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Here are Microsoft Access interview questions and answers for fresher as well experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) Explain how you can import data from other sources into Access database?

To import data into Access data-base

Choose the type of the file you want to import

To know which type of file can be import or link Access database, follow the instruction in the Get External Data wizard

👉 Free PDF Download: Microsoft Access Database Interview Questions & Answers

2) Explain what is the size limitation for an Access database?

The Access 2.0 database has the size limitation of 1 gigabyte.

3) Between different data’s what are the types of relationship can be formed?

The table contains your data can build three types of relationship

One-to-one relationships: A single data in one table is linked with a single data in another table.

One-to-many relationship: A single data in a table is linked to several data’s in another table

Many-to-many relationship: Where several data’s in one table is related to several other data’s in another table

4) Explain how you can build a relationship between the different databases in Access?

When you establish a relationship between two data, the first table for your data is referred as the primary key while the new field in another data is called a foreign key.

5) Name some of the file extension for MS Access?

Some of the file extension for MS Access are

Access database.accdb

Access project.adp

Access project.mdw

Access blank project template.adn

Access workgroup.mdw

Protected access database.accde

6) Explain what do you mean by queries?

Queries are the medium of manipulating the data to display in the form or report. Queries can join tables, update data, delete data, sort, calculate, filter, etc.

7) Explain what joins are and how you can open the database in Access?

Joins determines the relationship between tables in Access by stating the details of the relationship between two tables. You can create joins on the database tools tab or by opening a query in design view.

8) Mention how you can create a simple query in Access 2013?

Open your database

Select a query type

From the pull-down menu choose the appropriate table

Select the field you want in the query results

To add information from additional tables, repeat steps 5 and 6

Choose the type of results that you would like to produce

Give your query a title

9) Explain how you can export data in Excel format?

Specify the destination of the file name and format

10) Explain how you can create a table using MAOL (Microsoft Access Object Library)?

To create a table using MAOL, you have to pronounce a variable of type object and then initialize it with the CreateTableDef() method of the recent database object. This technique takes argument as the name of the table.

11) Explain how you can create a form in Microsoft Access 2013?

Forms allow to insert data across multiple tables. There are different methods for creating forms but with Form Wizard method, you can always modify the form later using Design View. To create a form

It will create a new form in Layout view, based on the fields in the Customer table

Scroll the drop down arrow under the View icon and select Form View. This how the user will see the form.

On the form, you will see fields like CustomerId, First Name, Last Name and Date Created

After filling of all details in the form, you can see the newly created record with data in the table

12) In MS Access 2013 what are the different ways you can enter data?

Different methods you can enter data in MS Access are

Datasheet View


SQL View

Import from External Data (XML, Data Services, HTML etc.)

13) Explain the use of WHERE clause in MS Access SQL?

In the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement, you use query criteria. For example, you want to find the address of a particular customer, but you only remember his last name that is Harrison. Instead of searching all the fields in the table, you use where clause to retrieve the address of the customer.

WHERE [LASTNAME] = ‘Harrison’

You cannot link or join fields that have dissimilar data types. To link data from two different data sources, depending on values in fields that have different data types; you will create a WHERE clause that uses one field as a criteria for the other field, by using LIKE keyword.

14) Explain how we can do multi-join query in MS Access?

In Access, we can only join two tables, in order to join more tables you require to group the first join together by using parentheses, as if it was a newly derived table. After that, you can join another table to that group.

Select * from((Table 1 LEFT JOIN Table 2… ) LEFT JOIN Table3…) LEFT JOIN Table4… 15) Explain how MS Access is better than MS SQL Server?

With a small number of users, MS Access is easy to handle and suited for desktop use

Easy compatibility and sharing compare to MS SQL Server

SQL server is, usually, used by developers and in a bigger organization

MS Access is cheaper than MS SQL

MS Access requires less database administration

16) What things to be taken in consideration for lookup fields?

Look up fields: Ensure that you relate tables, links, etc. if you want to show look up values and not look up ids. For the display of lookup values, related table should be linked to the destination field.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

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Top 14 Sdet Interview Questions And Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to SDET Interview Questions and Answers

The following article provides an outline for SDET Interview Questions. SDET, Software Design Engineer in Test or Software Development Engineer in Test, stands for mainly testing performed on a software product. It needed some candidates who can able to develop and as well as perform testing. Microsoft initially started this, but currently, other organizations are very conscious of the same, and they are looking for someone who is an expert in SDET for involving in the full development of their product as well as involving with the testing design, which needs to be performed for that individual development. The organization can introduce the same resource in two key tasks that will always be profitable.

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If you are looking for a job related to SDET, you must prepare for the 2023 SDET Interview Questions. Every interview is indeed different as per the various job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important SDET Interview Questions and Answers to help you succeed in your interview. This 2023 SDET Interview Questions article will present the ten most important and frequently asked SDET interview questions.

These interview questions are divided into two parts as follows:

Part 1 – SDET Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.

1. Explain differences in detail between software development engineering in test (SDET) and testing software manually?

SDET is mainly using doe automation testing. This means developing a product that can be tested automatically without manual intervention. Whereas manual testing does not at all meet these criteria.

2. Write a program to reverse a number in any language?


public class reverseNumber { public long reverse(long num) { long temp=0; while(num!=0) { temp=(temp*10)+(num%10); num=num/10; } return temp; } public static void main(String args[]) { long n= 654312; reverseNumber inp = new reverseNumber(); System.out.println(“Given number is “+ n); System.out.println(“Reverse of given number is “+inp.reverse(n)); } } 3. Explain how we can define ad-hoc testing in the current IT industry?

Ad hoc testing is one of the testings very much famous in the IT industry. This kind of testing is mainly unplanned and without documentation. It usually needs to perform when some ad hoc requirements come from the client; the developer has to develop in the same priority manner. Now tester needs to test it immediately and develop proper deliverables in a minimal period. Documentation or planning is not always possible, but some organizations maintain specific tools for tracking this task, especially for additional billing.

4. Two big keywords normally benefit the tester, one is the priority, and another is severity; explain the difference between them in detail.

Priority and severity are essential keywords in the IT industry, especially for those involved in the production support activity of their provided product or any client’s existing system. Currently, all the big organizations try to follow one specific tool where one helpdesk team has been assigned for handling. Typically, end-users reach that corresponding helpdesk team to raise their concerns, or end-users can create their concerns directly in that specific tool.

Some helpdesk person first analyzes the same, then gives the priority based on the end-user impact. A Helpdesk person, tester, developer, and some point-of-time business analyst are involved with that issue and try to understand the exact impact of that specific issue based on that they have given the severity of that issue. So priority defines how important that issue is, and severity is defined as the impact or destruction ability.

5. Explain a detailed explanation of the job responsibility of a tester or Software Development Engineering in a test role?

Write automation of testing and set up the same for varieties platforms like web or mobile.

Managing and handling bug reports.

Maintaining the proper communication channel between the developer and the client.

Preparing and delivering test cases.

6. What is ad-hoc testing?

Ad-hoc testing is defined as the testing done on an ad-hoc basis without any reference and proper inputs to the test case and without any plan, test cases, and documentation. This type of testing’s main objective is to find defects and break the application by executing different application flows or random functionality.

Ad-hoc testing is an informal way of finding bugs in an application and can be performed by anyone on the team. It will be difficult to find bugs without test cases, but sometimes during ad-hoc testing, bugs will find that we didn’t find through normal testing or existing test cases.

7. Give some examples regarding the typical experiences or excessive load working day of a tester or software development engineer in test (SDET) resources?

Three key tasks are always taken a huge amount of time for the tester on any day:

Understanding the requirements of the project.

Preparing and executing required test cases based on the client’s expected functionalities.

Reporting the bugs identified on individual functionality developed for the client to the developer and retesting the same after redelivery by the developer to ensure expected functionality is properly delivered without any common bug.

Part 2 – SDET Interview Questions (Advanced)

This is one critical decision, so a single person or junior guy has never taken it. Only the developer and tester are not involved in bringing this decision; higher management is periodically involved in that. Management test mainly ensure by validating below to ensure product delivery are bugless:

Validating bug reports provided by the tester. How was the bug resolved, and retesting done by the tester or not?

Validating all the test cases written by the tester for that specific functionality, documentation, and confirmation taken from the tester on the same.

Run automated test cases to ensure new functionalities do not break existing functionality.

Sometimes validating test coverage report ensures all the developing component has been covered by test cases written.

9. Write a program to swap two numbers without using any temp variable?

The program to swap two numbers without using any temp variable is as below:

public class swap{ public static void main (String args[]) { int x = 20; int y =30; System.out.println(“Numbers before swapping”); System.out.println(“ number x is “ + x); System.out.println(“number y is “ +y); x= x+y; y=x-y; x=x-y; System.out.println(“Numbers after swapping”); System.out.println(“ number x is “ + x); System.out.println(“number y is “ +y); } } 10. If someone needs one specific format of bug reports from a tester, then what will be the best way or approach can take by the tester to provide the same?

Bug Summary

Reproduce steps

Expected behavior and current behavior of one specific bug

11. Explain in detail about different kinds of testing called Alpha and Beta?

The tester does alpha testing identified bugs before moving the product to a live environment or the end-user. The determination of beta bugs typically falls to the end-user, who represents the actual user or application of the product.

12. What is Risk-Based testing?

Risk-Based testing refers to testing the functionalities of a product by prioritizing them according to the importance of the deliverables. Risk-Based testing includes testing crucial product features that will have a business impact, and the probability of the failure of those features is very high. Based on the business requirement, we prioritize product functionalities and test them in the order of high-priority, followed by medium and low-priority functionalities. Risk-based testing will be performed when there is insufficient time to test all the product’s functionalities.

13. Normally, there are different categories available to make one specific group by of varieties test cases; give an explanation of them.


Some famous test cases in the current IT industry are below:

Functional Testing

Frontend or User interface testing

Performance Testing

Integration Testing

Load testing or User usability testing

Security Testing

14. Common challenge one software tester commonly faces is proper documentation not maintained for testing. In that case, how can we overcome the same?

One common scenario involves inadequate availability of documentation for all types of test cases. However, fulfilling the requirement and delivering it to the client on time remains necessary. In such cases, testers typically follow client-provided emails that accurately describe all the requirements. In an ideal scenario, the emails would contain screenshots of the application, clearly indicating the specific areas that require changes. Alternatively, testers may engage in Monday meetings or conduct verbal discussions with the client to grasp the exact functionality required for the changes fully. This approach allows for efficient testing and timely delivery within the expected timeline.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to the SDET Interview Questions and Answers list so that the candidate can crack down on these Questions easily. In this post, we have studied the top SDET Interview Questions often asked in interviews. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Top 9 Scrum Master Interview Questions And Answers For 2023

blog / Project Management The Top 9 Common Questions to Crack the Scrum Master Interview

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Within a tech team, a Scrum master wears multiple masks. Depending on the project and the requirements, they sometimes become a product manager or coach and other times, a disciplinarian. That’s why the demand for Scrum masters is skyrocketing with an annual growth rate of 24 percent. But acing the Scrum master interview is not a piece of cake. It involves thorough preparation, research on the company’s profile and the position, and going through the possibly asked interview questions.  

This guide will take you through some of the frequently asked Scrum master interview questions and answers that will help you face the interviewer with complete confidence. But before that, let’s understand how you can prepare for the Scrum master interview. 

How to Prepare for the Scrum Master Interview

Having a clear understanding of the Scrum master’s job roles and responsibilities is the first step toward the preparation for the interview. Additionally, you must have relevant technical skills such as software design and development, programming and process integration, and knowledge of frameworks like Agile, Waterfall, and Kanban to support the Scrum methodology. These are the bonus points to get through. 

Frequently Asked Scrum Master Interview Questions

Here are some of the common questions that interviewers may ask you during the interview session. 

1. What are the Responsibilities of the Scrum Team? 

A Scrum team consists of three responsibilities and roles: Scrum master, product owner, and developers. According to certified Scrum trainer Roman Pichler:  

“The product owner maximizes the value the product creates. The development team creates products that offer a great user experience and have the right quality. The Scrum master offers process and method coaching to the product owner, developers, and stakeholders. Additionally, the Scrum master acts as a change agent and facilitates organizational development.” Let’s understand this in greater detail. 

These are the responsibilities of the Scrum master:

Facilitates meetings, training, conversations, and improvements  

Guide the Scrum team to focus on the sprint goal and enable them to collaborate with other team members  

Prevent the team from external distractions so that they can meet their deliverables  

Bridge the gap between developer and product owner to bring them on the same page 

The responsibilities of product owner are outlined below:

Define the Sprint goal by prioritizing the backlog defined by the product roadmap   

Collaborate with other Scrum team members to establish goals and priorities for the next Sprint  

Be responsible for executing product discovery, strategy, and product vision   

The developer/development team are responsible for:

Organizing and planning how to achieve the set target with quality   

Manage the sprint backlog, inspect and adapt through the daily Scrum, and contribute to the sprint goals 

2. Is Velocity a Good Proxy for Productivity? 

In this fast-moving world, the term velocity refers to the speed of delivery in terms of a particular product, vision, and objective. If a company delays the delivery of the product that customers need urgently, then there won’t be any value in the product produced. So yes, velocity is a good proxy for productivity with respect to the speed of delivery of products created to fulfill customers’ requirements. 

3. Which is the Most Important Scrum Ceremony? 

In the world of agile software, Scrum is an empirical approach that consists of five basic events: 

The Sprint 

Sprint Planning 

Daily Scrum 

Sprint Review 

Sprint Retrospective 

If you’re wondering which one is important, Sprint Retrospective is highly valuable as it helps Scrum teams with an opportunity for continuous improvement.  

4. What is Velocity in Scrum? How is it Measured?

Velocity is a prime metric to measure the amount of work a development team does during a single Sprint. You can calculate Scrum velocity by dividing the total number of completed story points by the number of Sprints. For instance, if the Scrum team has completed 100 story points over 5 Sprints, then the average velocity of the team would be 20 points per Sprint. 

5. What are Some Situations When Scrum Cannot be Useful?

People often believe that Scrum is a solution to all problems. But that’s a myth. Applying Scrum unnecessarily results in a waste of time and effort and a loss of efficiency. So here are some of the situations where you can’t implement Scrum:   

In a complicated environment where you can’t predict the future, upcoming requirements, and technology changes, it’s tough to plan Sprint, which means Scrum is not applicable    

Scrum is avoidable when the company lacks allocated people or a team who should be cross-functional and independent   

You can’t employ Scrum when stakeholders are not allowed to join the Sprint review, as they share valuable feedback on your work during the Sprint  

6. How do You Justify the Scrum Master Job? 

You have to understand the roles and responsibilities of the Scrum master in-depth to justify their job. The responsibilities include:  

Supporting software development with tactics to apply the Scrum framework  

Strategizing deliverables and monitoring team performance  

Providing solutions to issues that hinder team works  

Bridging the gap between the development team and product owner to bring them on the same page 

7. What Will You do as a Scrum Master if the Product Owner is Assigning Tasks Directly to the Team Member? 

One of the prime roles of a Scrum master is to help and coach the product owner. So, in the above case, you (as a Scrum master) can make the product owner discover the true sense of self-organization. A  self-organized team knows how to accomplish its work rather than being governed by others from the external team.  

8. Your Team’s Velocity Drops Over the Course of Several Sprints. What Should You do? 

Scrum velocity is all about being consistent. In case of a decline in the Scrum team’s velocity, being a Scrum master, you can take the following steps: 

Motivate the team to focus on the primary objectives of the Sprint  

Restrict all distractions and eliminate all the team interruptions such as explanations, new ideas, curiosity, and seeking help    

Help the product owner collaborate with the team as it results in a clear understanding of user stories, implementation, and testing of user stories   

Break the stories so that these become easier to do and move faster through the workflow 

Optimize team performance and collaboration and refine the backlogs 

9. How Often do You Think Scrum Masters Should Meet with the Entire Team?

According to Ken Schwaber, a product manager, software developer, and industry consultant, Scrum meetings should occur daily, similar to daily stand-up meetings. He also suggested limiting the team meeting duration to not more than 15 minutes. 

Useful Tips for Scrum Master Interviews

Though the above questions and answers covered everything that you should know to crack the Scrum master interview, small tips and tricks never go to waste. Be confident and honest. Practice these interview questions to enhance your knowledge. Also, explore project management courses on Emeritus to enhance your skills.  

By Shweta Kamal

Write to us at [email protected]

Top 50 Devops Interview Questions And Answers (Pdf)

Here are DevOps interview questions and answers for fresher as well as experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) Explain what DevOps is?

It is a newly emerging term in the IT field, which is nothing but a practice that emphasizes the collaboration and communication of both software developers and deployment (operations) team. It focuses on delivering software product faster and lowering the failure rate of releases.

2) Mention what the key aspects or principle behind DevOps are?

The key aspects or principle behind DevOps is

Infrastructure as code

Continuous deployment




3) What are the core operations of DevOps with application development and with infrastructure?

The core operations of DevOps are

Application development

Code building

Code coverage

Unit testing








4) Explain how “Infrastructure code” is processed or executed in AWS?


The code for infrastructure will be in simple JSON format

This JSON code will be organized into files called templates

This templates can be deployed on AWS devops and then managed as stacks

Later the CloudFormation service will do the Creating, deleting, updating, etc. operation in the stack

5) Explain which scripting language is most important for a DevOps engineer?

A simpler scripting language will be better for a DevOps engineer. Python seems to be very popular.

6) Explain how DevOps is helpful to developers?

DevOps can be helpful to developers to fix the bug and implement new features quickly. It also helps for clearer communication between the team members.

7) List out some popular tools for DevOps?

Some of the popular tools for DevOps are




ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana)





8) Mention at what instance have you used the SSH?

I have used SSH to log into a remote machine and work on the command line. Beside this, I have also used it to tunnel into the system in order to facilitate secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.

9) Explain how you would handle revision (version) control?

My approach to handling revision control would be to post the code on SourceForge or GitHub so everyone can view it. Also, I will post the checklist from the last revision to make sure that any unsolved issues are resolved.

10) What are the types of Http requests?

The types of Http requests are










11) Explain what you would check If a Linux-build-server suddenly starts getting slow?

If a Linux-build-server suddenly starts getting slow, you will check for the following three things

Application Level troubleshooting RAM related issues, Disk I/O read-write issues, Disk Space related Issues, etc.

System Level troubleshooting Check for Application log file OR application server log file, system performance issues, Web Server Log – check HTTP, tomcat lo, jboss, or WebLogic logs to see if the application server response/receive time is the issues for slowness, Memory Leak of any application

Dependent Services troubleshooting Antivirus related issues, Firewall related issues, Network issues, SMTP server response time issues, etc.

12) What are the key components of DevOps?

Here are some important DevOps Lifecycle phases:

Continuous Development

Continuous Integration

Continuous Testing

Continuous Deployment

Continuous Monitoring

Continuous Feedback

Continuous Operations

13) Name a few cloud platform which are used for DevOps Implementation

Popular Cloud computing platform used for DevOps implementation are:

Google Cloud

Amazon Web Services

Microsoft Azure

14) Give some benefits of using Version Control system

The version Control system allows team members to work freely on any file at any time.

All the past versions and variants are closely packed up inside the VCS.

A distributed VCS like helps you to store the complete history of the project so in case of a breakdown in the central server you can use your team member’s local Git repository.

Allows you to see what exact changes are made in the file’s content

15) Explain Git Bisect

Git bisect helps you to find the commit which introduced a bug using binary search.

16) What is the build?

A build is a method in which the source code is put together to check whether it works as a single unit. In the build creation process, the source code will undergo compilation, inspection, testing, and deployment.

17) What is Puppet?

Puppet is a useful project management tool. It helps you to automate administration tasks.

18) Explain two-factor authentication

Two-factor authentication is a security method in which the user provides two ways of identification from separate categories.

19) Explain the term ‘Canary Release’.

A canary release is a pattern which reduces the risk of introducing a new version software into the production environment. It is done by making it available in a controlled manner to a subset of the user. Before making it available to the complete user set.

20) What types of testing is important to ensure that new service is ready for production?

You need to conduct continuous testing to ensure that the new service is ready for production.

21) What is Vagrant?

A vagrant is a tool which can create and manage virtualized environments for testing and developing software.

22) What is the use of PTR in DNS?

Pointer record which is also known as (PTR) is used for reverse DNS lookup.

23) What is Chef?

It is a powerful automation platform which transforms infrastructure into code. In this tool, you can use write scripts that are used to automate processes.

24) What are the prerequisites for the implementation of DevOps?

Following are the useful prerequisites for DevOps Implementation:

At least one Version Control Software

Proper communication between the team members

Automated testing

Automated deployment

25) Name some best practices which should be followed for DevOps success.

Here, are essential best practices for DevOps implementation:

The speed of delivery means time taken for any task to get them into the production environment.

Track how many defects are found in the various

It’s important to measure the actual or the average time that it takes to recover in case of a failure in the production environment.

The number of bugs being reported by the customer also impact the quality of the application.

26) Explain SubGIt tool

SubGit helps you to migrate SVN to Git. It also allows you to build a writable Git mirror of a local or remote Subversion repository.

27) Name some important network monitoring tools

Some most prominent network monitoring tools are:


Icinga 2




28) Whether your video card can run Unity how would you know?

When you use a command


it will give detailed output about Unity’s requirements, and if they are met, then your video card can run unity.

29) Explain how to enable startup sound in Ubuntu?

To enable startup sound

/usr/bin/canberra-gtk-play—id= "desktop-login"—description= "play login sound"

Logout and then login once you are done

You can also open it with shortcut key Ctrl+Alt+T.

30) What is the quickest way to open an Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory?

To open an Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory, you can use custom keyboard short cut.

To do that, in the command field of a new custom keyboard, type genome – terminal – – working – directory = /path/to/dir.

31) Explain how you can get the current color of the current screen on the Ubuntu desktop?

You can open the background image in The Gimp (image editor) and then use the dropper tool to select the color on a specific point. It gives you the RGB value of the color at that point.

32) Explain how you create launchers on a desktop in Ubuntu?

To create launchers on a desktop in Ubuntu you can use

33) Explain what Memcached is?

Memcached is a free and open source, high-performance, distributed memory object caching system. The primary objective of Memcached is to enhance the response time for data that can otherwise be recovered or constructed from some other source or database. It is used to avoid the need to operate SQL database or another source repetitively to fetch data for a concurrent request.

Memcached can be used for

Memcache helps in

Speed up application processes

It determines what to store and what not to

Reduce the number of retrieval requests to the database

Cuts down the I/O ( Input/Output) access (hard disk)

Drawback of Memcached is

It is not a persistent data store

Not a database

It is not an application specific

It cannot cache large object

34) Mention some important features of Memcached?

Important features of Memcached includes

CAS Tokens: A CAS token is attached to an object retrieved from a cache. You can use that token to save your updated object.

Callbacks: It simplifies the code

getDelayed: It reduces the delay time of your script which is waiting for results to come back from a server

Binary protocol: You can use binary protocol instead of ASCII with the newer client

Igbinary: Previously, a client always used to do serialization of the value with complex data, but with Memcached, you can use igbinary option.

35) Explain whether it is possible to share a single instance of a Memcache between multiple projects?

Yes, it is possible to share a single instance of Memcache between multiple projects. Memcache is a memory store space, and you can run memcache on one or more servers. You can also configure your client to speak to a particular set of instances. So, you can run two different Memcache processes on the same host and yet they are completely independent. Unless, if you have partitioned your data, then it becomes necessary to know from which instance to get the data from or to put into.

36) You are having multiple Memcache servers, in which one of the memcache servers fails, and it has your data, will it ever try to get key data from that one failed server?

The data in the failed server won’t get removed, but there is a provision for auto-failure, which you can configure for multiple nodes. Fail-over can be triggered during any socket or Memcached server level errors and not during standard client errors like adding an existing key, etc.

37) Explain how you can minimize the Memcached server outages?

When one instance fails, several of them go down, and this will put a larger load on the database server when lost data is reloaded as a client make a request. To avoid this, if your code has been written to minimize cache stampedes then it will leave a minimal impact

Another way is to bring up an instance of Memcached on a new machine using the lost machines IP address

The code is another option to minimize server outages as it gives you the liberty to change the Memcached server list with minimal work

Setting timeout value is another option that some Memcached clients implement for Memcached server outage. When your Memcached server goes down, the client will keep trying to send a request till the time-out limit is reached

38) Explain how you can update Memcached when data changes?

When data changes you can update Memcached by

Clearing the Cache proactively: Clearing the cache when an insert or update is made

Resetting the Cache: It is similar to the first method but rather than just deleting the keys and waiting for the next request for the data to refresh the cache, reset the values after the insert or update.

39) Explain what Dogpile effect is? How can you prevent this effect?

Dogpile effect is referred to the event when a cache expires, and websites are hit by the multiple requests made by the client at the same time. This effect can be prevented by using a semaphore lock. In this system when value expires, the first process acquires the lock and starts generating new value.

40) Explain how Memcached should not be used?

Memcached common misuse is to use it as a data store, and not as a cache

Never use Memcached as the only source of the information you need to run your application. Data should always be available through another source as well

Memcached is just a key or value store and cannot perform a query over the data or iterate over the contents to extract information

Memcached does not offer any form of security either in encryption or authentication

41) When a server gets shut down does data stored in Memcached is still available?

42) Mention what the difference between Memcache and Memcached?

Memcache: It is an extension that allows you to work through handy object-oriented (OOP’s) and procedural interfaces. It is designed to reduce database load in dynamic web applications.

Memcached: It is an extension that uses the libmemcached library to provide API for communicating with Memcached servers. It is used to increase the dynamic web applications by alleviating database load. It is the latest API.

43) Explain Blue/Green Deployment Pattern

Blue/Green coloring pattern addresses the most important challenges faced during the automatic deployment process. In Blue/ Green Deployment approach, you need to ensure two identical production environment. However, only one among them is LIVE at any given point of time. The LIVE environment is called Blue environment.

When the team prepares the next release of their software, they conduct their final stage of testing in an environment which is known as Green environment. Once verified, the traffic is routed to the Green environment.

44) What are the containers?

Containers are from of lightweight virtualization. They offer isolation among processes.

45) What is post mortem meeting with reference to DevOps?

Post mortem meeting is done to discuss what went wrong and what steps you need to take in order to avoid failures.

46) What is the easiest method to build a small cloud?

VMfres is one of the most effective options for making IaaS cloud from Virtual Box VMs in no time. However, if you want lightweight PaaS, then Dokku is a good option because bash script can be PaaS out of Dokku containers.

47) Name two tools which are used for docker networking.

For docker networking, you can use Kubernetes and Docker swarm.

48)Name some of the areas where DevOps are Implemented

DevOps are used for Production, IT operations, production feedback, and its software development.

49) What is CBD’?

CBD or Component-Based Development is a unique way to approach product development. In this method, developers always look for existing well defined, tested, and verified components to compose and assemble them to a product instead of developing from scratch.

50) Explain Pair Programming with reference to DevOps

Pair programming is an engineering practice of Extreme Programming Rules. In this method, two programmers work on the same system, on the same design/algorithm/code.

One programmer act as a “driver.” Other acts as an “observer” who continuously monitor the progress of a project to identify problems. The roles can be reversed at any point of time without any prior intimation.

51) Explain Resilience Test

Test that ensures recovery without data and functionality loss after a failure is called Resiliency tests.

52) Name three important DevOps KPIs

Three most common DevOps KPIs are:

Meantime to failure recovery

Deployment frequency

Percentage of failed deployments

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

Learn Top 10 Essential Servlet Interview Questions And Answers In 2023

Introduction to Servlet Interview Questions and Answers

Now, if you are looking for a job that is related to Servlet, then you need to prepare for the 2023 Servlet Interview Questions. It is true that every interview is different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important Servlet Interview Questions and Answers, which will help you get success in your interview.

In this 2023 Servlet Interview Questions article, we shall present the 10 most important and frequently asked Servlet Interview questions. These questions are divided into two parts are as follows:

Part 1 – Servlet Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Servlet Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. We normally get two very common servers name in the IT industry; people are calling the web server and application server. Please give some differences in details between a web server and an application server?

A web server is mainly handling end-user request and response. It was normally responsible for handling HTTP request from the client browser and responding the same with proper HTML response. One of the main utility of a web server that it understands HTML language properly and run on a specific define HTTP protocol.

The application server, in another way which has some of the key additional features like Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) support, Transaction Management ability, JMS messaging ability etc. So an application server can assume a web server with some additional features.

Q2. Every web application normally followed the common HTTP method. Explain which HTTP method can be called as non-idempotent?

This is the basic Servlet Interview Question asked in an interview. Servlet HTTP methods have followed some defined method structure. One HTTP method can be called as an important method if that method always returns the same value or the same result. Suppose some of the key methods of Servlet HTTP like getting, delete, put, head, options all are considering as the idempotent method. The funny thing is, we should need to implement that method in such a way that those methods always return the same result. Otherwise, the servlet will not work. But servlet POST method can be considered as the non-idempotent method as we should planning to proper implementation of some critical changes as per the requirement with every valid request in this POST method.

Q3. Two key methods of servlet normally define in a servlet life cycle. Key methods are Get and Post; please explain proper differences between those?

There have some several differences available in Servlet GET and POST methods; differences are:

GET is actually one idempotent or safe method, whereas POST is not a safe method it is called non-idempotent.

In the case of GET method, we have to limit our sending data in the request, as the GET method request should go through the request URL. Whereas POST method request can contain huge values as it moves through a request body.

GET request is definitely not secure as the entire request can display in the URL, where POST request obviously is more secure as it is inside the request body.

An HTTP default method is GET, but we need externally define POST for processing the request through it.

Q4. Explain details about the MIME type available in Servlet?

Let us move to the next Servlet Interview Questions

Q5. In the IT industry, one of the very common and popular applications is Web Application. Please explain what is the exact meaning of web application, how the possible directory structure needs to be maintained for executing or planning one web application properly?

Web Application is one of the popular modules in the IT industry which can be generated for presenting the static and dynamic screen to the end-user through a specific browser. Apache web server is one of the key server normally using in the current industry; it is given the environment a running web application that develops in PHP. And it also able to run the java web application, which mainly depends on servlet and JSP for running web applications in the Apache webserver environment.

Java Web application can be packaged as.WAR,  EAR file can deploy in any supported server.  The normal folder structure of any web application is defined in the below tree structure:

Web application Root Directory à WEB-INF, WEB CONTENT, META-INF à CLASSES, LIB, chúng tôi chúng tôi JAVA SOURCE CODE, JSP or JS

Part 2 – Servlet Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. Explain in details your clear understanding of Servlet in Java J2EE?

CGI technology is one of the oldest approaches for creating a web application and rendering the same to a client browser. Servlet technology mainly introduces for overcoming some of the key problems of CHI technology. Differences are below:

Servlet always provided better performance than CGI on processing request and response in a client browser. As servlet always support multithreading, so every request will create a new thread, which obviously helps for better performance than creating a new object every time.

Servlet is always a platform and system independent. So application developed in servlet can run in any supporting server like tomcat, web sphere, Weblogic etc., and any system platform like Windows, Linux etc.

Servlet container has always been taken care life cycle of a servlet, so we don’t need to worry about some of the key features like leaking memory, security or garbage collecting kind of common activities.

Let us move to the next Servlet Interview Questions

Q8. Servlet has one of the common containers, which is called Servlet Container. Please explain in details about some common task done by the servlet container in the case of a servlet-based web application?

Servlet container is one of the keys contain for any servlet-based application. It sometimes called as the web container. Some of the key tasks have been performed by the servlet container; those are below:

Support of communication between client and server.

Managing servlet lifecycle and using resources.

Supporting multithreading

Supporting JSP

Some undefined or miscellaneous task.

Q9. One of the key objects for Servlet is the servlet config object. Please explain in details about the ServletConfig object using in the servlet-based web application?

This is the most asked Servlet Interview Question in an interview. ServletConfig is normally holding configuration information of one specific servlet. Every servlet should have one servlet config object, which always initializing before starting the servlet by the container.

Q10. Provide some proper differences between servlet config and servlet context?

Servlet-Config and SevletContext both are playing a very important role in running one web application. The difference between servlet config and servlet context is as follows:

ServletConfig has always been unique for one individual servlet, whereas ServletContext has also been unique but for an entire application.

Both are holding init parameters, servletconfig is for one individual servlet, and servletcontext is for the entire servlet define in the application.

ServletContext accepted to add one attribute, but servletconfig don’t.

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This has been a guide to the list of Servlet Interview Questions and Answers. Here we have studied the most useful 10 interview sets of questions so that the jobseeker can crack the interview with ease. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Top 10 Ui Developer Interview Questions And Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to UI Developer Interview Questions and Answers

UI developer plays a major role in developing a website as UI is the first one that lets users go inside a website. It is kind of a first impression. UI developer’s main role provides the user interface solution to the end-user (client, customers, or users) includes an outlook of the website, the feel, and behaviour of the user interface in different scenarios. We can say UI developer is a combination of web designer and web developer. The UI developer needs to consider different aspects while providing a user interface, such as the look and feel of an application’s user interface, functionality, and security. The UI developer needs to possess different skills such as knowledge of different languages such as CSS, HTML, JavaScript, Ajax, and HTTP etc., basic psychology, colour combination for the user interface, logical sorting etc.

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UI developer is challenging role with multi-faces as it is responsible for the transference of a product from research, development, testing, content, and layout into an interface that looks and feels rich, with proper guidance and responsive experience to the end-user. With the user interface’s help, users and computer can interact with each other using this as a mediator to use input-output devices and software. UI Developer role is one of the hot cake job roles in the present market. We will have a look at the most asked or important interview questions for the UI developer role.

Now, if you are looking for a job related to UI Developer, you need to prepare for the 2023 UI Developer Interview Questions. Every interview is indeed different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important UI Developer Interview Questions and Answers, which will help you succeed in your interview.

This 2023 UI Developer Interview Questions article will present the 10 most important and frequently used UI Developer interview questions. These questions are divided into two parts are as follows:

Part 1 – UI Developer Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.

Q1. What is Semantic HTML?

Semantic HTML is a coding style where the tags will contain how texts need to display on the user interface. Tags like bold, Italic should not be used along with semantic HTML as they represent formatting and doesn’t have any meaning or structure. The semantically correct thing is to use these tags to have the same effect as bold and italic, along with meaning and structure.

Q2. How absolute, relative, a static and fixed position will differ?


Absolute: It will place the element exactly where a user wants to place it. In general absolute will place relative to the parent. If no parent is available, then it is placed relative to the page itself.

Relative: It will place the element relative to itself (if we didn’t give any relative positioning); for example, if we set position relative to an element and given as top: 10px, then it will place the element 10px down from where the actual position of the element to be.

Static: It will place the element according to the flow of the document. It uses the default position; if we want to remove any position, then we can use a static position to replace it.

Q3. What is a responsive website?

Any website is meant to be responsive when it looks good and fits in all types of screen resolution device types. In order to re-arrange the elements, display or hide the elements from the user interface, we can use CSS media queries to get things done.

Q4. What is the difference between inline, block and inline-block?

Inline: In this thing, elements will follow the flow without breaking. Margin/padding will push other elements horizontally, not vertically, and inline elements ignore height and width.

Block: It breaks the line and doesn’t fit in the line. It usually has div, p, text, section etc.

Inline-block: It is similar to the inline element and follows the page flow. The only difference is that it will consider height and width.

Q5. Does HTML need a compiler?

In general, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript have interpreted languages or browser interpreted technologies. In contrast, C, C++, chúng tôi PHP have not interpreted languages, and they require a compiler that will convert their code into machine language. So HTML doesn’t need a compiler, and it is called a front-end language.

Part 2 – UI Developer Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What is the difference between window and document?

A document is also under the window as it is a property of the window object. The document represents the DOM represented in object-oriented representation for the HTML markup that the user has written and can get elements by getElementById, addEventListener on the document.

Q7. What is the difference between chúng tôi and normalize CSS?

The difference between chúng tôi and normalize CSS is that chúng tôi removes all the built-in browser styling capabilities like margin, padding, and border. Whereas normalize CSS provides a book-like appearance that includes a bold family to represent characters, a border between two paragraphs and a common font-family for an entire page of the document.

Q8. What is web accessibility?

Web accessibility is defined as providing access to the website for differently-abled or disabled people. Recently HTML5 introduced WAI-ARIA using which even differently-abled and disabled people can able to use the web, navigate, understand and interact with it.

Q9. What is JavaScript hoisting?

This is the most asked UI Developer Interview Questions in an interview. In JavaScript, we need to declare the variables then only we able to access the variables. If a variable is defined at the bottom of the script but called before then, JavaScript throws variable is undefined. In JavaScript, only assigned variables are hoisted like string, numbers etc., undefined variables and functions are not hoisted as they need to define before calling.

Q10. Explain what is event bubbling and event capturing?

Event propagation is the order of events that fire on the element. Bubbling is when an event is fired on the element then bubble up the DOM tree, i.e. child will call first, and then parent node will call, whereas capturing is opposite to the bubbling where the parent node is called first and then child node.

I hope you have prepared well for your interview, and I will assure you after reading this UI Developer Interview Questions article, you will have a better understanding of topics and preparation for the UI developer Interview. I wish you all the very best for your Interview preparation and Interview.

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