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Gone are the days of manually recording and managing human resources data. HR software solutions can help businesses digitize and streamline their HR processes. In fact, a report by Grand View Research said the growing HR software market was expected to exceed $10 billion by 2023. 

If your business hasn’t yet implemented HR software, read on to learn what HR management software is and which problems it can solve, and get an overview of the top HR management systems available.

What is HR management software?

You may have heard the terms “human resource management system” (HRMS), “human resources information system” (HRIS) and “human capital management” (HCM). While they vary slightly, HCM, HRIS and HRMS are the same general concept: managing human resources via software. 

Instead of keeping manual HR information records, HR software lets you digitally store and manage core HR functions, such as staffing and onboarding, payroll and benefits administration, workforce management, employee training and development, performance management, and legal risk and compliance.

Bottom Line

HR management software, also known simply as HR software, streamlines HR functions like payroll, employee benefits administration, training and development, performance management, and HR compliance challenges.

What are the HR management system types?

There are several different types of HR software. While some HR systems serve one primary function, others are comprehensive and include a combination of services. 

Here are some of the most common HR management system types and the primary services they include.

1. Recruiting, hiring and onboarding

Some HR platforms can help you find, vet and integrate new employees. These are some such HR platforms:

Recruitment software

Applicant tracking software

Background check software and services

Onboarding and offboarding software


The top background check services protect your business by revealing critical information about a candidate’s criminal history, identity, employment and education history, credit score, and more.

2. Employee compensation

HR software can help you track how many hours your employees work and compensate them accordingly. Here are some examples of these HR platforms:

Employee scheduling software

Time and attendance software

Benefits administration software

Payroll software and services

3. Workforce management

Different types of HR software can help you manage your overall workforce. You can record important HR documents, track employee performance and improve employee engagement. These are some HR platforms like this:

Employee monitoring software

Performance management software

Employee engagement software

HR software

Which problems does HR management software solve?

HR management systems solve a plethora of HR issues. However, some are better than others, depending on your organization’s needs. 

Before choosing an HR solution, determine which of the following functions your HR software should accommodate:

Recruiting and onboarding

Workforce management

Employee compensation

Employee development

Performance management

Legal compliance

Recruiting and onboarding

Finding the right employees can be crucial to your success, but finding and attracting top talent can be a struggle for many businesses, especially those that haven’t hired an HR manager trained in recruiting and onboarding. 

HR software can be a game-changer when you’re recruiting new employees, allowing you to cast a wider (or more targeted) net to find qualified candidates. More businesses are using HR software in recruitment: A survey by PwC found that 58% of businesses use HR technology to find, attract and retain talent.

HR software lets you track applicants throughout the hiring process to ensure they move swiftly through the funnel before they get swooped up by the competition.

Some software and services allow you to conduct background screening by running pre-employment background checks on candidates to ensure they’re appropriately vetted for the job. 

Once a candidate is cleared, you can use HR software to onboard them successfully. The best HR software can digitize documents that candidates can e-sign and store for reference and compliance reasons.

Did You Know?

A bad hire can cost your business 30% of the employee’s first-year earnings, according to the U.S. Department of Labor.

Workforce management

If you want your business to be as efficient as possible, you’ll need to manage your workforce strategically. HR software provides data and features to help you with efficient workforce management. 

For example, you can manage employee schedules to ensure you have the correct number of people working at a specific time. Proper staffing can ensure that your employees aren’t overworked and customers receive proper attention. Similarly, HR software can help with resource allocation.

Employee compensation

Employee compensation management is one of HR’s most important responsibilities, and various HR software options can help. For example, you can use time and attendance software to track how many hours each employee works, the locations where they’re clocking in and out, and how much time they spend on specific projects or jobs. You can also track and manage time-off requests. These features can help you comply with critical labor laws.

HR software can also help you process payroll, file payroll taxes, report new hires to the state, track and manage PTO accruals, and compensate your employees. Some HR solutions also offer employee benefits administration that integrates with your payroll so that each employee is compensated appropriately. 

An all-in-one HR solution, or multiple solutions that integrate, is a great way to ensure your employees receive their total compensation on time.


There may be mandatory sick leave laws in your state, and HR software with compensation management features can help you comply with these laws.

Employee development

Employee development has become a key driver for many job candidates when accepting a new position. A defined employee development process helps you attract and retain top talent while improving your bottom line. With a team of highly skilled employees in place, your organization produces better work all around. 

HR software can help you provide professional development opportunities to your workers, often through e-learning platforms. Although some companies offer in-person training, online courses and workshops have become a popular way to upskill and educate employees. Giving your employees a clear path to their future can help increase employee engagement and satisfaction.

Performance management

In addition to offering employee development opportunities, HR software can help you manage employee performance. For example, employee monitoring software allows you to track when and where your employees are working and how productive they are when they’re on the clock. 

The best software compiles a vast amount of employee data that can be used to create a good employee performance process. You can identify your most efficient workers and reward them accordingly. You can also see who might be reaching burnout or who needs a little extra handholding.


If you notice that an employee is struggling to meet their goals, consider putting them on a performance improvement plan.

Legal compliance

Maintaining compliance with every federal, state and industry law and regulation can be challenging, especially for small businesses. However, HR software can help you maintain legal compliance by streamlining several HR processes. For example, it can store mandatory HR documents, maintain accurate time-tracking metrics in line with pay laws and manage payroll in compliance with tax laws.

Employees can often use HR software to access necessary training, including sexual harassment prevention training. Some HR software providers can also offer HR guidance to help you in your compliance with labor and employment laws, like COBRA compliance and OSHA compliance.

What are the best HR management systems?

There are many HR management software solutions, each with its own features, benefits and limitations. Some systems are more general, while others can be customized for specific businesses or industries. 

We researched and analyzed various HR systems to identify the top solutions. Here are some of our favorite options.

CompanyDescriptionWorkableBest recruitment software for small businessesBambooHRBest applicant tracking and performance management software (read our BambooHR review to learn more)GoodHireBest background check platform BerniePortalBest HR software for employee onboardingQuickBooks TimeBest time and attendance software for mobile workforces (read our QuickBooks Time review for more information)When I WorkBest time and attendance software for restaurants and retail (read our When I Work review for more information)GustoBest HR software for payroll (read our review of Gusto to learn more)InterGuardBest employee monitoring software for remote workforces (read our InterGuard review to learn more)ActivTrakBest employee monitoring software for workforce analytics (read our ActivTrak review to learn more)Paychex FlexBest HR software for remote teams (read our review of Paychex Flex to learn more)SAP SuccessFactorsBest HR software for employee experienceRipplingEasiest HR software to implement (read our Rippling review to learn more)WorkdayBest HR software for compensation management

When choosing HR software, pay attention to how it integrates with your other platforms. For example, if you use one platform for time tracking and another for payroll, they’ll need to integrate properly to ensure you’re compensating your employees correctly.

If you’re looking for a more comprehensive HR platform that can take care of some or all of your HR responsibilities, consider using one of the top HR outsourcing services or the best professional employer organizations available.

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Top 5 Expense Management Software In 2023

Expense management is the second hardest operational cost to control. And majority of businesses don’t have a robust expense management platform in place. Tallie’s survey of 585 finance professionals shows that:

46% don’t track cost-to-process expense reports

43% have a manual expense management process in place

If you want to scale and grow your business, you should use an expense management software to track employees expenses. But, Tallie’s survey shows that between 2013 to 2023, the percentage of respondents who used an expense management software stayed at 35%. Lack of vendor marketplace familiarity can be one reason most companies’ entire expense management process hasn’t yet been automated.

Today, we are exploring the top 5 expense management software so you could pick the one suitable one. We will explain the main features, benefits, negatives, and price of each expense management software.

How did we select the top 5 expense management software?

The original list had +300 expense management software vendors. We used 4 publicly-verifiable metrics to create a 5-vendor-shortlist. Those metrics are:

Tracking all employee expenses from the card

Allowing travel planning from the app

Setting spending limits to control expenses, and more.

1. SAP Concur Expense

Backed by large resources of SAP, SAP Concur Expense software is the largest company on our list in terms of employee count, references, and funding. In terms of reviews, they are ranked first on G2 and Gartner, and 2nd of TrustRadius.

SAP Expense management software allows users to submit expense reports, manage their payments through the expense management app, and monitor their travel related expenses.

1.1. Pricing

To get an exact price from Concur Expense, you need to contact them for a personalized quote depending on your industry, use case, expense report volume, etc. Unverified reports suggest that they charge $8 per report per ~250 transactions. That will be $994 per year, or $83 per month.

Concur Expense offers a free-trial.

1.2. Benefits of using SAP Concur Expense

Booking travel directly through Concur Expense

Easy to use interface

Travel accommodation by allowing employee expense submission through the app

ERP integration with SAP products, Grab and Tibco

1.3. Negatives of using SAP Concur Expense

Has an initial steep learning curve

Lack of integration with some travel and hospitality apps such as Uber

False positives in automated categorization of duplicate payments

2. TripActions

Targeted primarily at travel expense management, TripActions offers:

One-stop-shop for all bookings through 24/7 live agents

Smart, virtual credit cards with in-built controls fir expense policies that automate the entire approval process and streamline reimbursement management

Real-time notifications of employee expense reports to improve spend management

Instant expense record reconciliation and employee reimbursements after submitting expenses

2.1. Pricing

TripAction’s pricing model is quote-based, where customers have to get in touch with reps, discuss their needs, and would then be recommended the most suitable package. They do not offer a free trial, as the majority of their revenue comes with flight bookings and a free trial would mean lost commissions.

2.2. Benefits of using TripActions

Employees can book their hotel rooms and other accommodation, such as car rentals, airport pickups, etc. all through their app

TipActions has a specific focus on tracking loyalty points and suggesting upgrades and speciality deals automatically

Its Per Diem feature entices employees to book cheaper rooms and be rewarded for the savings2.3 Negatives of using TripAction

2.3. Negatives of using TripActions

Users claim it’s too much of a travel app and lacks the nuances of a hardened accounting software like SAP Expense

Bookings can sometime not go through until TripAction’s partners approve a reservation.

Because all reservations are done through them, in case of issues you can’t contact the airline agency directly

3. Brex

It’s more difficult to track the submitted expenses if transactions are done with different credit cards belonging to different banks. Brex has solved this issue by optimizing their virtual and physical credit card. One of their unique features is as an employee onboards/offboards, by having integrations with the ERP solutions, the software automatically creates a new credit card/cancels an old one.

3.1. Pricing

We found no specific pricing amount for Brex. But its product lines fall under 4 categories of:

Bill pay

Expense tracking

Corporate credit card

Business account

Where each have specific sets of features, and whose price should be directly enquired from Brex.

3.2. Benefits of using Brex

Their virtual and physical credit card transactions enable business expenses to be paid based on governance rules

The app is user-friendly and enables users to submit and manage expenses on the go, where purchased items automatically get submitted on the account

Foreign payments are processed with no additional costs3.3. Negatives of using Brex

3.3. Negatives of using Brex

Regionally limited to US and Canada

Limited to Mastercard which is less popular and accepted than other platforms

As the solution is an expense management platform and not an investment software, its forecasting features are lacking.

4. Zoho

Zoho’s expense management software’s APIs integrate with accounting tools, ride-sharing, banking, and other collaboration apps to streamline expense management. Some specific use cases of Zoho includes:

Receipt management

Expense management

Mileage tracking: This is a unique feature which other vendors do not mention. Especially when using car rentals, this feature helps with mileage breakdown.

4.1. Pricing

Zoho has four pricing plans:

If you have +500 users, you can get in touch with them for a customized quote.

4.2. Benefits of using Zoho

It has an easy to use interface, especially when it comes to receipt scanning

They have a host of difference applications within the Zoho Expense suit

They are optimized for small business owners, as most reviewers are from companies with

4.3. Negatives of using Zoho 5.1. Pricing

Emburse offers three pricing packages:

5.2. Negatives of using Emburse

Users claim the website or the application user interface isn’t friendly

Integration with ERPs and other accounting software is limited

Uploading receipt photos takes time and isn’t seamless

For more on fintech

To learn more about fintech, read:

And if you want to automate one of your financial processes, visit our financial services hub to find data-driven lists of vendors for different use cases.

We will help you through your vendor selection journey:

He primarily writes about RPA and process automation, MSPs, Ordinal Inscriptions, IoT, and to jazz it up a bit, sometimes FinTech.





Different Types Of Frames In Html & Types Of Frame Tags

Introduction to Html Frames

Html frames are useful at dividing the web page or the web browser into multiple sections; they separate sections then load differently.

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A-frame displays content independent of its container. Multiple frames form a collection and are known as a frameset. The arrangement can be considered similar to the orientation of rows and columns in a table. The frame tag has been deprecated in HTML5.

Each frame has a frame tag to indicate. The horizontal frame is defined by the row attribute of the frame tag, and the vertical attribute is defined by the column attribute of the frame tag in the HTML document. The same window in one frame might display a static banner,  a second navigation menu, etc.

Syntax of Frames

Similarly, as we saw above, the attribute rows take the value in pixels, and they help at specifying the number and size of rows in a frameset.

Different Type of Frames in HTML

The different and some commonly used attributes in the frame are attributes such as border, scrolling, src, name, etc.

Types of Frame Tag

Following are the different types of frame tags:

1. Col: The col attribute gives the vertical frames. The width, however, can be specified in 4 ways:

Pixels: absolute values can be mentioned in pixels. If we have to create three vertical frames, we can give the value: cols=”100,50,100”.

Percentage: The percentage of the browser window can be mentioned. If we have to create three vertical frames, we can give the value: cols=”40%,20%,40%.”

We can also make use of the wildcard here (*) and let the wildcard take the remaining of the window, which remains un-mentioned.



2. Rows: The row attribute gives the horizontal frames. It specifies the rows in a frameset. If we have to create three horizontal frames we use:

Eg: Rows=”10%,80%,10%’.

We can also set the height of each row as we had done in the case of columns previously.


3. Border: It specifies the width of the border of each frame in pixels.

E.g., border=”4”. If border=”0”, it means there is no border.

4. Frameborder: If a three-dimensional border needs to be displayed between frames, then we use this attribute. The value which the attribute takes is either 1 or 0 ( Yes or No).

E.g.: frameborder=”0” means no border.

5. Framespacing: This attribute specifies the amount of space between frames in a frameset. Any integer value can be given here for this attribute.

E.g., framespacing=”12” means between the frames, there should be the spacing of 12 pixels.

There are 8 attributes that can be listed here in this section.

1. src: We provide the file name to this attribute that is supposed to be loaded into the frame. The value of this attribute can be any URL.

E.g., name=”abc.htm.”

3. frameborder: This attribute is specified to show if the borders are to be shown or not. The value takes up is 1 or 0 (Yes or No).

4. marginwidth: The attribute is helpful at specifying the width of the space between the left and right of the frame’s border and also the content of the frame. The value is given in pixel.

5. marginheight: The attribute is helpful at specifying the height of the space between the top and the bottom of the frame’s border and also the content of the frame. The value is given in pixel.

E.g., marginheight=”10”.

6. noresize: This attribute basically prevents the user from making any changes to the already present frames. In the absence of this attribute, any frame can be resized.

E.g., noresize=”noresize.”

7. scrolling: This attribute takes control of the appearance of the scroll bars, which are present on the frame. The value either a ‘yes, ‘no’, or ‘auto’.

E.g., scrolling=” no” means it should not have scroll bars.

8. longdesc: This attribute lets you provide a link to another page containing a long description of the content of the frame.

E.g., longdesc=”framedesc.htm.”

Frames and Browser Support

It is a nice approach to put up a message in such scenarios for the user who use old browsers. Messages like “ Sorry! Your browser does not support frames.” to notify.


Frame technology is not supported by quite a number of browsers these days. It is often noticed that the contents of the web page are not displayed properly for smaller devices. Anyway, it is good to have knowledge of what existed so that better models could be developed to be compatible with new technologies.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Html Frames. Here we discuss the different types of Frames in HTML and the Types of Frame Tag with Frames and Browser Support. You may also look at the following article to learn more –

Types Of Graphs With Examples

A graph is a non-linear data structure that consists of vertices and edges. The vertices contain the information or data, and the edges work as a link between pair of vertices.

Graphs can be of multiple types, depending on the position of the nodes and edges. Here’re some important types of Graphs:

Directed Graph

The edges of the Directed Graph contain arrows that mean the direction. The arrow determines where the edge is pointed to or ends.

Here’s an example of the Directed Graph.

Directed Graph

We can go from Node A to D.

However, we can’t go from node D to node A as the edge points from A to D.

As the Graph does not have weights, traveling from vertex A to D will cost the same as traveling from D to F.

Undirected Graph

Undirected Graph contains edges without pointers. It means we can travel vice versa between two vertices.

Here’s a simple example of the undirected Graph.

Undirected Graph

In the above Graph,

We can move from A to B

We can also move from B to A

Edges contain no directions.

It’s an example of an undirected graph having a finite number of vertices and edges with no weights.

Weighted Graph

Graph that contains weights or costs on the edges is called a weighted Graph. The numerical value generally represents the moving cost from one vertex to another vertex. Both Directed and Undirected Graph can have weights on their edges.

Here’s an example of a weighted graph (Directed).

Directed Graph with weight

A to B, there’s an edge, and the weight is 5, which means moving from A to B will cost us 5.

A point to B, but in this Graph, B has no direct edge over A. So, we can’t travel from B to A.

However, If we want to move from A to F, there are multiple paths. The paths are ADF, ABF. ADF will cost (10+11) or 21.

Here, the path ABF will cost (5+15) or 20. Here we’re adding the weight of each edge in the path.

Here’s an example of an Undirected Graph with weights:

Undirected Graph with weight

Here, the edge has weight but no direction. So, it means traveling from vertex A to D will cost 10 and vice versa.

Bi-Directional Graph

Bi-directional and undirected graphs have a common property. That is

Generally, the undirected Graph can have one edge between two vertexes.

For example:

Here, moving from A to D or D to A will cost 10.

In a Bi-Directional Graph, we can have two edges between two vertices.

Here’s an example:

Bi-Directional Graph

Traveling from A to D will cost us 17, but traveling from D to A will cost us 12. So, we can’t assign two different weights if it is an undirected graph.

Infinite Graph

The Graph will contain an infinite number of edges and nodes. If a graph is Infinite and it’s also a connected graph, then it will contain an infinite number of edges as well. Here, the extended edges mean that more edges might be connected to these nodes via edges.

Here’s an example of the infinite Graph:

Infinite Graph

Null Graph

Null Graph contains only nodes or vertices but with no edges. If given a Graph G = (V, E), where V is vertices and E is edges, it will be null if the number of edges E is zero.

Here’s an example of a Null Graph:

Null Graph

Trivial Graph

A graph data structure is considered trivial if only one vertex or node is present with no edges.

Here’s an example of a Trivial Graph:

Multi Graph

A graph is called a multigraph when multiple edges are present between two vertices, or the vertex has a loop. The term “Loop” in Graph Data Structure means an edge pointing to the same node or vertex. Multigraph can be directed or undirected.

Here’s an example of a Multi Graph:

There’re two edges from B to A. Moreover, vertex E has a self-loop. The above Graph is a directed graph with no weights on edges.

Complete Graph

A graph is complete if each vertex has directed or undirected edges with all other vertices.

Suppose there’s a total V number of vertices and each vertex has exactly V-1 edges. Then, this Graph will be called a Complete Graph. In this type of Graph, each vertex is connected to all other vertices via edges.

Here’s an example of a Complete Graph with five vertices:

You can see in the image the total number of nodes is five, and all the nodes have exactly four edges.

Connected Graph

A Graph is called a Connected graph if we start from a node or vertex and travel all the nodes from the starting node. For this, there should be at least one edge between each pair of nodes or vertices.

Here’s an example of a Connected Graph:

Here’s some explanation of the above Graph:

Assuming there’s no edge between C and F, we can’t travel from A to G. However, the edge C to F enables us to travel to any node from a given node.

A complete Graph is a Connected Graph because we can move from a node to any other node in the given Graph.

Cyclic Graph

A graph is said to be cyclic if there are one or more cycles present in the Graph.

Here’s an example of a Cyclic Graph:

Here, vertex A, B, and C form a cycle.

A graph can have multiple cycles inside it.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A Graph is Called Directed Acyclic Graph or DAG if there’re no cycles inside a graph. DAG is important while doing the Topological Sort or finding the execution order. DAG is also important for creating scheduling systems or scanning dependency of resources etc. However, the above Graph above doesn’t contain any cycle inside.

Here’s a simple example of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG):

Cycle Graph

Cycle Graph is not the same as the cyclic Graph. In Cycle Graph, each node will have exactly two edges connected, meaning each node will have exactly two degrees.

Here’s an example of a Cycle Graph:

Bipartite Graph

These kinds of Graphs are special kinds of Graph where vertices are assigned to two sets.

Bipartite Graph must follow the rule:

Two sets of vertices should be distinct, which means all the vertices must be divided into two groups or sets.

Same set Vertices should not form any edges.

Euler Graph

A Graph Data Structure is said to be an Euler Graph if all the vertices have an even-numbered degree. The term degree of vertices means the number of edges pointing to or pointing out from a particular vertex.

Here’s an example of a Euler graph:

All the vertices have even degrees. Vertex A, D, E, and H have two degrees. Here, node C has four degrees, which is even.

Hamilton Graph

Hamilton Graph is a Connect Graph, where you can visit all the vertices from a given vertex without revisiting the same node or using the same edge. This kind of Connected Graph is known as the “Hamilton Graph.” The path you visit to verify if the given Graph is Hamilton Graph or not is known as Hamiltonian Path.

Here’s a simple example of a Hamilton graph:

In this image, we can visit all the vertices from any node in the above Graph. One of the paths can be A-D-C-H-B-E. It’s also possible to find a Hamilton Cycle. Hamilton Cycle starts and ends at the same vertex. So, the Hamilton Cycle will be A-D-C-H-B-E-A.

Synopsis Of Various Types Of Iot Protocols

Introduction to IoT Protocols

IoT stands for the Internet Of Things. We are very good at many communication technologies, such as WIFI, BLUETOOTH, 3G/2G/4 G, and now 5 G is coming in the market, but there are several fresh waves networking choices on the market. The IoT system can only operate and transfer data online if the two devices are linked securely from the communication network. What makes it possible for such a link? IoT standards and protocols consist of an unseen language that allows physical objects to “speak” among themselves. General protocols used for computers, smartphones or tablets may not meet IOT-based solutions ‘ specific conditions.

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Types of IoT Network

IoT networks are given below:







1. NANO Network

Nano-network is a nano-scale communication network among nano-devices. To use the various functions of nano-machines, a series of nano-devices in a complete nano-network must be managed and controlled by the appropriate architecture. Nano-network can collect important patient information in the healthcare field and provide it to computer systems to make health monitoring more accurate and efficient. In addition to the tumor detection process, the internet of Nano-Things in health systems will provide diagnosis and support in the treatment of patients by precise and localized medications.

2. NFC

NFC stands for Near Field Communication. This wireless connectivity short-range (ECMA-340, ISO / IEC 18092) allows communication between devices when they’re interconnected or placed within a few centimeters. The standards, co-designed by Philips and Sony, provide equipped with a manner to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) network for information exchange.

When the P2P network is established, other wireless technologies such as Bluetooth or WiFi can be used for extended communication or to transfer bigger information. Now, most Android smartphones have the same technology accessible, meaning you can digitalize your wallet using services such as Google Pay, TecTile, etc.

3. PAN

A Personal Area Network (PAN) is the interconnection of IT devices in the range of a single person, generally within 10 meters. Take an example of a user traveling with a notebook, a private digital assistant (PDA), and a mobile printer that might connect them with wireless technology without the need to plug in anything. This type of private area network could typically also be interconnected to the Internet or other networks without cables.

4. LAN

LAN means Local Area Network. This is used for small area networks. Computers and other mobile devices share resources, such as printer or network storage via LAN connection. Wi-Fi and Ethernet are the two primary ways to enable LAN connections. Ethernet is a specification that allows machines to interact. Radio waves are used for the Wi-Fi connection of computers, printers, mobiles and etc. A user has access to files stored on the LAN server with others; a network administrator has read and write access.

5. MAN

MAN stands for the Metropolitan Area Network. This is a computer network that helps users connect with computer resources in a geographical area. It can cover a smaller region than WAN (Wide Area Network) but is bigger than the Local Area Network (LAN) LAN area. It can also be used to define interconnections between them point to point in a metropolitan region with several local area networks.

6. WAN

WAN stands for the Wide Area Networks. Wide Area Networks are also called data networks. Basically, this network also uses to connect the cities, country, states. A virtual private (VPN) network allows WAN sites to connect. Wired and wireless technology can include WAN connections. Enterprise WANs help users to share access to central apps, services, and other sources.

Protocols of IoT

Some of the most significant IoT protocols are mentioned below :

1. Bluetooth

2. Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is an acronym for Wireless fidelity. Wireless internet is one of the leading modern technological developments. It can be locked, secured, or opened and also free over a short or a long distance. Without the need for flexible cables, WiFi is capable of connecting the phones, and from that, we can access the internet. To the devices, wi-fi is a wireless connection to access the internet. Wi-Fi utilizes radio waves to send data at particular frequencies rather than using wired links, typically at 2.4GHz or 5GHz, though many more are being used in additional niche setups. A standard Wi-Fi network can be reached in the open air up to 100 meters.

3. Z-Wave

Z-Wave is a wireless protocol used mostly in intelligent home networks to link and exchange control and information with smart devices. The Z-Wave protocol offers low-cost, wireless connectivity to home automation, a lower-power alternative to WiFi, and a long-ranging alternative to Bluetooth with two-way communication by mesh networking and messages acknowledgment. The Z-Wave protocol operates in the United States on the low-frequency 908.42 and in Europe on the 868.42 MHz band. The Z-Wave provides small data packet transmission rates at 9.6 kbps, 40 kbps, or 100 kbps throughput rates.

4. SigFox

SigFox has developed a worldwide network to listen to the data transmission of billions of machines. Sigfox is capable of collecting very tiny signals from IoT devices around the globe – using the smallest energy levels in order to achieve the efficiency of natural energy harvesting systems.

This SigFox based on three pillars:

Low consumption energy

Low in cost

Complementary technology

Sigfox offers a standard way to collect information from sensors and devices with one standard API package. Sigfox is Bluetooth, GPS 2G/3G/4G, and Wifi compatible.

5. Thread 6. Cellular

The use of cellular communication functions such as GSM/3G/4 G is possible with these IoT apps. Cellular is one of the protocols for IoT Communication which can send or transfer high information volumes. Cellular requires not only high costs but also high electricity consumption for several applications. The Frequencies of the cellular is 900/ 1900/ and max it will go to 21000 MHZ, and the range is 35km maximum For the GSM and for the HSPA is almost 200km.

7. 6LoWPAN

6LoWPAN is an IP-based communication protocol. 6LoWPAN stands for IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a 128-bit internet protocol developed to overcome the limitations of 32-bit IPv4 in addressing. Because of it, a number of devices can be connected to each other. The 6LoWPAN system is used for various purposes, including the wireless networks of sensors. This wireless sensor network form transmits the data as packets and uses IPv6 as the basis of the IPv6 name over low-power WLAN networks. As the globe migrates to IPv6 packet information, such a 6LoWPAN scheme provides many benefits for low-power wireless sensor networks and other low-power wireless network types. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a 128-bit internet protocol developed to overcome the limitations of 32-bit IPv4 in addressing. Because of it, a number of devices can be connected to each other.


RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification. Radio waves are used to read and record data that is stored on an item tag. There are two parts of the RFID component on the Tags: a microchip that stores and processes data and an antenna which transmits a signal. There are normally two types of RFID first is passive, and the second is battery powered. A passive RFID tag is used to relay the stored data to the interrogator via radio wave power. A battery-operated RFID tag is built into the data relay using a tiny battery. The tag includes the serial number for a particular item.

9. Zigbee

Zigbee is a Short-range wireless communication protocol. It is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol. It is majorly used in home automation and industry. It is preferred in applications when there is a low power requirement. Low power consumption, high scalability, security, and durability are the main features of Zigbee. Zigbee’s range is 10 meters, but this range can be extended up to 100 meters. The maximum data rate in Zigbee is 250 kbps.


In this article, we have seen what are different types of IoT networks, which protocols are used in communication.

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This has been a guide to Types of IoT Protocols. Here we discussed the basic concept, IoT protocols and various types of protocols. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

3 Best Laptop Battery Management Software To Limit Charging

3 Best Laptop Battery Management Software to Limit Charging To ensure that your battery last longer, use a top management software




It’s generally a good idea to monitor your laptop’s battery health and determine when anything goes wrong.

Some batteries drain even after the PC shutdown, but there are ways in which you can fix this.

In the list below, you will find the perfect software to stop battery charging and extend battery life for laptops.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

The laptop batteries and other components have evolved to make the laptops and ultrabooks razor-thin without compromising power and performance.

The laptop batteries that used to last not more than 2-3 hours can now last up to 15 hours, depending on the usage. While the size of the laptops has become smaller to fit in more in less space, the companies have found new ways to extract maximum juice from the small-sized laptop batteries.

Laptop manufacturers like Lenovo and Asus encourage users to limit the battery charge threshold in case they keep the laptop connected to the power outlet all the time. This can help you in increasing the battery life cycle to an extent.

While some manufacturer includes built-in laptop battery management software in their laptop, other manufacturers may prefer not to bloat the device with unnecessary software.

If your laptop does not have built-in battery charge limiting software, you can find a third-party software that stops battery charging irrespective of your laptop maker.

In this article, we look at the best software that stops battery charging and alerts the users when the battery is charged to a fixed threshold.

Battery Optimizer will scan your laptop and determine ways to extend the life of your laptop battery. It will then offer steps to take, anticipated time savings, and other battery management features.

This fantastic software can help you extend the life of your battery by performing extensive diagnostics and providing simple recommendations and adjustments. For example, you may configure it to monitor your battery usage over time and notify you when it exceeds a specified threshold.

With intelligent profiles for quick settings adjustments, optimizing your battery life is short and straightforward.

This battery optimizer uses few resources and does not affect the performance of your computer. This tool tells you how much extra battery life you may save by turning down key hardware and services on your laptop.

In addition, you can use features like battery usage alerts when you overuse the battery capacity. So you can set up a battery optimizer to see usage over time.

Battery Optimizer

With today’s focus on mobility, no battery sign on your laptop is not an option. Instead, use Battery Optimizer to extend battery life now.

Free Download

Battery Limiter is a freeware Windows application that allows you to set the charging limit on your laptop. Unlike the built-in application with Lenovo and Asus laptops, Battery Limiter sets off an alarm to inform the user when the battery charges or discharges to a certain limit.

You may then manually unplug or plug the power cord into the laptop. While this may not be ideal, it can still help you limit your laptop’s charging threshold.

Expert tip:

Battery Limiter allows you to set the charge limit from 30% to 96%. When the charge threshold crosses the set mark, it will inform you by setting off an alarm.

In addition, the users can view the current battery status and estimated battery life.

It’s worth mentioning that Battery Limiter has a user-friendly interface and is exceptionally lightweight and easy to install. Since it’s free, it doesn’t come with additional charges and can run smoothly on any Windows 10 PC.

Thus it’s one of the best battery life-saving tools and comes with basic system requirements like Windows running PC and a charger.

⇒ Get Battery Limiter

Asus Battery Health Charging is another exclusive feature limited to Asus users. The company has included a battery manager application that offers three profiles to maximize the battery performance on your Asus laptop: Full Capacity, Balanced Mode, and Maximum Lifespan Mode.

In the Full Capacity Mode, the battery charges 100%. In the Balanced Mode, the battery stops charging when the power is above 80%—Finally, in the Maximum Lifespan Mode, charging stops at 60% and charges again when the power is below 58%.

Do the following to access the Asus Battery Health Charging option.

Therefore with its three modes of battery saving, you can protect your Asus laptop battery with no exceptions. You only have to choose how you want to conserve your battery, and it’s done.

Another option, however, is using a Chargie device. They can expand the battery life span of your device, even though they are physical devices, as opposed to the software options discussed in this guide.

The life cycle of a battery depends on usage and heat management. Unlike your smartphone, laptop batteries run out of juice much faster and require replacement after a year or two.

This is primarily the case with low-cost laptops or high-performance-oriented devices like gaming laptops.

However, with the help of battery limiting software, you can help the battery last longer than your average laptop batteries that charge up to their full capacity all the time.

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