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If you want to book an Airbnb, get some food delivered, pay a bill, chat with your friends, and get a personal masseuse sent to your apartment, how many apps will you need? If you live in a decently-sized Asian city, odds are you’ll only need one – a “super app.”

Though most haven’t spread out of Asia yet, apps like WeChat, Alipay, Grab, Go-Jek, Paytm, Kakao, and Line are becoming an essential part of life in many places. Most started with a few functions, like chatting with friends, making payments, or hailing rides, but have essentially turned into miniature operating systems for life.

The super app model makes sense: it’s an easy way to get access to many different services, saves phone space, and frees users from having to hunt down lots of different apps. There are significant downsides as well, though, particularly when it comes to privacy and competition.

The trend is also catching on in Latin America – another mobile-first culture. North American and European companies like Facebook, Uber, and Amazon are eying the possibility of becoming regional super apps as well. But with a lot of super-app services already dominated by individual companies, it won’t be easy for even these tech giants to become anything close to a western WeChat.

Super app superstars

Without a doubt, the current king of super apps is Tencent’s WeChat – an app that more than two-thirds of the Chinese population uses, many of them for an average of several hours a day. WeChat and its competitor app, Alipay, are so frequently used for mobile payments that paying for things by cash or card is actually becoming a challenge.

Some of the biggest drawbacks of super apps are also evident in things here, though. The sheer scale of WeChat and Alipay is effectively suppressing competition, as anyone who wants to bring a new service to users typically does it through one of those apps. Privacy is also a major concern, as the more things users can do in a single app, the more that app can learn about them, and that’s more than a little concerning in a country that is working on implementing a social credit score for its citizens.

Pretty much every other super app is a “light” version of WeChat. They aggregate services in the same way, but you’re unlikely to open one until it’s time to order food or get a ride. They’re handy, but most users wouldn’t place them in the same category as electricity and Internet. That said, they still do a lot, and all of the below apps bear watching:

Go-Jek (Indonesia and Southeast Asia): Over 20 services ranging from mobile payment to mobile massage therapists.

Grab (Singapore and Southeast Asia): One of Southeast Asia’s most successful startups, they started with ride-hailing and are now used for e-payments, food delivery, and several other features.

Paytm (India): Backed by Alibaba (of Alipay), Paytm provides e-payments, financial services, ride-hailing, shopping, and lots of other services to India’s population.

Rappi (Colombia and Latin America): It started out as an app that connected users to couriers that could pick up and deliver pretty much anything, but it is moving into areas like e-payments, scooter sharing, and financial services.

Super apps: coming to an app store near you?

Currently, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the U.S and Canada don’t have any apps that could be described as “super.” Particularly in the US, this is the result of digital goods and services evolving somewhat gradually, with innovative companies staking out and defending different territories. Japan and Korea are in a similar boat. Though Line and Kakao are super apps, the more gradual development of their digital services meant that there were more limited opportunities for any one company to come in and grab large parts of multiple markets.

Of course, every company still wants to be that super app, so they’re trying nonetheless. Facebook Messenger’s leader, David Marcus, has described WeChat as “inspiring” in the past, and if you’ve been keeping track of the app’s developments over the past few years, you’ll notice some parallel developments. Their move towards payments with Libra is an especially big step in the “super app” direction, but the amount of pushback they’ve gotten on that illustrates the uphill battle they’re facing.

Uber has also declared its intent to become an “operating system for everyday life.” They’ve started by combining Uber and Uber Eats into one app and have expanded the transportation options you can find. They even have a freight company now – Uber Freight, in case you didn’t know.

Then there’s Amazon, which is already pursuing super app status in India, where it offers e-payments, flight bookings, ride-hailing, food delivery, and more, either directly or through companies it has acquired.

Do we even want/need a super app?

Super apps are undeniably convenient and make life a bit simpler, but bundling those services together under one corporate umbrella might not turn out to be the best idea for the digital ecosystem in the long run. Competition helps drive innovation, and it prevents any one company from having too much power.

The most likely scenario is that we’ll end up with several different ecosystems with super app characteristics. Messenger and Uber might not become America’s WeChat and Grab, but they’ll probably add some useful features in their efforts to get there.

Image credits: The screenshot of WeChat, Grab, GoJek, Uber, Paytm

Andrew Braun

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What Are Zoom Apps And How To Use Them

From the start, Zoom has focused on being the perfect video calling solution for individuals and businesses. It was the first to make the service accessible for millions of free users and has managed to grow its user base month-over-month. 

Now, with considerable experience under its belt, Zoom is focusing to make the video calling experience even more engrossing for businesses and working professionals and is aiming to do so with the help of Zoom Apps. Today, we’ll take a quick look at what Zoom Apps are and tell you how to get them.

Related: What is Personal Meeting ID in Zoom and How to Change it

What are Zoom Apps? 

Zoom Apps are newly introduced functional tools that allow you and your team to launch important work applications right from the Zoom meeting window. The feature is meant to make Zoom more inviting for users, allowing them to carry out a bunch of tasks without actually leaving the application. 

With the help of Zoom tools, you can turn yourself into a cartoon, share important files, host or participate in a brainstorming session, create tasks, chat with your colleagues, and even get some much-needed exercise. Apps make Zoom a lot more complete than before, as you will have access to all of these activities — that are unrelated to Zoom — from the application screen itself.

Since Zoom Apps are still in their early days, you might not find all the apps you use on the Zoom Store yet. However, if the concept takes off, more and more developers are expected to join the bandwagon. 

Related: How to Fix Zoom Black Screen Issue on Windows 10

Are Zoom Apps similar to Apps in Microsoft Teams?

In a way, Zoom Apps do resemble the apps we’re familiar with in Microsoft Teams. However, unlike Microsoft Teams, Zoom is incorporating the tools directly into the video conferencing window. Teams, as you might know, has a separate space — Channels — that houses these apps, allowing you to interact with them freely. At the end of the day, both applications are doing their bit to make third-party essentials available through them, hoping to keep more users hooked to their service. 

Related: How To Add Pronouns to Zoom

Are Zoom Apps available to free users?

‘Apps’ is a newly incorporated service on Zoom, which should help the company reel in more users. And, of course, they do not want to make the free users feel left out of the new Zoom experience. So, as of now, Zoom Apps are available for both free and paid users. All you need is a free Zoom account, and you should get the option to add and use Zoom apps in meetings. 

Related: Does Zoom Notify About the Apps Installed on Your PC or Phone? 

How to get Zoom Apps

Now that you know what Zoom apps are and their purpose, let’s get down to adding them to Zoom.

Through the standard Zoom interface

Since you haven’t added any apps yet, you’ll need to go to the ‘Discover’ tab.

Zoom will launch the browser and take you to its authentication page. Enter your credentials and then authorize the app to appear in Zoom meetings.

The app would be added and appear under the ‘My Apps’ apps. 

Through the meeting window

If all goes according to plan, you would have the Zoom application available to you inside the meeting window. 

Related: 6 Ways to Update Drivers on Windows 11

How to use Zoom Apps

You can use Zoom apps in one of two ways, and we will take a look at both in this section. 

Through Apps

Now, go to the ‘My Apps’ tab.

The app sidebar would be closed immediately. 

Through Zoom meeting window

Related: Zoom Limit: Maximum Participants, Call Duration, And More

How to uninstall Zoom Apps

Zoom Apps are excellent tools to keep the meeting attendees engaged, but too many applications will not do anyone any favors. So, when you feel a little overwhelmed with the selection of applications you have at your disposal, you must find a way to uninstall the applications. Here is how you can uninstall Zoom apps without breaking a sweat. 

Through Zoom client

Now, go to the ‘My Apps’ tab.

This would take you to the Zoom Apps Marketplace on your default browser. Here, you will find all the applications you have downloaded and installed so far. On the right of the application, adjacent to the application details, you will find an ‘Uninstall’ button.

The app would be uninstalled immediately. 

Through App Marketplace

Alternatively, you could skip going through the Zoom desktop client and go straight to the installed app section of the Zoom marketplace: chúng tôi The link would take you straight to the list of applications you have installed on Zoom. On the right of an application, you’ll find the ‘Uninstall’ button.

We recommend unchecking the option.

Can you use Zoom Apps on your mobile?

As of now, Zoom Apps are not available on the mobile client. Since the whole thing revolves around simultaneous viewing, the limited screen real estate might hamper the overall user experience. Also, mobile devices aren’t yet equipped to handle the workload of third-party applications inside Zoom, but we could see some interpretation of the feature in the future. 

Why can’t you access Zoom Apps?

Zoom Apps not only allow you to be more productive, but they also open up, new, fun ways of interacting with other meeting participants. However, the newly introduced feature might not yet be available to all, mainly because of the reasons we will discuss below. 

You’re not running the latest version

If you cannot see the feature for some reason, first, make sure you are running the latest version of the Zoom application on your computer. Older versions — released before the last week of July 2023 — will not have the Apps tab at the top. 

If yes, it will be installed right away. 

The account administrator has turned off the setting

The administrator of your organization has a considerable degree of control over your Zoom account. And they can very easily restrict the access of Apps during a Zoom meeting. So, if you are already running the latest version of Zoom, it makes perfect sense to have a chat with your account administrator. Chances are, they have restricted your account from accessing the Apps section. 

What are the downsides of Zoom apps?

As we have discussed, Zoom Apps are meant to keep Zoomers occupied, to make them as efficient as possible during meetings. The new Apps can improve team bonding, aid communication, and help teams express their ideas as freely as possible. While all of these things might come off as rewarding and encouraging, the new feature may invite more Zoom fatigue. 

Since the new apps aim to give a feeling of escapism, it will not be unusual for users to spend hours on them, which could be draining, both mentally and physically. So, the best course of action would to be limit exposure and use Zoom Apps in moderation — for crucial tasks and limited interactions. For everything else, closing Zoom and doing them physically would be key. 

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What Are Apple Passkeys And How To Use Them

Are you tired of trying to keep track of all your online passwords? Or does the fear of being a victim of a phishing attack run through your head every time you log in to an application? If so, then Apple has some good news for you. Apple has eliminated the need for passwords with passkeys. In this guide, we cover what Apple passkeys are and how you can use them on a Mac, iPhone, and iPad.

What Are Apple Passkeys?

Before we dive into the anatomy of passkeys, let’s go over how traditional passwords work.

How Do Traditional Passwords Work?

When you register an account, you enter a username and password. The application’s (or website’s) server that you are logging in to stores this information. To log in to your account, you need to enter the username and password for the server to authenticate that it’s you who’s trying to gain access by matching the entered username and password with the stored credentials.

This is how we have been logging in to our accounts, and with the use of two-factor authentication, it has become quite secure. However, there are many points of failure when you log in with a password. For instance, you can be phished.

Tip: check out the best 2FA apps that will sync with multiple devices.

How Do Apple Passkeys Work?

Unlike regular passwords, where you enter a secret phrase and gain access to your accounts, passkeys do things a little differently. Instead of just having one secret phrase to log you in, passkeys require two secret phrases: one that is stored on your device and verifies your identity and another that’s stored on the application’s end that authenticates its legitimacy.

The secret key stored on your device is known as a private key, and the one stored on the application’s end is known as the public key. To log in to an application or website, your device will first check the application’s public key, and when it is verified, it will use the associated private key to authorize the sign-in.

All of this happens in the background, and you only have to verify your identity with Touch ID or Face ID. Since passkeys also verify the legitimacy of the application before using your secret key to log in, there is no chance of phishing or other hacking attempts.

Good to know: if you want to stay on top phishing and hacking attempts, you may need to change password, and maybe even your Apple ID.

Which Devices Support Passkeys?

Apple announced Passkeys for iOS 16, iPadOS 16, and macOS Ventura. If your device supports these updates, then you can use passkeys to log in. One thing to keep in mind is that passkeys are not Apple’s exclusive feature.

In fact, it was developed by the “FIDO (Fast IDentity Online) Alliance,” an open alliance of tech companies. They work to ensure that the reliance on passwords is decreased due to the threats they pose. It’s also a reason that another name for a passkey is FIDO authentication.

Google also announced that passkeys would be available in Android by the end of 2023 for developer testing. Windows will be getting support for passkey in the near future as well.

Tip: If you’re worried about your passwords in Google, learn how to use the Google password manager in Chrome.

How to Use Apple Passkeys on Your iPhone, iPad, and Mac How to Enable Passkeys on Mac

Follow these steps below to use Apple Passkeys on your Mac:

Toggle on “Keychain.”

When you enable iCloud Keychain, it may ask you to authorize with two-factor authentication. If you haven’t set up 2FA, you need to before enabling the Keychain.

How to Set Up Apple Passkeys on Mac

Apple has made the transition from old-school passwords to passkeys very seamless. It uses Autofill to type your information and Touch ID or Face ID for biometric verification. Follow the instructions below to create an Apple passkey:

Head to the website or application that supports FIDO authentication (or passkeys).

Enter your information or use Autofill to do it for you.

How to Enable Passkeys on iPhone or iPad

Before you start using passkeys to log in to applications or websites on your iPhone or iPad, you’ll need to make sure iCloud Keychain is enabled. Follow the steps below:

Open the settings app on your iPhone or iPad and scroll down to the “Passwords” menu.

Tap “Password Options.”

Make sure “Autofill Passwords” is turned on and enable “iCloud Passwords & Keychain” from the menu below.

After enabling iCloud Keychain, Apple will ask you to authorize this action with two-factor authentication. If you haven’t set up 2FA already, do that before you enable Keychain.

Good to know: Are you using an iPhone with Windows? Follow this tutorial to learn how to use your iCloud Keychain on Windows.

How to Set Up Apple Passkeys on iPhone or iPad

Whether you’re creating a new account on a site/application or upgrading a preexisting one to use a passkey, the transition is quite simple. The only catch is that the app or website needs to have official support for passkeys.

Follow these steps to create a passkey on iPhone or iPad:

Go to the application or website that supports Fido authentication (or passkeys).

Tap “Register,” “Sign in,” or “Sign up,” depending on the situation.

Enter your information or let Autofill do it for you.

After entering the information once, Apple will ask if you want to save a passkey for the site or application.

Tap “Continue” and Apple will verify this change by using Touch ID or Face ID.

FYI: did you forget your Apple Watch passcode? Learn how to reset your Apple Watch without it.

How to Recover Your Apple Passkey If You Lose Your Device

If you lose your device that has the passkey, you can use your other devices to sign in, as, again, the iCloud Keychain syncs passkeys across all Apple devices.

However, if you lose your only Apple device, you need to use the iCloud Keychain escrow to recover the passkey. iCloud Keychain escrow uses a secure infrastructure to ensure that only an authorized person recovers the lost passkey.

To recover your Apple passkey using another (or a new) Apple device (Mac, iPhone, or iPad):

Authenticate your identity by logging in to your iCloud account. If the device is not trusted, you may also receive an authentication SMS on your trusted phone number that you will have to enter before you’re logged in to your iCloud account.

Enter your device’s password.

Your passkeys will now be restored to the new device after verification.

Note that you only have 10 attempts to authenticate your identity, after which, iCloud will permanently delete the escrow and Keychain records. This security measure provides protection against a brute-force attack.

Tip: Learn how to make Safari on iOS save your passwords.

Frequently Asked Questions Can Apple read the passkeys?

Apple cannot read the passkeys, as they are stored in the iCloud Keychain. Along with being synced across all of your Apple devices, they are also end-to-end encrypted.

Are passkeys a complete replacement for all online passwords?

Even though passkeys have the potential to completely replace all online passwords, they require some serious changes from the websites and applications to create and share the public keys. However, once a website or application has added FIDO support, you can use passkeys as a sign-in option.

Image credit: Unsplash. All screenshots by Hashir Ibrahim.

Hashir Ibrahim

With over two years of in-depth experience working in technical fields, Hashir is a master content creator who loves writing about Mac and iOS at major tech publications on the internet like MakeUseOf and MakeTechEasier. Hashir spends his free time boxing and designing his business.

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What Are Twitch Drops And How To Get Them

Ubisoft recently used Twitch Drops to provide interested users access to the technical test version of the Hyper Scape game. All you needed to do get the access was watch a Twitch Stream of the game with Drops enabled, and then be lucky enough. Let’s see what Twitch Drops are and what you need to know.

What are Twitch Drops

Twitch Drops is an appropriately named rewards program that gifts players with exclusive loot simply for watching the streams of their favorite games — a pretty good way to enhance the symbiotic relationship between the developer, streamer, and player. It’s also a great way for companies to draw the community to certain streams and alert them to new happenings, releases, updates, etc.

Twitch Drops can reward players with literally anything. It is entirely up to the developer. It might be skins, in-game items, currency, boosts — or something completely different, like an opportunity to take part in special, limited-time activities.

Types of Twitch Drops

Generally, the system is time-based, with viewers being rewarded either randomly or for watching official streams for a certain amount of time. There are also the occasional “Mission Drops” in which all eligible players viewing the stream are rewarded when the streamer completes a certain in-game task — a pretty cool way to passively participate by rooting for your streamer to win you some freebies.

How To Get Twitch Drops

This is a two-part process that involved first linking your Twitch account to the game developer’s account and then watching a channel with drips enabled.

Link your Account with Twitch

First, ensure your Twitch Account is linked with your in-game account, so the game has an idea of where to send your Twitch Drops. Do this by heading over to the developer’s site, and looking for a Linked Account options under your account settings. It might look something like this:

Simply log in with your twitch credentials to join your two accounts, and head back over to Twitch.

Find a Channel with Twitch Drops

Make sure they’re actually dropping. You will see a notification over the game in the directory as well as the channel itself, beneath the video, while viewing.

Just because the developer has Twitch Drops enabled, doesn’t mean every streamer or every viewer is eligible for the program. If Drops have only been enabled for specific streamers, it may not show in the directory or game pages, you will have to check individual streams.

The channel page itself will have a prompt beneath the Channel name for enabling Twitch Drops, and will often be tagged with Drops Enabled and have Drops in the title.

If you’re in a geo-restricted location, it may help to use a VPN in order to become eligible for drops.

It should be noted that you cannot gain extra drop-time by watching multiple drop-enable channels simultaneously — with your in-game account linked to your Twitch, the view-time remains synchronized and does not stack. Though it should be possible to use separate accounts to produce a greater yield of prizes, it depends entirely on the nature of the Twitch Drops in-game as to how much utility this tactic may provide — some developers justifiably prevent the in-game transfer of Twitch Drop rewards.

Games with Twitch Drops

Here is a list of games that are offering Twitch Drops right now, or very or recently.

Call of Duty

Call of Duty is running a Twitch Drops campaign from July 9th to July 16th that includes a free gun as one of its rewards. Players need only watch a drops-enabled Call of Duty channel streaming either Multiplayer or Warzone with a Twitch-linked Call of Duty account. The rewards are for 1, 2 and 3 hours and are a Censory Overload spray, Love the Bomb emblem, and a Bloodstream AR weapon blueprint respectively.

Recent Twitch Drops Campaigns

Hyper Scape

Update [July 11, 2023]: Not anymore. The program ended on July 7th.

Ubisoft’s brand new, sci-fi Battle Royale shooter is currently releasing Twitch Drops for its live Technical Test. Not every streamer has Twitch Drops enabled on their stream, so make sure to check the Channel’s title or use the list of official streamers at the bottom of Hyper Scape’s Tech Test announcement page.

One of the available prizes is the opportunity for players to participate in the tech test themselves and get a hands-on experience pre-release — a stellar reward for anyone interested enough to be watching the stream or anyone curious enough to get a feel for Ubisoft’s answer to Apex Legends.

The Tech Test is running from July 2nd to July 7th, and will feature the game’s squad-based Crown Rush game mode. No word yet on their solo-queue Dark Haze mode which features the trademark royale structure but with major limitations on sight.

Hunt: Showdown

Hunt: Showdown is an absolutely terrifying and ingenious mix of PvP and PvE elements from Crytek, the developers behind Crysis, that has players hunting down a bounty boss on a map and doing their best to escape with the prize before being themselves hunted by other players.

Currently, the game has a Twitch Drops Campaign running until July 6th in which players can win in-game currency, tools, and exclusive weapons and Hunters by watching the stream. Players can check the announcement page for a list of official streamers.

Other recent games that had Twitch Drops enabled:

World of Tanks held a one day trial of the Twitch Drops program for their Tankfest 2023 event, giving players a variety of loot and even some premium in-game tanks.

Ubisoft’s 19th-century strategy game held a Twitch Drops campaign in which players were given the chance to win a pair of in-game ornaments.

Following the success of their Valorant Drops campaign, Riot is giving the Twitch audience a chance to win prizes during the 2023 Summer Split. There is no time limit; Viewers need only watch matches during the LCS and LEC to witness epic plays and game-changing moments like a delicious pentakill to be eligible for Hextech keys, Hextech chests, and other prizes. The Summer Split will conclude with the finals on September 13th.

To celebrate the game’s launch on Steam, Sea of Thieves offered players free in-game loot for watching streams for a minimum of 30 minutes, as well as Mission-Drops when streamers completed their Daily Bounties.

The seaborne cousin to World of Tanks, World of Warships, reached 100k followers on its official Twitch channel, and in order to celebrate held a special stream in which viewers were eligible to receive a Supercontainer prize.

Escape From Tarkov ran an extensive Drops campaign mid-june which gave stream-viewers a variety of in-game equipment.

The Hunt: Showdown drops campaign overlapped with Hyper Scape’s technical tests before ending on 6th June. Exclusive legendary heroes and weapons were available during the now-closed event.

The super-hyped Valorant closed beta ended on May 28th, and with it the Twitch Drops program that gave players a chance to participate in the beta before release. 

During the Rainbow Six: Siege European Open Clash event, Twitch drops were enabled from 20 may to 8 June and included a variety of apparel and weapon skin rewards.

And there you go! If you’re hyped for the Hyper Scape’s beta test or a huge fan of Hunt; Showdown’s white-knuckled survival horror, you know what you gotta do in order to get some exclusive rewards out of the Twitch Drop program! What are you waiting for?

Related:

What Are Runtime Errors? Their Causes And How To Fix Them?

A Runtime Error is an error that occurs at the time of running or executing a program. When this error occurs, the program may hang or crash displaying an error message. There are many reasons for a runtime error, like when the program enters an infinite loop, it triggers the runtime error. Sometimes, it also occurs due to the user’s fault. For example, a program requires a numerical value to process the result, but if the user enters any value other than the required one, say, alphabetic character, the program may show a runtime error.

Why and when do runtime errors occur?

There are many reasons for which the users get runtime errors on their computers. We will describe the most significant reasons here:

Memory leak.

Programming errors.

Incomplete installation.

Corrupt registry.

1] Memory leak

A memory leak is the most common cause of a runtime error on a Windows computer. It occurs when a program incorrectly manages the memory allocations, such as consuming more RAM without freeing it. A memory leak also occurs when the running code cannot access an object stored in the memory.

2] Programming errors

Programming errors also cause runtime errors. When a software is in the development phase, runtime errors can be found during the debugging process so that the developer can correct them before it is being released. But if any bug is left in the software by mistake, it can cause runtime errors. In such a case, the runtime errors can only be solved by downloading the update patches from the developer’s website.

Fix: AppModel Runtime Errors 57, 87, 490, etc.

3] Incomplete installation

Sometimes when a user is installing a program, the installer quits abruptly. There are many reasons for this interruption like power failure, system hangs, etc. This results in incomplete installation which may cause runtime errors on the system.

Fix: AppModel Runtime Errors 65, 69, and 79.

4] Corrupt registry

A corrupted or damaged registry can cause programs to malfunction due to which you may get a runtime error. There are many causes for the registry damage. One of the main reasons is a manual change in the registry. Hence, you should be careful while editing the registry keys. Backing up the registry before making any change to it is always be the best practice.

Read: Fix NVIDIA GeForce Experience C++ Runtime Error.

How to fix a Runtime Error on Windows 11/10

Because there are many different runtime errors, the method to fix them is not the same. We are listing here some general methods that may help you solve most of the runtime errors.

Install the latest Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable package.

Run DISM command and SFC scan.

Troubleshoot in Clean Boot State.

1] Install the latest Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable package

Some users have reported that they have started getting runtime errors after updating Windows 11/10. The error message that they received is:

Microsoft Visual C++ Runtime Library

Runtime Error!

Program: C:Users….

This application has requested the Runtime to terminate it in an unusual way.

Please contact the application’s support team for more information.

According to the users, the popup window showing the error message arrives every time they turn ON their computer and comes back again if they close the window. Such a runtime error occurs due to a software problem or when the runtime components of the Visual C++ libraries are missing.

In such a condition, installing the latest Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable package after uninstalling the existing one may help. Follow the below-listed steps:

Launch Control Panel and go to “Programs and Features.”

Scroll down the list to find Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable.

Now, download the latest Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable Package from the Microsoft official website.

Install it and restart your computer.

This works in most cases.

Read: Fix Runtime Error 217.

2] Run DISM command and SFC scan

System File Checker (SFC) tool is used to scan and repair the corrupted files, whereas, DISM (Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool) is used to repair the corrupted Windows system image files. Running these tools will help you fix the runtime errors.

To run System File Checker, execute the following command in an elevated CMD:

sfc /scannow

To run DISM, open Command Prompt as an administrator and type the following command and press Enter.

DISM.exe /Online /Cleanup-image /Restorehealth

The DISM tool uses Windows update to fix the corrupted files.

Read: Fix Runtime Error 1004 in Excel.

3] Troubleshoot in Clean Boot State

Sometimes a third-party program may be the culprit. In this case, performing a clean boot may help troubleshoot the problem.

Clean Boot will help you identify if there is a third-party or startup application on your system that is causing the runtime error.

Hope this post guides you in the right direction.

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Rollercoasters Are Stressful And That’s Why You Like Them

How come we put ourselves through it? I-ing/Shutterstock

Today theme parks are big business. But with queues occasionally as long as eight hours for an average ride of under two minutes—not to mention reports of riders suffering strokes, brain deformation, and serious injury due to crashes—how come we put ourselves through it? What is it about roller coasters that some love so much, and is it an experience we tend to like less as we get older?

Enjoying roller coasters is linked to sensation seeking—the tendency to enjoy varied, novel, and intense physical experiences such as rock climbing and parachute jumping. But what sensation do roller coasters provide that is so alluring? At first glance, it may seem to be down to the experience of speed. But the evidence for linking sensation seeking to speed is not compelling. For example, when it comes to driving at speeds above the legal limit, many people do it, not just sensation seekers.

Perhaps the draw of roller coasters is the enjoyment of the visceral sensation of fear itself, much like watching a horror movie. Physical signs of fear such as a pounding heart, faster breathing, and an energy boost caused by the release of glucose are known collectively as the “fight or flight response.” We know that a roller coaster ride is likely to trigger this response thanks to researchers who measured the heart rates of riders on the double-corkscrew Coca Cola Roller in 1980s Glasgow. Heartbeats per minute more than doubled from an average 70 beforehand to 153 shortly after the ride had begun. Some older riders got uncomfortably close to what would be deemed medically unsafe for their age.

In another adrenalin-boosting pastime, novice bungee jumpers not only reported increased feelings of well-being, wakefulness, and euphoria just after completing a jump, they also had raised levels of endorphins in the blood, well known to produce feelings of intense pleasure. Interestingly, the higher the levels of endorphins that were present, the more euphoric the jumper reported feeling. Here, then, is clear evidence that people enjoy the sensations that accompany the fight or flight response within a non-threatening environment.

Good vs. bad stress

And yet, paradoxically, these bungee jumpers also showed increased levels of the hormone cortisol, known to increase when people experience stress. How, then, can a person simultaneously experience stress and pleasure? The answer is that not all stress is bad. Eustress—from the Greek “eu,” meaning good, as in euphoria—is a positive kind of stress that people actively seek out.

And so, in the name of science, some asthmatic student volunteers were transported to a theme park and rode a roller coaster while their respiratory function was checked. The research findings were remarkable. While lung function predictably reduced from the screaming and general upheaval, so did the feeling of shortness of breath. This suggests that thrill seekers riding roller coasters perceive the experience as stressful in a positive way.

The role of dopamine

But roller coasters are not everybody’s cup of tea. Could differences in brain chemistry explain sensation seeking behaviors? The experiment with bungee jumpers suggest that people with higher levels of endorphins feel higher levels of euphoria. But there is no evidence that resting levels of endorphins might explain sensation seeking, they are more likely a response to the thrill than a predictor of whether we enjoy it.

A recent review instead looked at the role of dopamine, another chemical messenger substance in the brain that is important in the functioning of neurological reward pathways. The review found that individuals who happen to have higher levels of dopamine also score more highly on measures of sensation seeking behaviour. While this is a correlation rather than a causation, another study found that taking a substance called haloperidol, which disrupts dopamine’s effects within the brain, led to a measurable decrease in sensation seeking behaviour.

This line of research sets out the intriguing possibility that enjoyment of intense physical experiences such as riding on roller coasters may reflect individual differences in brain chemistry. People who have higher levels of dopamine may be more prone to a number of sensation seeking behaviors, ranging from harmless roller coaster rides to taking drugs or even shoplifting.

Love it or hate it? Jacob Lund/Shutterstock

The question as to whether roller coaster riding still appeals as we get older has not been researched directly, but a recent survey looked at how keen people of different ages were on thrill-seeking holidays such as rock climbing trips. It showed that interest in these kinds of holidays peaks in early adulthood, declining with each passing decade. This indicates that older adults are less inclined to participate in activities similar to riding roller coasters. Perhaps experiencing one’s heart rate spiking dangerously close to medically accepted risk levels is not such a draw for the over 50s.

Though hard to pin down, people enjoy roller coasters thanks to a combination of speed, conquering fear, and the positive effects associated with a massive rise in physiological arousal. A roller coaster ride is a legal, generally safe, and relatively cheap means of experiencing a natural high. Understandably, people have been happy to pay money in exchange for doing it for centuries, and there is no sign of any waning in the appreciation of a bit of eustress.

Richard Stephens is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Keele University. This article was originally featured on The Conversation.

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