that is available to both Windows and Mac users.

In more recent iterations of Origin, files are saved in the .oggu format. This offers a performance upgrade over the old file type, but it still allows users to open OGG files.

Fans of open-source software will appreciate the OGG format due to its broad range of compatibility. It provides an efficient way to access and store audio files that doesn’t hog memory.

As for Origin Graph files, unless you’re in a relevant field, you aren’t likely to encounter them.

You're reading What Is An Ogg File?

Difference Between An Exe File And An Msi File

MSI and EXE files may appear to do the same thing in many ways; you could say they are the same but have different names. However, that is not the case because while they are similar, differences do exist.

Now, the differences between them are minor, but very important nonetheless. Is one definitely better than the other? This is something a lot of users are curious about.

Difference between an EXE file and an MSI file

An EXE file can be an installer, a program, or just code. An MSI file is a Microsoft Installer file use to install a program using the Windows Installer.

What is the EXE file format?

When we think about the EXE file format, the first thing that should come to mind is how customizable they are. This is because these files can execute any code, and as such, it gives developers a lot of flexibility.

If needs be, a developer can insert an installer, code, or other EXE file into a single one. But while that’s good, it opens the door to the main problem with EXE files.

Because of its flexibility, it’s not hard for bad actors to hide malware or viruses within the EXE file. So ensure that before downloading one of these files from an untrusted source, scan it with Windows Defender or your favorite antivirus software.

What is the MSI file format?

MSI file extension stands for Microsoft Software Installer for those who weren’t aware. It is a Windows Installer format that makes use of Microsoft’s Windows Installer service to configure installer packages such as update packages or Windows applications. MSI file extension can only be used on Windows and no other.

Compared to the EXE file format, the MSI format is limited. They are nothing but an installer package, so if you feel the need to run code through MSI, well, you’re out of luck. Furthermore, they must meet standardized requirements, so in essence, an MSI file is safer to run.

MSI has to be safe to run because it is a core component of Windows. The operating system manages the installation, removal of software, and maintenance.

Read: How to create self-extracting archives with IExpress

What is the difference between an EXE file and MSI file?

The MSI can only install applications, whereas the EXE file can install applications as the program’s primary executable. Furthermore, EXE files cannot be modified, but they can be repackaged by using a Repackager.

MSI or EXE, which is better?

As we’ve stated above, both have good and bad things about them, but from our point of view, one being better than the other depends on your needs. If security is paramount to you, then please try your best to avoid EXE, or download such files from a trusted source.

If security is not a concern, then the MSI file format wouldn’t do you any good, especially if you’re a developer who loves customizability.

However, if you are forced to make a choice no matter what, we suggest choosing MSI because security is better than loose security, no matter the customization options.

READ: How to block EXE files from running using Group Policy.

What Is An Ip Flood?

IP Flood

An IP Flood is a type of malicious assault that can affect a single device or a whole network. This is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack that seeks to prevent a device from performing its usual functions, such as delivering requests or processing data. In an IP flood attack, the system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and denying access to genuine users.

Fortunately, IP flooding is a well-known form of assault and it is well-documented and hence it can be readily avoided. IP Flooding is a sort of attack in which the victim or system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and preventing legitimate users from accessing the system. In layman’s terms, it means that one device can use all available data, preventing other devices from connecting.

When IP Flood Detection is turned on, your router can detect and prevent malicious devices that are attempting to flood your network. IP Flooding is a sort of DoS attack in which the victim or system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and preventing legitimate users from accessing the system.

An IP Flood occurs when IP packets from one device overrun the IP packets from another device or devices. It’s usually a malicious occurrence, although it can also be the result of faulty programming in the transmitting device. A router or switch that performs basic packet/frame inspection may often assist reduce network impact. IP broadcast flood (also known as IP Storm) can be considerably more damaging to the network since it affects all devices in the broadcast domain.

This is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack that seeks to prevent a device from performing its usual functions, such as delivering requests or processing data. Fortunately, because this is one of the most well-known forms of assault, it is well-documented and readily avoided.

How an IP Flood Attack is Carried Out

An IP Flood attack is often carried out with the use of an executable application or a piece of code that makes the requests. The malware will first establish a connection with the victim, after which it will send a series of ping queries (also known as echo request packages). These ping requests will continue to be sent until the system of the receiver fails. You may believe that a machine or network can tolerate a few ping attempts, but an IP Flood attack can entail hundreds of requests per second.

IP Flooding is a sort of DoS attack in which the victim or system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and preventing legitimate users from accessing the system. In layman’s terms, it means that one device can use all available data, preventing other devices from connecting. When IP Flood Detection is turned on, your router can detect and prevent malicious devices that are attempting to flood your network.

Negative Impacts of an IP Flood

A device or a network can be effectively crippled by an IP Food attack. If the connection is open, the receiving device will immediately respond with the information when a ping request is received. The device or network will simply not be able to handle the ping queries since they are continual and in such a large volume. The system will eventually fail, and the network device or computer will crash, leaving you unable to complete any additional tasks.

What Can Be Done to Avoid an IP Flood Attack?

Most routers and networking equipment, fortunately, will have built-in protection against IP Flood assaults. There is no need for alarm among residential users; if your router is properly set up, you should never be vulnerable to an IP Flood assault. Many routers offer an “IP Flood prevention” option that can be manually engaged; however, this might have a negative impact on your router’s performance and significantly slow down your network. It is best to avoid turning this feature on and to double-check that your router’s security settings are accurate.

The ability to carry out a ping flood is contingent on the attackers knowing the target’s IP address. As a result, based on the target and how its IP address is resolved, attacks may be divided into three groups.

A single machine on a local network is attacked by a targeted local revealed ping flood. To discover a computer’s IP address, an attacker must have physical access to it. The target computer would be taken down if the assault was successful.

Ping flood is a type of attack that targets routers in order to disrupt connections between computers on a network, according to a router. It relies on the attacker knowing a local router’s internal IP address. If the assault is successful, all computers linked to the router will be shut down.

Before launching an assault, a blind ping flood requires utilizing external software to discover the IP address of the target computer or router.

What Is An Nvme Ssd?

Last Updated on April 27, 2023

These days we want faster, more robust data transfer to speed up both home and business computing.

It’s this insatiable desire for efficiency that births faster and faster storage drives. But what is an NVMe SSD – the latest standard, of SSD technology? Read on to decode this esoteric jumble of letters!

What Is An SSD?

Before we delve into the NVMe side of the puzzle, let’s first establish what an SSD is. Used for long-term data storage, SSDs (Solid State Drive) are essentially an evolution of the hard drive (HD).

These drives are referred to as “solid” because – unlike mechanical hard drives – they don’t use any moving components, amounting to improved thermals, improved energy efficiency, a more robust build, and quieter performance.

SSDs are also much quicker, as signals can travel faster through stationary electrical circuitry than they can when a moving component is involved.

What Does NVMe Mean?

NVMe stands for Non-Volatile Memory Express, and it’s an upgraded SSD technology that speeds up data transfer to an even further degree. It supersedes the SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) SDD standard that maxed out at 500–600 Mbps, establishing 2000 Mbps as the new normal, but how does it pull this remarkable feat off?

Well, hard drives and older SSDs utilize what’s known as point-to-point serial protocols to transfer data between the storage unit and the motherboard of a computer. In plain English, this means cables are used to link the drive to the motherboard.

Next came an SSD protocol that combined cables and ports to link up the two components, but the magic of the NVMe standard is that it cuts out these connections altogether in favor of a direct input on the motherboard.

Reducing the material signals have to travel through and the physical distance the data must traverse reduces latency significantly, making NVMe the speed demon that it is!

This port in the motherboard is known as the PCIe bus, which is where that little “e” comes from on the end of NVMe. PCIe slots are designed to accommodate hardware expansions, i.e. beefy discrete GPUs. However, now that storage technology has caught up with transfer tech, the PCIe slot and the NVMe SSD are perfect partners in crime.

What’s The Downside Of The NVMe SSD?

It’s faster, more energy efficient cuts down on some excess cabling… What’s not to like? Well, the only real drawback of the NVMe SSD blueprint is the price tag, but as it marks such an improvement on the next best thing (SATA), it’s not a bad investment, especially considering it’s going to be the standard for the foreseeable future.

NVMe might not be the most budget-friendly storage solution but think of the productivity gains individuals and businesses would make with such a fast data transfer protocol.

Besides, one NVMe SSD today will be prime for use indefinitely, whereas older SSD variants will fall behind related technologies comparatively quickly, necessitating multiple replacements.

When it was released, NVMe was a nice-to-have, but these days, despite the cost, NVMe SSD storage is the smart choice if you’re thinking of picking up a new computer/laptop or starting a new build.

Final Thoughts

That said, bear in mind that although any NVMe SSD will surely give your system the kick in the pants you’ve been dreaming of, they’re not made equal. Some are better than others, so don’t skimp on the research side of shopping around!

Mte Explains: What Is An Rfc?

Understanding RFCs

You’ve probably seen the term RFC thrown around in reference to protocols and other applications that you’ve been using. Many developers include references to RFCs in the change notes to new versions of applications that they release. Why is this? What is this mysterious RFC everyone keeps talking about? As with any other seemingly obscure term on the Internet, there are explanations, but they don’t necessarily speak in a language that everyone can understand. And this is why MTE is going to take the time to explain RFCs to you!

To fully understand what an RFC is, one must also understand what gave birth to them, and why they were necessary at the time in which they were first created.

An RFC is a published document by an organization called the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). RFCs hold the rules for every single protocol you use to communicate over the Web. You’ll find very familiar ones like RFC 2616 (HTTP) and RFC 3920 (XMPP, used in Facebook Messenger). All of these things are available for everyone to see on the IETF’s RFC database.

Put simply, many RFCs will provide the public with all the details they need to know in order to fully understand how Internet protocols work. However, not all RFCs are declarations of Internet protocols. Some of them are there to show developers what the best practices are for interacting with a protocol or even to provide information about some other general topics. Others are just jokes (like this April Fools’ RFC). Also, you won’t find every protocol on IETF’s database. A number of them (like the BitTorrent protocol) are kept in other databases.

Why RFCs Are Important

When I was first developing programs and plugins that used the HTTP protocol, I needed a point of reference to learn how it worked. It doesn’t matter how much you know how to code; if you can’t find out how a protocol works, you can’t use it properly. The RFC I linked to above (2616) was very helpful in understanding some details.

The point I’m getting at is that RFCs can be used as a reference guide to protocols that have not yet fully been explained in simpler terms. It helps pioneers easily find the resources they need to develop the applications you love. There you have it!

Any More Questions?

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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What Is An Attribute In Swift?

Throughout this article, you will learn what an attribute in Swift is and how to use it with code examples.

Swift Attributes

Swift makes it possible to provide some additional info about the declaration or type. We have two types of attributes that can be used in Swift language.

Declaration Attributes

Type Attributes


You can apply an attribute by using the symbol @ followed by the attribute name, as shown below −

@attribute name @attribute name(attribute arguments) Explanation

We can provide arguments in declaration attributes to define the declaration. These arguments can be provided in parentheses and the format.

Declaration Attributes

You can apply a declaration attribute to declarations only.

Below are some declaration attributes −


Available is a declaration attribute that can be used to specify the Swift language version, platform, or iOS version to which the declaration belongs. In other words, it helps you make your code available or unavailable as per platform or version.

Throughout Swift’s history, there have been many additions to APIs introduced which is available in releases and future versions. There is a possibility that some of the code will not run on all platforms (macOS, watchOS, etc.).

This attribute can be specified with two or more arguments separated by a comma. The argument list begins with one of the following platform names or languages −

iOS, iOSApplicationExtension

macOS, macOSApplicationExtension

watchOS, watchOSApplicationExtension

tvOS, tvOSApplicationExtension


Example if #available(iOS 15, *) { print("This code will run on iOS 15 and upper versions.") } else { print("This code will only runs on iOS 14 and lower versions.") } Output This code will run on iOS 15 and upper versions.

You can use the available attribute inside a guard statement as well −

guard #available(iOS 15, *) else { print("This code will only runs on iOS 14 and lower versions.") return } print("This code will run on iOS 15 and upper versions.")

This is helpful for cases in which you’d like to execute specific code only for a specific iOS version.


It is applied to a class to indicate the application delegate declaration. While we use this attribute, we inform the compiler about the delegate class.


This attribute might be useful to override the value of a property. You can specify custom specifications using this attribute in classes or structs.


Remember that you cannot apply this attribute to local and global properties. Let’s see an example of how to use this attribute in the Swift language like below −

import Foundation @propertyWrapper struct UserName { var wrappedValue: String { didSet { wrappedValue = wrappedValue.lowercased() } } init(wrappedValue: String) { self.wrappedValue = wrappedValue.lowercased() } } struct InstagramUser { @UserName var firstName: String @UserName var lastName: String var fullUserName: String { "(firstName).(lastName)" } } let user = InstagramUser(firstName: "Alex", lastName: "Muphy") print(user.fullUserName) Output alex.muphy Explanation

In the above example, we created a property wrapper for UserName using the @propertyWrapper attribute. In here, we are wrapping the given value in lowercased as username should be in lowercased.

In the InstagramUser struct, we declare some properties like first and last name along with the UserName property wrapper. Further, we don’t need to worry about a valid case value as this is done by the property wrapper.


This attribute is used to represent Objective-C properties and methods in Swift code. We can apply this attribute to classes to tell the compiler that a declaration is available to use in Objective-C code.

import Foundation class UserValidator { @objc func authenticateUser() { } } @discardableResult Example

When the result of a method or function that returns a value is unused, the Swift compiler often throws a warning.

var fullName = “Penny” fullName += ” (lastName)” print(“Full name is: (fullName)”) return fullName } appendLastName(“Black”)

Output Full name is: Penny Black

You will get a warning here −

Result of call to 'appendLastName' is unused Example

Below is the way to use @discardableResult in order to suppress the warning generated by the unused value returned by the method returning the value

@discardableResult var fullName = "Penny" fullName += " (lastName)" print("Full name is: (fullName)") return fullName } appendLastName("Black") Output: (no warning this time) Full name is: Penny Black Declaration Attributes Used by Interface Builder

Swift provides us with some attributes to help us declare user interface components using IBAction, IBDesignable, IBInspectable, and IBOutlet.

Method declarations can make use of interface builder attributes such as IBAction and IBSegueAction. The IBOutlet and IBInspectable attributes can be applied to the properties of a class.

Example import UIKit class LoginController: UIViewController { @IBOutlet var sendButton: UIButton! @IBAction func handleSendButtonTapped(_ sender: UIButton) { } } Type Attributes

You can apply type attributes to types only.

autoclosure Example

As the name implies, this attribute automatically creates a closure from the function arguments. Basically, we apply this attribute to a function or method declaration. The autoclosure attribute does not take any parameters and usually returns a value.

print(“Good morning, (name())”) } greetingMessage(“Rahul”)

Output Good morning, Rahul Explanation

In this example, the greetingMessage(_:) function takes a closure that returns a String value. The @autoclosure attribute indicates that a closure should be automatically created to wrap the name argument.

escaping Example

We can apply the escaping attribute in a function or method declaration. It is used to tell the compiler to store the parameter to use to it later. It means, we can store the argument passed in a function.

import UIKit class NetworkManager { let task = URLSession.shared.dataTask(with: url) { data, response, error in completion(data) } task.resume() } completion(nil) return } sendRequest(url: url, completion: completion) } } let networkManager = NetworkManager() networkManager.fetchSampleData { data in print("fetched data: (data)") } Output fetched data: Optional(83 bytes) Explanation

In this example, fetchSampleData() takes a closure as an argument and uses it to return the fetched data to the caller. The closure is marked with the @escaping keyword because it is called after the fetchSampleData() function has returned. The example function uses sendRequest() to fetch some data from the URL and then processes the data in the closure it passes to fetchSampleData().


In the code, you can apply different attributes to classes, structures, properties, etc. Using attributes, your code will look more concise and safe. As a result, you can write code according to the iOS version or platform.

Having these attributes makes your coding easy and clean. These often save a lot of development time.

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