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Best Books to Learn About C#

C# Books explore the high-level programming language C#, encompassing object-oriented, class-based, functional, static typing, lexically scoped, and declarative programming areas. In 2000, Anders Hejlsberg wrote C# while working for Microsoft. He was approved as an international standard by ECMA in 2002. It was a breakthrough as there was no open source before C#. C# language is helpful in Mobile applications, Desktop applications, Web services websites, Web applications, Games, and VR.

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The list of books that we have provided below will give the readers a clear understanding of C#. The shortlisted selection will help you choose the right one to help you progress in C# knowledge and make strides as a professional. The table below lists the top 10 C# Books for amateurs and professionals to understand C#.

Now we will go through the reviews of C# Books individually.

Book #1 C# 8.0 and .NET Core 3.0: Modern Cross-Platform Development

Author: Mark J. Price

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Price has explained the scope of C# from basics to the complicated implementations citing examples. The book includes OOP Object-oriented programming and necessary executions like null reference types from C# 8.0. It further delves into pattern matching using the switch method. The second part introduces .NET and APIs chúng tôi Core with Xamarin Forms. And finally, the author explores desktop applications for windows. The author has written the book for professionals and serious programmers.

Key Points:

It offers lessons in LINQ and builds websites using chúng tôi model-view-controller, and content management systems.

The user learns to create desktop applications like WPF Windows Presentation Foundation and UWP Universal Windows Platform.

The book mainly focuses on code snippets to learn C# simultaneously while implementing the code.

A lot of learning material has to be downloaded from outside to get through the book.

Book #2 Learn C# in One Day and Learn it Well

Author: Jamie Chan

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This book guides a non-coder to make a complete C# program. It also includes fundamental topics and guides to more complicated ones, such as arrays, variables, and a string of C#. It also offers complete steps to the output of each program so the reader can gain knowledge even without a computer.

Key Points:

The book is for beginners offering a breakdown of complicated concepts into little steps.

The reader gets hands-on practice and ties the mini-concepts into a full-fledged program.

It explains object-oriented programming in detail, enabling the user to build a program in one day.

Book #3 HEAD FIRST C#: A Learner’s Guide to Real-World Programming with C# and .NET Core

Authors: Andrew Stellman, Jennifer Greene

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The book is fun to read and teaches the depth of C# creatively. The format makes it an easy read with numerous Illustrations and fonts. It enables users to develop Apps, games, and user interfaces visually. Programmers and beginners will find the content handy.

Key Points:

The chief points on each page work as pointers making the book unique and engaging.

There is a special section for impatient readers to build a game without reading the whole book thoroughly.

It’s a hands-on interaction with C#, Visual Studio, and .NET Core.

Book #4 Programming C# 8.0: Build Cloud, Web, and Desktop Applications

Author: Ian Griffiths

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Joseph and Ben bring the ultimate pocket reference on C# 8.0 by explaining custom type examples, lambda expressions, conversions, specialized integral operations, and more such topics in a new take. The book gives detailed information about C# 8.0. It is ideal for a thorough read and applies to a beginner and a skilled programmer wanting to harness the skills.

Key Points:

Joseph and Ben have covered the C# fundamentals, its extension methods, anonymous types, tuples, LINQ, and XML.

The reader gets hands-on knowledge on detailed subtopics of features in C# that are heavily emphasized with various examples to clear your concepts.

The user learns how to build C# applications on the cloud, web, and desktop.

Book #5 Murach’s C# 2024

Authors: Anne Boehm & Joel Murach

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Mike Murach & Associates Inc. brings C# book for beginners and experts. Introducing Visual Studio 2024, .NET, and the C# 6.0 interfaces and applications author dives into OOP and the possibilities with business classes. Programmers learn to build database applications using chúng tôi The book addresses real-world business situations.

Key Points:

It contains concepts about CodeLens, designing a windows form application, coding, testing the former, etc., and so many topics explained in a crisp and no-nonsense manner.

The book comes with an intuitive two-page form: on one side is the theory and, on the side, the practical examples and codes.

The users get firsthand experience with Entity Framework and LINQ to query data structures.

Book #6 C# In Depth

Author: Jon Skeet

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Jon skeet introduces C# programming and reveals its full potential with C# 6.0 and C# 7.0 to build big data applications. Users learn techniques for system programming and web applications. It includes engaging topics like- how to write asynchronous C# code, tuples-aided composition, and pattern matching.

Key Points:

The author discusses C# 8.0, stringy features, and async implementation

The topics of async and await are added, which were not present in previous editions.

Users become experts at writing code and learn various troubleshooting and problem-solving techniques.

Book #7 Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices in C#

Authors: Robert Martin, Micah Martin

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Key Points:

The book covers topics like- Agile practices, refactoring, OCP, and agile design principles of good software development.

The user learns how agile a role plays in programming .NET Framework.

Book #8 Learning C# by Developing Games with Unity 2023

Author: Harrison Ferrone

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The book offers a modern approach to laying the basics and features of practicing C# with Unity. Reading this book, the user understands the starters of C# language, software development, and tackling problems in creating Unity games. The book explores intermediate programming-level topics and best practices. The user learns to implement game mechanics and UI elements interactions with C#.

Key Points:

It is easy to follow and implement without any previous lesson in C#.

Unity engine and Microsoft visual studio are described in detail and help build the games made through C# and Unity, discussed in the book in the later chapters.

The user learns the basics like- variables and conditional statements before graduating to object-oriented systems and classes.

Book #9 The C# Player’s Guide: Using C# 7.0 and Visual Studio 2023

Author: R B Whitaker

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This book uncovers the concepts of C# 7.0 besides a handful of explanations about the .NET framework. It is a hands-on guide for C# with in-depth information on topics outside C#. The book provides a step-by-step explanation for creating the first C# program before moving on to looping, decision-making, methods, and finally, building interfaces.

Key Points:

The reader gets hands-on practice developing the .NET framework in C#.

It includes topics such as DLL references, NuGet packages, and building a tic-tac-toe game.

The user gains the know-how to compiler errors and to sort out bugs. 

Book #10 CLR via C#

Author: Jeffrey Richter

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Richter, a long-tenured consultant at the Microsoft .NET team, helps the reader to dive into runtime intricacies. The author has detailed C#, and .NET development, and the user gains realistic insight into developing a robust, responsive app. The book includes numerous Visual C# 2012 code samples.

Key Points:

The book opens doors to the latest Visual Studio 2012 and NET Framework 4.5.

The author delves into the runtime environment and asynchronous programming.

The book touches on complex concepts like threading and generics.

Recommended Books

Our Top 10 C# Books compilation aims to be helpful to you. For an extensive list in the category, EDUCBA recommends the following,

You're reading Top 8 C# Books For Beginners & Experts: A 2023 (Professional)

Top Books On Artificial Intelligence For Beginners & Advanced

Best Books to Read About Artificial Intelligence

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We have compiled a list of top books to aid amateurs and professionals with Artificial Intelligence.

Let us discuss the reviews and takeaways of the Artificial Intelligence books.

Book #1 Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Max Tegmark

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The author has given a futuristic view of the impact of artificial intelligence in the crime world, justice, and its play in society. It also reflects on the nature of futuristic wars. The MIIT Professor Tegmark has explored the positive dimension of AI and guided mainstream research on its beneficial side. The book explores options for making a system robust and hack-free. It also answers concerns about whether AI will replace people in the job market or challenge their existence. The book also explores controversies about whether human life will exist in the cosmos.

Key Points:

This book enables you to participate in the most crucial conversation in contemporary times – the impact of Artificial Intelligence in society, jobs, justice, war, crime, and our sense of being human.

It reveals a vast gamut of the most controversial topics, beginning with superintelligence and ending at ultimate physical limits, consciousness, and the meaning of life in this universe.

Tegmark also suggests positive ways of implementing the use of AI beneficially.

Book #2 Artificial Intelligence- A Modern Approach

Authors: Stuart J. Russell, Peter Norvig

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Undergrad and grad level courses have selected Artificial Intelligence- the modern approach as the academic book for one to two semesters. The book covers up-to-date theoretical and practical usage of AI. Moreover, the reader explores the Internet as a sample in planning logical agents of intelligent systems and probabilistic learning approaches. The authors have also designed numerous exercises.

Key Points:

The book includes machine learning, transfer learning, deep learning, and robotics. It talks about practical usage, including privacy, safe AI, and fairness.

It provides a state-of-the-art and up-to-date introduction regarding the theory and practice of Artificial Intelligence for sophisticated applications.

It discusses in detail the scope of AI probabilistic approaches, including EM.

Book #3 Artificial Intelligence By Example

Author: Denis Rothman

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Review: Key Points:

This book has AI-based illustrations that guide readers about the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence.

Using the Artificial Intelligence examples, readers can build machine intelligence from scratch.

It has the potential to make you an adaptive thinker and enable you to apply knowledge to real-world situations.

Book #4 Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning

Author: James V. Stone

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The book is the right place to start for a reader with little mathematics background. The author explores the artificial intelligence algorithms capable of functioning like deep neural networks of the brain. The book explains the role of AI and the reaches of Deep neural networks that can diagnose cancer, aid in object and speech recognition, chess, and many other games. The underlying factor is the adaptive algorithms. The book discusses ongoing neural networks and modern deep neural networks.

Key Points:

This book is written in an informal style and includes tutorial appendices, a complete glossary, and a list of further readings.

Artificial Intelligence Engines is a perfect introduction to the algorithmic engines of sophisticated Artificial Intelligence.

Stone has richly illustrated key neural network learning algorithms and detailed mathematical analyses.

The book has associated PowerPoint slides, open-source repositories, and online programs.

Book #5 Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn, Keras, and TensorFlow: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques to Build Intelligent Systems

Author: Aurélien Géron

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Géron provides deep learning for the amateur and seasoned programmer with minimal theory and maximum concrete examples. The users get to meet the challenges of machine learning with the coming of deep learning. The book guides how to make efficient programs using tools to learn from data. The book details Python frameworks like Scikit-Learn, Keras, and TensorFlow to gain intuitive insight into making intelligent systems.

Key Points:

The book shows the user how to apply Scikit-learn for tracking end-to-end sample ML projects.

Important models like decision trees, support vector machines, random forests, and ensemble methods help the reader understand AI in depth.

The author explains Keras and TensorFlow to pilot neural nets for natural language processing, computer vision, generative models, and deep reinforcement learning.

Book #6 A First Course

Author: Deepak Khemani

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The author explains the fundamental bottom-up approach of Artificial intelligence, from search to knowledge-based methods. The book provides ample examples of classic search methods. Khemani explores the beam and tabu searches in depth using illustrations. It helps the reader with the problem-solving and intelligence portion of AI. The book is suitable for an introductory course to AI and will help the reader to familiarize themself with the world of AI.

Key Points:

A First Course in Artificial Intelligence explains the basic concepts of AI and familiarizes with the intelligence portion.

Khemani has explored AI search types with lucidity, differentiating from the classic and tabu to beam searches.

The reader gets an opportunity to explore various problem-solving methods.

Book #7 Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare: AI, Machine Learning, and Deep and Intelligent Medicine Simplified for Everyone

Author: Dr. Parag Suresh Mahajan

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Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare explores AI’s role in improving human health. Dr. Parag Suresh Mahajan (MD) explains how AI has made the most impact through Machine Learning in the health sector than any other field. He illustrates how Intelligent Medicine continues to serve millions of lives. Mahajan has written in the simple language yet covered the depths and leaps of AI intervention in the health industry.

Key Points:

The reader gets familiarized with the current and future AI’s role in healthcare and how it serves millions of lives.

The book explores the benefits and perils of AI to help the reader gain foresight in personal practices.

The author has simplified data science and machine learning and goes into depth with the roles of startup companies.

Book #8 The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World

Author: Pedro Domingos

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Pedro Domingos explains in his endeavor “The Master Algorithm” how AI is a self-building system that creates algorithms born out of algorithms from raw data. He ponders over the impact of machine learning on science, business, politics, and war. Above all, the stride to The Master Algorithm- is to get all knowledge from raw data.

Key Points:

The author introduces the concept of algorithms that are capable of building themselves.

The book explores the idea of achieving The Master Algorithm, the quest to find the algorithms that can derive all knowledge from data.

The book is an insight into how machine learning is impacting the world.

Book #9 Applied Artificial Intelligence: A Handbook For Business Leaders

Authors: Mariya Yao, Adelyn Zhou, Marlene Jia

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This book does not proclaim the destiny of people losing jobs to robots or the answer to all human problems. Instead, it is a practical approach to what AI can do for business leaders wanting to use the power of AI for productivity and raising the quality of living. One can combine data with design and technology to alleviate problems in a corporation. The book teaches prioritizing the favorable prospects for leading fruitful AI initiatives. It also removes the fallacies created by media hype on the effect of AI.

Key Points:

This Artificial Intelligence Books is the ‘CES 2023 Top Technology Book of the Year.’

It is a pragmatic guide for business leaders in leveraging machine intelligence for growth and the life quality within our communities.

It enables you to resolve real problems at the enterprise scale with the combination of people, design, technology, and data.

Book #10 Human Compatible

Author: Stuart Russell

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Stuart Russell has written a visionary book on the unrivaled achievement of humankind to create superior intelligence, which becomes a nightmare. Russell brings in his decades of experience in AI as he examines his discipline as an experiential threat to humankind. Humans will have to devise a plan to stop the oncoming trouble that would be compulsory.

Key Points:

The book portrays the dreadful futuristic picture of AI taking over humankind.

Russel has brilliantly laid out the loopholes in the construction of AI that could change a dream of an AI-efficient society to a nightmare.

The author, who has worked in AI research for decades, proposes that if the necessary steps were not taken now, the human race would be at threat.

Google Fights For Orphaned Books

Fending criticisms from multiple parties, Google once again made the case for digitizing millions of orphaned books before the U.S. District Court Southern District Court of New York, in a fairness hearing held Thursday.

Those in favor praised the idea of rendering hard-to-find books in electronic form, because they could be accessible to a much larger group of readers, and not be lost to the ages.

The objectors, however, voiced strong concerns that the settlement case preempts U.S. copyright law altogether. Others voiced privacy and antitrust concerns.

The court will decide whether or not approve a proposed settlement to a class action suit waged by a number of author groups towards Google, for its actions of scanning out-of-print books.

U.S. District Judge Denny Chin, presiding over the proceedings, said that he would not reach a decision at the end of that day’s fairness hearing, given the amount of feedback the court received.

The settlement, reached in October 2008, came out of a 2005 lawsuit brought about by the Authors Guild, the Association of American Publishers and other groups of concerned writers and content producers.

The resulting settlement allows Google to scan books that are still in copyright yet are out of print, provided that it sets up a registry of authors and book titles, and makes an effort to notify authors of these books that their works are being reused.

Reacting to U.S. Department of Justice antitrust concerns, the parties revised the settlement and resubmitted it to the court in November, narrowing the scope of the agreement to U.S. books.

The proposed settlement “eviscerates the right to prior approval,” Cavanaugh said.

This view was echoed by others. The settlement, in effect, allows Google to continue to infringe copyright law in the future by not obtaining prior approval, said David Nimmer, a representative for Amazon.

Google attorney Daralyn Durie argued that the opt-in approach would not work for the company, and so it is a non-negotiable part of the settlement.

She added that Microsoft tried this opt-in approach and has since given up on its efforts.

Durie estimated that there are about five million books in U.S. libraries that are out of print but still under copyright. In many cases the authors cannot be located, making them orphaned books.

While the CDT and EFF offered a number of suggestions of how Google could put privacy controls into place that alleviate these concerns — such as limiting the time Google would hold onto the tracking data — Rotenberg maintained that the conflict-of-interest would just be too great to mitigate.

Not all companies were opposed to the settlement. Janet Cullum, representing Sony, said that the proposed registry would open a wider array of material for the electronic book market, being as how the registry will allow companies other than Google to track down authors and make their own arrangements.

Paul Courant, a librarian for the University of Michigan, noted that the digitization process could preserve countless academic and historic texts that are in fragile states and only available in a few libraries.

Cavanaugh and others agreed that digitizing such books would be a good thing, though ultimately it would be up to Congress to amend copyright laws to make provisions for preemptive projects such as Google’s, rather than it being handled in a class action lawsuit settlement.

“You cannot use procedural rules to modify rights,” he said.

Essential Photoshop Preferences For Beginners

Learn how to improve Photoshop’s performance, customize the interface, save backups of your work, and more with the important options you need to know about in the Photoshop Preferences! Covers both Photoshop CC and CS6.

Written by Steve Patterson.

In this tutorial, we’ll look at some essential Preferences in Photoshop that every beginner should know about. The Preferences are where we find all sorts of options that control Photoshop’s appearance, behavior and performance. There are more options in the Photoshop Preferences than we could possibly cover in one tutorial, but that’s okay because most of the default settings are fine. Here, we’re just going to look the options that are worthy of your attention right when you first start learning Photoshop. Some of the options allow you to customize Photoshop’s interface. Others will speed up your workflow. And some help to keep Photoshop and your computer running smoothly. There are other important Preferences as well, but we’ll save them for future lessons when it makes more sense to talk about them.

I’ll be using Photoshop CC but this tutorial is also compatible with Photoshop CS6. All but one of the Preferences we’ll look at are available in both versions. As we’ll learn, Photoshop’s Preferences are divided into categories. In some cases, an option will be located in a different category depending on which version of Photoshop you’re using. I’ll point out these differences as we go along.

This is lesson 7 of 8 in Chapter 1 – Getting Started with Photoshop.

Let’s get started!

How To Access The Photoshop Preferences

As I mentioned, Photoshop’s Preferences are divided into various categories. Let’s start with the General category. To access the Preferences, on a Windows PC, go up to the Edit menu in the Menu Bar along the top of the screen. From there, choose Preferences down near the bottom of the list, and then General. On a Mac (which is what I’m using here), go up to the Photoshop menu in the Menu Bar. Choose Preferences, and then choose General:

The Preferences Dialog Box

This opens the Photoshop Preferences dialog box. The categories we can choose from are listed in the column along the left. Options for the currently-selected category appear in the main area in the center. At the moment, the General category is selected. Note that in Photoshop CC, Adobe added several new categories to the Preferences, like Workspace, Tools and History Log. While the categories themselves are only available in Photoshop CC, most of the options within these new categories can be found in other categories in CS6:

The Preferences dialog box in Photoshop CC.

The General Preferences Export Clipboard

The first option we’ll look at, found in the General preferences, is Export Clipboard. This option can affect the overall performance of your computer. When we copy and paste images or layers in Photoshop, the copied items are placed into Photoshop’s clipboard. The clipboard is the part of your computer’s memory (its RAM) that’s set aside for Photoshop to use. Your computer’s operating system also has its own clipboard (its own section of memory).

When “Export Clipboard” is enabled, any items stored in Photoshop’s clipboard are also exported to your operating system’s clipboard. This allows you to then paste the copied items into a different app, like Adobe Illustrator or InDesign. But Photoshop’s file sizes can be huge. Exporting huge files into your operating system’s memory can cause errors and performance problems.

By default, “Export Clipboard” is enabled (checked). To help keep your computer running smoothly, disable (uncheck) this option. If you do need to move files from Photoshop into another app, it’s better to just save the file in Photoshop. Then, open the saved file in the other program:

Disable “Export Clipboard” to improve performance.

Interface Preferences

Switching from General to the Interface category.

Color Theme

The first option we’ll look at is Color Theme. This option controls the overall color of Photoshop’s interface. In this case, “color” just means different shades of gray. Adobe gives us four different color themes to choose from. Each theme is represented by a swatch. The default color theme is the second swatch from the left:

The Color Theme swatches.

Adobe began using this darker theme in Photoshop CS6. Photoshop CC also uses this darker theme by default. Prior to CS6, the interface was much lighter (photo from Adobe Stock):

The default color theme in Photoshop CC (and CS6). Photo credit: Adobe Stock.

Choosing the lightest color theme.

And here we see that Photoshop’s interface is now much lighter. Adobe’s idea behind the darker theme was that it’s less intrusive, allowing us to focus more easily on our images. Personally, I agree, which is why I stick with the default theme. But some people prefer the lighter interface. Choose the theme you’re most comfortable with. You can change Photoshop’s color theme in the Preferences at any time:

The lightest of the four interface color themes.

Highlight Color (Photoshop CC)

In Photoshop CC, Adobe added a new Highlight Color option to the Interface preferences. This option is not available in CS6. “Highlight Color” refers to the color Photoshop uses to highlight the currently-selected layer in the Layers panel:

The Highlight Color option in the Interface preferences.

By default, the highlight color is a shade of gray which matches the overall color theme. Here, we see Photoshop’s Layers panel with the Background layer highlighted in the default gray. We’ll be learning all about layers in our Photoshop Layers section:

The Layers panel showing the gray highlight color.

The other highlight color we can choose is blue:

Changing the highlight color to blue.

And now, we see that my Background layer is highlighted in blue. I prefer the default gray because again, it’s less intrusive. Like the color theme, you can change the highlight color, along with any of Photoshop’s Preferences, at any time:

The Layers panel after changing the highlight color to blue.

UI Font Size

Another option worth looking at in the Interface preferences is UI Font Size. This option is available in both CC and CS6. “UI Font Size” controls the size of the text in Photoshop’s interface (“UI” stands for “User Interface”). Adobe sets the default font size to Small:

The UI Font Size option.

If you have trouble reading small print, you can increase the size. To make the text bigger, choose either Medium or Large. There’s also a Tiny option if you hate your eyes and want them to suffer. Personally, I set “UI Font Size” to Large to help minimize eye strain during long hours at the computer:

Changing the UI Font Size from Small to Large.

You’ll need to close and restart Photoshop for the change to take effect. For comparison, let’s look again at my Layers panel. On the left, we see the Layers panel using the default text size (Small). On the right is the same panel after changing the size to Large (and restarting Photoshop):

The default UI font size (left) and the Large size (right).

Tools Preferences (Photoshop CC)

Switching from Interface to the Tools category (in Photoshop CC).

Show Tool Tips

The first option to look at in the Tools preferences is Show Tool Tips (in CS6, “Show Tool Tips” is found in the Interface category). A “Tool Tip” is a helpful message that pops up when you hover your mouse cursor over a tool or option in Photoshop. Tool Tips offer a short description of what the tool or option is used for:

The “Show Tool Tips” option.

For example, if you hover your mouse cursor over the “Show Tool Tips” option, a Tool Tip will appear in yellow explaining that this option determines whether or not to show Tool Tips:

Tool Tips are great for learning about different options in Photoshop.

And here, we see that when I hover my cursor over a tool icon in Photoshop’s Toolbar, a Tool Tip lets me know which tool I’m selecting:

Tool Tips make it easier to learn the tools in the Toolbar.

Tool Tips are enabled by default. If you’re new to Photoshop, they’re a great way to help you learn. But once you know your way around Photoshop, Tool Tips can start getting in the way. When you feel you no longer need them, simply uncheck “Show Tool Tips” in the Preferences.

Use Shift Key for Tool Switch

Another option in the Tools category in Photoshop CC is Use Shift Key for Tool Switch. In Photoshop CS6, you’ll find it in the General preferences. This option affects how we select Photoshop’s tools when using keyboard shortcuts. By default, “Use Shift Key for Tool Switch” is enabled (checked):

The “Use Shift Key for Tool Switch” option.

Some tools, like the lasso tools, share the same keyboard shortcut.

With “Use Shift Key for Tool Switch” enabled, pressing “L” on your keyboard will select the Lasso Tool. But no matter how many times you press “L”, you will only select the Lasso Tool. To cycle through to the Polygonal or Magnetic Lasso Tool, you need to press and hold your Shift key and press “L”. This is true for any tools in the Toolbar that share the same keyboard shortcut. To save time and avoid needing to press and hold your Shift key, uncheck the “Use Shift Key for Tool Switch” option. With the option turned off, you can cycle through all tools that share the same keyboard shortcut just by pressing the letter itself.

File Handling Preferences

Next, let’s move on to the File Handling preferences. Choose the File Handling category on the left:

Opening the File Handling preferences.

Auto Save

The first option we’ll look at here is Auto Save. Auto Save was first introduced to Photoshop in CS6. This option tells Photoshop to automatically save a backup copy of your work at regular intervals. I can say from experience that Auto Save has saved my you-know-what on several occasions, especially on my aging laptop.

By default, Auto Save is set to back up your work every 10 minutes. That’s usually fine. But depending on how quickly you work, and the reliability of your computer, you may want to shorten the interval from 10 minutes to 5 minutes instead. You can also choose a longer interval if the backups are causing performance issues, but doing so increases the risk of losing your work:

By default, Auto Save will save a backup every 10 minutes.

Recent File List Contains

Another important option in the File Handling preferences is Recent File List Contains. This option determines how many of your previously-opened files Photoshop will keep track of. In Photoshop CC, your recent files appear as thumbnails on the Start screen each time you launch Photoshop. In CS6, you can access your recent files by going up to the File menu in the Menu Bar and choosing Open Recent (this also works in Photoshop CC).

By default, Photoshop will keep track the last 20 files you worked on. You can increase the value all the way to 100. Or, if you don’t want anyone to know what you’ve been working on, set the value to 0 to disable this option:

The “Recent File List Contains” option.

Performance Preferences

Next, let’s look at some settings that have to do with Photoshop’s performance. Choose the Performance category on the left:

Opening the Performance preferences.

Memory Usage

The Memory Usage option in the Performance category controls how much of your computer’s memory is reserved for Photoshop. Photoshop loves memory and will generally run better the more memory it gets. By default, Adobe reserves 70% of your computer’s memory for Photoshop. If Photoshop is struggling when you’re working on large files, try increasing the memory usage value.

You can increase memory usage all the way to 100%. Keep in mind, though, that if you have other apps open as well, they each require memory. Whenever possible, close all other apps when you’re working in Photoshop. If you do need other apps to be open, try not to increase the memory usage value much beyond 90%. Lower it if you run into problems. You’ll need to restart Photoshop for the change to take effect:

The “Memory Usage” option.

History States

Another option that can directly impact Photoshop’s performance is History States. “History States” refers to the number of steps that Photoshop keeps track of as we work. The more steps it remembers, the more steps we can undo to get back to an earlier state. History states are stored in memory, so too many states can slow Photoshop down.

In Photoshop CS6, the default number of history states was 20. Back then, I recommended increasing the value to 30. In Photoshop CC, Adobe has increased the default value all the way to 50. I wouldn’t recommend increasing it much beyond 50 unless you really need that many undo’s. If you run into performance problems, try lowering the value. Again, you’ll need to restart Photoshop for the change to take effect:

The “History States” option.

Scratch Disks Preferences (Photoshop CC)

There’s one more performance option to look at. In Photoshop CC, choose the Scratch Disks category on the left. In Photoshop CS6, stay in the Performance category:

Choosing the “Scratch Disks” category in Photoshop CC.

Scratch Disks

A scratch disk is a section of your computer’s hard drive that Photoshop uses as additional memory if it runs out of system memory. As long as your computer has enough memory, Photoshop won’t need to use the scratch disk. If it does need the scratch disk, it will use whatever hard drive(s) you’ve selected in the Scratch Disks option.

The main hard drive in your computer is known as the Startup disk. This may be the only hard drive you have. If that’s the case, it will be selected by default and there’s really nothing more you need to do. But if you have two or more hard drives, choose a drive that is not your Startup disk. Your operating system uses your Startup disk a lot, so you’ll get better performance from Photoshop by choosing a different drive. Also, if you happen to know the speed of your hard drives, again you’ll get better performance by choosing the fastest drive.

Use SSD’s For Best Performance

Lastly, if one of the hard drives in your computer is an SSD (Solid State Drive), choose the SSD as your scratch disk. SSD’s are much faster than traditional hard drives and can greatly improve performance. Even if your SSD is also your Startup disk, it’s still the best choice. In my case, my Startup disk is an SSD drive so I’ve selected it as my primary scratch disk. I also have a fast secondary drive as a backup scratch disk. However, as I mentioned, Photoshop will only use your scratch disk if it runs out of system memory. If Photoshop is routinely running out of system memory, adding additional memory (RAM) to your computer will give you the best results:

Select the drive(s) you want Photoshop to use if it runs out of system memory.

Closing The Preferences Dialog Box

Where to go next…

And there we have it! While knowing how to customize your Preferences is important, so is knowing how to restore them to their defaults. The most common cause of sudden performance issues with Photoshop is a corrupted Preferences file. In the next lesson in this chapter, we’ll learn how to troubleshoot Photoshop by resetting the Preferences.

Or check out any of the other lessons in this chapter:

For more chapters and for our latest tutorials, visit our Photoshop Basics section!

Excel Vlookup Tutorial For Beginners: Step

What is VLOOKUP?

Vlookup (V stands for ‘Vertical’) is an in-built function in excel which allows establishing a relationship between different columns of excel. In other words, it allows you to find (look up) a value from one column of data and returns it’s respective or corresponding value from another column.

In this VLOOKUP guide, we will learn

Usage of VLOOKUP:

Let’s take an instance of Vlookup as:

So as an Example:

So as an Example:

You start with the information which is already available:

(In this Case, Employee’s Name)

To find the information you don’t know:

(In this case, we want to look up for Employee’s Salary)

Download the above Excel File

Moreover, By Applying VLOOKUP, value(Employee’s salary) of the corresponding Employee’s Code will be displayed.

How to use VLOOKUP function in Excel

Following is a step-by-step guide on how to apply the VLOOKUP function in Excel:

Enter the VLOOKUP Function in the above Cell: Start with an equal sign which denotes that a function is entered, ‘VLOOKUP’ keyword is used after the equal sign depicting VLOOKUP function =VLOOKUP ()

The parenthesis will contain the Set of Arguments (Arguments are the piece of data that function needs in order to execute).

VLOOKUP uses four arguments or pieces of data:

The first argument would be the cell reference (as the placeholder) for the value that needs to be searched or the lookup value. Lookup value refers to the data which is already available or data which you know. (In this case, Employee Code is considered as the lookup value so that the first argument will be H2, i.e., the value which needs to be looked up or searched, will be present on the cell reference ‘H2’).

It refers to the block of values that are needed to be searched. In Excel, this block of values is known as table array or the lookup table. In our instance, the lookup table would be from cell reference B2 to E25,i.e., the complete block where the corresponding value would be searched.

NOTE: The lookup values or the data you know have to be in the left-hand column of your lookup table,i.e., your cell range.

It refers to the column reference. In other words, it notifies VLOOKUP where you expect to find the data, you want to view. (Column reference is the column index in the lookup table of the column where the corresponding value ought to be found.) In this case, the column reference would be 4 as the Employee’s Salary column has an index of 4 as per the lookup table.

The last argument is range lookup. It tells the VLOOKUP function whether we want the approximate match or the exact match to the lookup value. In this case, we want the exact match (‘FALSE’ keyword).

FALSE: Refers to the Exact Match.

TRUE: Refers for Approximate Match.

Press ‘Enter’ to notify the cell that we have completed the function. However, you get an error message as below because no value has been entered in the cell H2i.e. No employee code has been entered in Employee Code which will allow the value for lookup.

However, as you enter any Employee Code in H2, it will return the corresponding value i.e. Employee’s Salary.

So in a brief what happened is I told the cell through the VLOOKUP formula is that the values which we know are present in the left-hand column of the data,i.e., depicting the column for Employee’s Code. Now you have to look through my lookup table or my range of cells and in the fourth column to the right of the table find the value on the same row,i.e., the corresponding value (Employee’s Salary) in the same row of the corresponding Employee’s Code.

The above instance explained about the Exact Matches in VLOOKUP,i.e., FALSE Keyword as the last parameter.

VLOOKUP for Approximate Matches (TRUE Keyword as the last parameter)

Consider a scenario where a table calculates discounts for the customers who do not want to buy exactly tens or hundreds of items.

As shown below, certain Company has imposed discounts on the quantity of items ranging from 1 to 10,000:

Download the above Excel File

Now it is uncertain that the customer buys exactly hundreds or thousands of items. In this case, Discount will be applied as per the VLOOKUP’s Approximate Matches. In other words, we do not want to limit them for finding matches to just the values present in the column that are 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000. Here are the steps:

Step 2) Enter ‘=VLOOKUP()’ in the cell. In the parenthesis enter the set of Arguments for the above instance.

Step 3) Enter the Arguments:

Argument 1: Enter the Cell reference of the cell at which the value present will be searched for the corresponding value in the lookup table.

Step 4) Argument 2: Choose the lookup table or the table array in which you want VLOOKUP to search for the corresponding value.(In this case, choose the columns Quantity and Discount)

Step 5) Argument 3: The third argument would be the column index in the lookup table you want to be searched for the corresponding value.

Step 5) Argument4: Last argument would be the condition for Approximate Matches or Exact Matches. In this instance, we are particularly looking for the Approximate matches (TRUE Keyword).

Step 6) Press ‘Enter.’ Vlookup formula will be applied to the mentioned Cell reference, and when you enter any number in the quantity field, it will show you the discount imposed based on Approximate Matches in VLOOKUP.

NOTE: If you want to use TRUE as the last parameter, you can leave it blank and by default it chooses TRUE for Approximate Matches.

Vlookup function applied between 2 different sheets placed in the same workbook

Let’s see an instance similar to the above case scenario. We are provided with one workbook containing two different sheets. One where Employee’s Code along with Employee’s Name and Employee’s Designation is given another sheet contains Employee’s Code and respective Employee’s Salary (as shown below).



Download the above Excel File

Now the objective is to view all the data in one page, i.e., Sheet 1 as below:

VLOOKUP can help us aggregate all the data so that we can see Employee’s Code, Name, and Salary in one place or sheet.

We will start our work on Sheet 2 as that sheet provides us with two arguments of the VLOOKUP function that is – Employee’s Salary is listed in Sheet 2 which is to be searched by VLOOKUP and reference of the Column index is 2 (as per the lookup table).

Also, we know we want to find the employee’s salary corresponding to the Employee’s Code.

Moreover, that data starts in A2 and ends in B25. So that would be our lookup table or the table array argument.

Step 1) Navigate to sheet 1 and enter the respective headings as shown.

Enter the Vlookup function: =VLOOKUP ().

Step 3) Argument 1: Enter the cell reference which contains the value to be searched in the lookup table. In this case, ‘F2’ is the reference index which will contain Employee’s Code to match for corresponding Employee’s Salary in the lookup table.

Step 4) Argument 2: In the second argument, we enter the lookup table or the table array. However, in this instance, we have the lookup table situated in another sheet in the same workbook. Therefore, for building a relationship we need to enter address of the lookup table as Sheet2!A2:B25 – (A2:B25 refers to the lookup table in sheet 2)

Step 5) Argument 3: Third argument refers to the Column index of the column present in Lookup table where values ought to be present.

Step 6) Argument 4: Last Argument refers to the Exact Matches (FALSE) or Approximate Matches (TRUE). In this instance, we want to retrieve the exact matches for the Employee’s Salary.

Step 7) Press Enter and when you enter the Employee’s Code in the cell, you will be returned with corresponding Employee’s Salary for that Employee’s Code.


The above 3 scenarios explain the working of VLOOKUP Functions. You can play around using more instances. VLOOKUP is an important feature present in MS-Excel which allows you to manage data more efficiently.

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