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Remember those old sea monkey kits, with the pictures that made it look like you could raise tiny mermen in a fish tank? My parents never bought me one (despite my best efforts), but apparently a lot of kids were severely disappointed when their freeze-dried eggs hatched and looked like this instead:

This Is What Sea Monkeys Actually Look Like.

Well, it turns out that we may have dramatically underestimated the sea monkey (a.k.a. “brine shrimp”). According to a new study, the movement of sea monkeys and other small sea creatures could influence ocean circulation patterns on a global scale—to an extent that rivals the wind and the Moon.

Sea monkeys travel in large groups, and their movements are dictated by the Sun. During the nighttime, they come closer to the water’s surface, and in the daytime they swim deeper. Knowing that, researchers from CalTech used laser lights to manipulate the movements of sea monkeys in a tank, and recorded their motion. As the shrimp swam, microscopic silver-coated glass spheres in the water helped high-speed video cameras capture the water movements. Check out the video below:

Each individual shrimp only generates the tiniest of currents, but when many shrimp swim in tandem, they generate a current that’s stronger than the sum of those created by each individual. “When a bit of water is pushed by one animal, that water moves downward by a small amount and then stops moving,” study author John Dabiri explains to Popular Science. “If two animals are swimming close to one another, the downward ‘push’ they give to the water is more than what would happen if a single animal pushed the water twice.” And when a larger group moves together, he says, they produce strong downward jets with swirling currents on the side.

Here’s another video, just because it’s so flippin’ cool. In this one, the colors indicate particle velocity.

Though the experiment took place in a fish tank, the researchers think that the collective action could be powerful enough to influence broad circulation patterns. And if other small sea creatures influence water flow in similar ways, it could mean that together they add a trillion watts of power to the ocean’s currents. That means that even the most minuscule organisms could drive the distribution of salt, nutrients and heat throughout the oceans, and they may even influence climate.

The study was published in Physics of Fluids.

Sea Monkey Swirls.

This timelapse image shows the circulation patterns as the sea monkeys (white) move through the water and glass particles (yellow).

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How Guest Blogging Is Getting Huge

Guest blogging has been around for quite some time: plenty of blogs have been inviting contributions from outside for ages. On the other hand, it has always been a great way to expose your brand to a wide audience and win new followers and contacts via providing great content.

The win-win concept behind guest blogging has made the tactic highly popular (this was the main reason I decided to build My Blog Guest by the way).

Recently, the phenomenon has grown by leaps and bounds: the hugest brands and resources are in the game and here’s why:

1. Guest Blogging Means Getting Heard

Top blogs and online magazines feature guest posts regularly because the insight provided by the guest poster is priceless.

Examples:

TechCrunch features guest posts several times a week: these are usually marketing case studies or success stories or personal stories (e.g. My Life As A CEO (And VC): Chief Psychologist and Guest Post: Could Tiny Somaliland Become the First Cashless Society?)

2. Guest Blogging Means Better Chances to Win Social Media

You can spend months on developing your own blog and trying to get more attention to it but never see any of your thoroughly-created top-notch stories hit the front page of Digg or generate more than 50 Tweets.

Or you can spend a day writing a great story in the area of your expertise, pitch it to a “social-media friendly” blog and here you go: thousands of votes, thumb-ups and tweets.

Guest blogging is the best “indirect” way to reach thousands of social media users:

3. Guest Blogging Means Direct Conversation with Your Customers

Do you want your customers to think you are “cool”? – Talk to them using their favorite (and well-respected) platform. People tend to trust and look up to the blogger they follow. Guest blogging is one of the best ways to “redirect” this trust to your brand by using the blog to publish your guest posts.

Guest blogging provides brands with a great opportunity to start an open dialog with customers.

So what’s your guest blogging strategy?

Sea Of Thieves Tips And Tricks

After playing Sea of Thieves for a couple of days, It’s pretty interesting to learn things that can shape how you play the game. I had played with 4 crew, 2 crew, and even solo to understand how things are managed. In this post, I am sharing my bit of experience that should help you as well.

Sea of Thieves Tips and Tricks

Before you set sail, Stock up! If you have read out the guide to getting started with Sea of Thieves, you already know where I am pointing you to.  Planks, Bananas, and Canon Balls are three important resources you will need every time. Every Player has the capacity to carry a few of them, and so every time you start, first move around the outpost to pick whatever number is possible for you. Eventually, you will have to make it a habit to keep collecting them.

Keep collecting these resources, especially bananas, from every island you visit.

On the ship, you will have barrels. Go to them, and you can store if they are not full.

Make sure to keep planks, and bananas always with you.  This is very handy when your ship is hit or you get badly hurt in the battle.

How to Sail the Ship!

There are three major parts of the ship. The Sail, Anchor and the Compass. When it comes to bigger ships, you have three sails, and for smaller ones, you have just one. So, it is easy to understand the difficulty of managing them, and you will need at least one two people managing those three sails all the time.

When you look at the sky, there are curvy white lines moving around. These are winds, and they give you a clear sense of their direction. Depending on how far you want to go, angle and deploy the length of your sales before pulling up the anchor.

Anchors can be dropped or pulled up.  Dropping part is easy, it takes a second, so always make sure whoever is navigating, has one person on the anchor when it’s time. Pulling up the anchor takes more time.

Use the Anchor to take a steep turn. This is my favorite thing to do whenever I feel like taking a steep U-turn or when I want to skip some cannonballs. When your helm is set for the turn, you drop the anchor and feel the torque.

To figure out if the Helm is at the central position, wait for the vibration when you are steering it.

You will have to estimate Ship’s speed based on its size. Smaller ships are faster because the drag doesn’t hit them that much compared to larger ships. However, larger ships sail much faster compared to smaller ones with the wind.

Make sure one person or yourself (when sailing alone) keep a check on the direction by looking at the map table. Especially in storms when the compass on the Helm doesn’t work, the table map is the only way out. You can always use LEFT and RIGHT in that case.

Never anchor your ship in case of a Storm. You will end up getting your ship flooded. Make sure to keep getting water thrown out during these times.

Learn how to change & buy weapons in Sea of Thieves

You have two weapons when you start. One is the trusty cutlass, and the second is the flintlock pistol. I only realized later that you could choose different weapons from the “Armory” cabinet. It’s located on the ship on the first level. and can also be found on islands here, and there, but the Ship is probably the best place to do it. It also acts as storage to choose from all the weapons you buy from the Outpost.

There are two more weapons in the armory. A short-range canon, which is just like a shotgun, and a long ranged rifle. While you can swap them, I would suggest having the sword all the time with you and switching to the short-range canon, also called “Blunderbuss. Follow the steps:

Navigate to an Armory cabinet that is on the ship, and press X to open the Armory.

You can navigate between the weapon categories using  LB and RB.

Press A to equip a weapon and then select the slot or weapon to replace.

Leveling up for Legendary Quests:

Quests are the sole of Sea of Thieves. Everything else is cosmetic and changes. As you complete more voyages, you level up based on the type of quests. There are three types of level-up. The first is for Gold Quests, the second is for Merchant-based quests, and the last one is for Order of Souls. As you level up, you can buy more rewarding quests. So focus on it.

I am guessing Rare, will bring more updates to the game, so till then, concentrate on leveling up, and completing more voyages.

Selling Chests Safely:

The chests you collect can be taken by another pirate if he is not in the crew. Many a time, I have seen a few ships around and then attack you to grab all the chest and treasure you collect. You have to be very careful about it. There are two ways of doing this.

First, every time you collect a chest, get back to the outpost quickly and sell it. Make sure there is no other ship parked, if yes, be careful, and use water to get to the gold merchant.

Second, you can keep a couple of quests handy, and if the islands are nearby on the new map, complete them while on the go. This is efficient, but the risks are a little higher. Your experience will come in handy.

Battling the Ships:

It happens from time to time – but you have to decide based on your ship size and your skill. Small ships can escape faster and take steep turns. While Bigger ships have more firepower and more crew members. You can always engage for fun; you have nothing to lose except for the chest, choose wisely!

Everything else:

You can refill your gun by going back to the Armory box every time you run out of bullets.  Guns are the easiest way to take out an enemy, but they are limited as well. So make sure to refill.

If you are accidentally left by your crew mate or you fell off the ship, you will see a creepy-looking mermaid in the seawater. Just go to her, and she will get you back to the ship.

Many don’t realize, but you have access to compass, and spyglass to find your direction and spot an enemy. You will often forget where your ship is, and using a compass helps.

Learn to use Charge attack using the right trigger. It’s useful when you need to take down the captains, and If you ever face an annoying crew mate, Lock him Down. Find this option in the menu. Crew members will have to vote.

Read: Fix Sea of Thieves Problems, Issues and Beard Error Codes.

How To Format External Hard Drive Or Usb Drive Using Windows Powershell

If you have an external hard drive or USB drive that you cannot format from File Explorer, you can check out this guide. It will help you to format the external hard drive or USB drive using Windows PowerShell. As you might already know that Windows PowerShell is an in-built tool, you do not need to install any third-party software.

Windows users can easily format an internal hard drive, external HDD or SSD, USB drive, etc. with the help of the in-built option. This option can be found in This PC or My Computer. Sometimes, this specific functionality can be a mess because of the corrupted hard drive or file, and you may not be able to format the drive. At such a moment, you have some other options. For example, you can use the Disk Management panel, Command Prompt, etc. to get the job done. Likewise, you can use Windows PowerShell to delete and create partitions, change the File system, etc. of your USB drive or hard drive.

Read: How to delete or format C drive using Command Prompt.

What can you do using Windows PowerShell?

You can change the following things of an external hard drive or USB drive-

Format the hard drive

Change File system

Create partition

Change drive letter

Format External Hard Drive using PowerShell

To format the external hard drive or USB drive using Windows PowerShell, follow these steps-

Plugin the USB or external hard drive to your computer

Open Windows PowerShell with admin privilege

Recognize the drive that you want to delete

Enter the command.

First, you need to plug in your external hard drive or pen drive so that your computer can do the job. After that, you need to open the Windows PowerShell with administrator privilege. For that, press Win+X, and select Windows PowerShell (Admin).

Now you need to identify the disk that you want to format. For that, enter the following command-

Get-Disk

You should find the name of your external hard drive in the Friendly Name column. Also, you need to note down the number of the hard disk.

To initiate the process, enter this command-

Clear-Disk -Number 2 -RemoveData

You need to replace the number 2 with the original number that is assigned to your drive. In this example, we want to format the Sony Storage Media (check the above screenshot), which is carrying the number 2. It might be different if your external hard drive is showing a different number.

Now you should get a confirmation message. Type Y and hit the Enter button.

It should take a couple of seconds to complete the process. Now, you need to enter the following command-

New-Partition -DiskNumber 2 -UseMaximumSize -IsActive -DriveLetter Z

It will help you create a partition. Also, there are two things you should know about this command. First, the number 2 represents the drive that you formatted earlier. Second, the Z represents the drive letter that will be assigned to the external hard drive or USB drive.

After entering that command, a popup will appear to format your disk. You can use that popup window option, or you can use the following command-

Format-Volume -DriveLetter Z -FileSystem FAT32 -NewFileSystemLabel USB

Here is one crucial thing that you should know. If you want to format the drive in the FAT32 file system, you need to choose that in the command. However, if you’re going to use the NTFS file system, the same command should look like this-

Format-Volume -DriveLetter Z -FileSystem NTFS -NewFileSystemLabel USB

If you choose NTFS, it might take a couple of more seconds than FAT32.

After entering the last command, you will be able to use the external hard drive or USB drive regularly.

You can format USB Pen Drive using Command Prompt as well.

How To Share Icloud Drive Files

You can share iCloud Drive files with other people to either give them basic access to the document, or to allow them to collaborate and edit the document. This sharing can be initiated via your iPhone, iPad, Mac, or even from chúng tôi using any web browser.

Also worth noting is that the person you share the file with will have to have an Apple ID. If the person is opening the file on iPhone, iPad, or Mac, the file will be downloaded locally in their iCloud Drive. If the person is accessing the file from the web, they will first have to login to chúng tôi to retrieve the file

How to share documents in iCloud Drive on iPhone and iPad

The following screenshots were taken on an iPhone, but the steps are identical on iPad.

1) Look for the document you want to share in the iCloud Drive app on your iPhone or iPad.

2) Tap the Select button, then tap on the document you want to share to select it.

3) Tap on the arrow-up icon, then select Add People from the sharing options.

4) Choose how you want to share this document. For this tutorial, we will share the document by email. You can also adjust the Share Options, aka permissions, during this step, but we will look more into this below.

5) Fill in the email address of the recipient, and tap Send. The person you are sharing this will receive a link from which they can access the document.

6) If you need to share with more people at some point, simply follow steps 1 to 3 above, then select Add People.

How to edit permissions of shared iCloud Drive documents on iPhone and iPad

By default, iCloud Drive documents are set to be accessed by only people you invite, and these people can also make changes to the documents. You can change these permissions.

1) Follow steps 1 to 3 from the section above. You will see people you are sharing the document with. From there you can change permissions for each individual, or for everyone you’re sharing with.

2) To change permissions for one individual, select this person and select either View only or Can make changes.

3) To change general file permissions, tap on Share Options then select from the options available for who can access (only people you invite, or anyone with the link), and file permission (Can make changes, or View only).

How to stop sharing iCloud Drive files on iPhone and iPad

You can choose to stop sharing a file with one specific person or everybody you’re sharing with at once.

1) Follow steps 1 to 3 from the first section of this tutorial titled “How to share document in iCloud Drive on iPhone and iPad.”

2) To stop sharing with one specific person, select this person, then select Remove Access, then confirm you want to cut off access to this document for this person. Repeat this process for as many people as you want to remove access.

3) To stop sharing with everyone you’ve shared the document with, simply select Stop Sharing, and confirm your decision.

How to share documents in iCloud Drive on Mac

3) Select how you want to invite people to share this document. We will choose to share via email. At this point, you can also adjust sharing permissions, which we will look at in the section below.

4) Enter the recipient of the document and send the email. The person will receive an email with a link to the document.

How to edit permissions of shared iCloud Drive documents on Mac

By default, your Mac will make any document you share via iCloud Drive accessible to only people you invite, and these people can also make changes to the documents. You can edit this either before sharing the document, or after the document has been shared. Assuming you haven’t changed permissions before sharing, here is how you can change them after the file has been shared.

How to stop sharing iCloud Drive files on Mac

You can choose to revoke access to one specific person or to everybody you are currently sharing the document with.

1) Follow steps 1 and 2 from above.

1) Log in to chúng tôi using your Apple ID, then go to the iCloud Drive app and select the file you want to share.

4) Type in the name or email address of the recipient, then hit Send. The person will receive the invitation and will then be able to access the document.

File permission can be set before sharing or after sharing a document. If you haven’t selected a file permission before, here is how you can adjust it.

1) Login to chúng tôi using your Apple ID, then go to the iCloud Drive app and select the file you want to share.

4) To adjust sharing options for everybody except you, select Share Options, then choose who can access the document and what kind of editing permission they have.

As the document owner, you have the power to revoke access to one specific person, or to everybody who can currently access the file.

1) Follow steps 1 and 2 from above.

Inventing Lager Was A Huge Mistake

Beer is more than one of humanity’s most beloved beverages—it’s also one of its oldest. Recent archaeological discoveries date it back 13,000 years ago in the eastern Mediterranean. It was once considered so sacred that only women could brew it–until witchcraft accusations stopped that in its tracks. 

[Related: Ancient poop proves that humans have always loved beer and cheese.]

The origins of our favorite types of beers are also starting to come into focus with a fun combination of history and science. A study published April 27 in the journal FEMS Yeast Research reveals a possible origin story for lager beer, a light type of beer produced by bottom-fermenting yeast. It can be pale, dark, or amber in color and pairs well with shellfish, grilled pork, and spicy foods among others.

The research team used historical records, in tandem with evolution and genomics research, and believe that lager likely originated at the court brewery–or Hofbräuhaus–of Maximilian I, the elector of Bavaria.

Lager surpassed ale as the most common beer produced around the turn of the 20th century and over 150 billion liters of lager beer are sold annually around the world. However, the shift from ale to lager started centuries before when a new yeast species Saccharomyces pastorianus or “lager yeast,” popped up in Germany around the end of the Middle Ages. The new yeast was a hybrid species that was the product of mating of top-fermenting ale yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus around the beginning of the 17th century. 

“Lager is a beer brewed at low temperatures using yeast that are described as bottom-fermenting,” study author and University of Cork microbiologist John Morrissey wrote in The Conversation. “Yeast are single-celled fungi used in brewing to convert maltose to alcohol and carbon dioxide, giving beer its booziness and fizz. They are either top- or bottom-fermenting.”

S. pastorianus is a bottom-fermenting lager yeast, and its origins have been “shrouded in mystery and controversy,” according to Morrissey. The assumption was that the hybrid yeast arose when traditional ale fermentation became contaminated with wild yeasts. However, the team on this study doubted this historic assumption, and used detailed analysis of Central European historical brewing records to dig in more. They discovered that “lager-style” bottom fermentation was actually happening in Bavaria 200 years before the hybrid S. pastorianus yeast was born.

The team believes that it was actually the top-fermenting ale yeast S. cerevisiae that contaminated a batch of beer brewed with the cold-tolerant S. eubayanus. They believe that the source of the contaminating yeast was a wheat brewery in the small Bavarian town of Schwarzach.

[Related: The key to tastier beer might be mutant yeast—with notes of banana.]

“Bottom fermentation originated in northern Bavaria. Not only was it common practice in this part of Germany, but the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot brewing regulations of 1516 only permitted bottom fermentation. Thus, from at least the 16th century onwards, Bavarian brown beer was produced by mixtures of different bottom-fermenting yeast species known as stellhefen,” wrote Morrissey.

However, in neighboring Bohemia, excellent wheat beer made with S. cerevisiae was made in huge quantities and imported into Bavaria. To limit the blow to the economy from these imports, Bavarian ruler Wilhelm IV gave Baron Hans VI von Degenberg a special privilege to brew and sell wheat beer in the border regions to Bohemia in 1548.

Maximilian I eventually took power in 1602, and he seized the wheat beer privilege himself and took over the von Degenbergs’ Schwarzach breweries. The team believes that it was in October 1602 that the yeast from the wheat brewery was brought to the court brewery in Munich where the hybridization took place and lager yeast S. pastorianus was born.

“This theory is consistent with published genetic evidence showing that the S. cerevisiae parent of S. pastorianus was closer to ones used to brew wheat beer than strains used for barley-based ale,” wrote Morrissey.

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