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Google Chrome is a wonderful browser offering many hidden features like omnibox search, auto translate bar, video play controls and much more. Chrome also offers URL commands which can be directly entered in the address bar like a website address in the format chrome://command. These commands are very powerful and can be used as a shortcut to access the features quickly.Top 10 Google Chrome URL Command Shortcuts 1. Access Chrome Settings
Normally, you can access the settings page through the menu icon. But you can simply access Chrome’s “Settings” page by entering the command “chrome://settings” in the address bar without going through the menu.
Chrome Settings URL Command2. Check Version and Update
Enter “chrome://chrome” to reach the “About” page of the Chrome browser. Basically you can check out the latest version of your Chrome and update it if it is not up to date. Chrome version also can be checked using URL “chrome://version“.
Chrome Version and Update Check Command3. Check Browsing History
Access browsing history with this URL command instead of going through the menu.
Chrome History Command4. View Extensions
View complete list of installed extensions on your Chrome browser.
Chrome Extensions Command5. Check Flags for Experimental Features
This is URL command to see all experimental features offered by Chrome. As mentioned in the page use any of these features at your own risk.
Chrome Experimental Features6. View Bookmarks
Chrome Bookmarks Command7. Chrome Crash Report
Chrome Crash Report Command8. Chrome DNS Prefetch
View host names for which Chrome will prefetch DNS.
Chrome DNS Command9. View HTTP Cache Files
View HTTP Cache Status in Chrome10. View Site’s Thumbnail
View Site Thumbnails in Google ChromeBonus URL Command
Well, this is the one URL command you should probably remember. You can check the complete list of all Google Chrome URL commands using the following command.
Syntax: chrome://about or chrome://chrome-urls
List of Chrome URLsComplete List of Shortcut URLs:
Below is a complete list of available Chrome URLs:
chrome://aboutList all Chrome URLs
chrome://accessibilityEnable native accessibility API support for web content like screen reader.
chrome://appcache-internalsShow location of Chrome cache instances
chrome://appsShow Google apps like Web Store, YouTube, Gmail, etc.
chrome://blob-internalsShow Binary Large Objects (blob) internal storage data.
chrome://bluetooth-internalsShow Bluetooth device details.
chrome://chromeGo to settings help to view version and update Chrome.
chrome://chrome-urlsShow list of Chrome command URLs
chrome://componentsList all components and option to check for update.
chrome://crashesView all previous crashes.
chrome://creditsList license and homepage details for all Chrome components.
chrome://device-logMonitor the available device details, you can add parameter to this URL to auto refresh and monitor the connected devices.
chrome://devicesView available devices connected in the network, you should login to your Google account to view devices.
chrome://dinoPlay T-rex dinosaur game displayed generally during no internet connection.
chrome://discardsDiscard any of the opened tab.
chrome://dnsShow DNS details that will be prefetched during startup.
chrome://extensionsView list of all installed extensions.
chrome://flagsShow all experimental features.
chrome://flashView Flash player plugin details.
chrome://gcm-internalsGoogle Cloud Messaging (GCM) monitoring.
chrome://gpuView details of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).
chrome://helpView version and update Chrome.
chrome://histogramsHistorical status from startup of Chrome.
chrome://historyView all browsing history.
chrome://indexeddb-internalsShow indexedDB storage details.
chrome://inspectInspect with Chrome developer tools.
chrome://interventions-internalsControl preview allowed and blacklist.
chrome://invalidationsInvalidations debug information.
chrome://local-stateTechnical details of Chrome features and enabled state.
chrome://media-engagementMedia engagement settings and details.
chrome://media-internalsShow players, audio and video device details.
chrome://naclAbout Chrome Native Client (NaCl).
chrome://net-exportNetwork log export.
chrome://net-internalsShow all network events.
chrome://network-errorsList of all network errors shown in Chrome.
chrome://newtabOpen Chrome New Tab.
chrome://ntp-tiles-internalsView sites shown on Chrome New Tab Page (NTP).
chrome://omniboxTest Chrome omnibox search.
chrome://password-manager-internalsPassword manager logs.
chrome://policyView Chrome policies.
chrome://predictorsView auto complete and resource prefetch details.
chrome://printChrome print screen.
chrome://quota-internalsView statistics of usage and quota by viewed sites.
chrome://safe-browsingView safe browsing page details.
chrome://serviceworker-internalsDetails of service worker script.
chrome://settingsGo to Chrome settings page.
chrome://signin-internalsChrome signin details.
chrome://site-engagementDetails of engagement of all viewed sites.
chrome://suggestionsShow recommended suggestions.
chrome://supervised-user-internalsSupervised user account details.
chrome://sync-internalsSync details with your Google account, if summary is ready then account is in sync.
chrome://systemCheck system details like OS version, memory usage and installed Chrome extensions.
chrome://taskscheduler-internalsTask scheduler details.
chrome://termsGoogle Chrome terms of service.
chrome://thumbnailsView thumbnails of top sites shown in New Tab page.
chrome://tracingRecord tracing log.
chrome://translate-internalsLanguage translation settings.
chrome://usb-internalsTest USB device.
chrome://user-actionsList all user actions.
chrome://versionView Chrome version.
chrome://webrtc-internalsShow current Real Time Communications (RTC).
chrome://webrtc-logsReal Time Communications (RTC) logs.
chrome://memory-exhaust/Exhaust memory and show Aw! Snap! page.
Note: Google adds and removes command URLs in every new version. Hence, some of the above listed commands may not work in the latest version and you will see a message “This site can’t be reached” with an error “ERR_INVALID_URL”. You can always use chrome://about to find the list of available URLs for your browser’s version.
You're reading Top 10 Chrome Url Command Line Shortcuts (Full List Included) – Webnots
Snagit is one of the top notch image capturing and video recording apps for Mac. Though you can use the default Screenshot app, processing of images need a quality app like Snagit. When using Snagit, you will be using certain functions like trimming the image frequently. Using keyboard shortcuts for such frequently used functions can save you lots of time.
Snagit Editor for MacTop 10 Keyboard Shortcuts for Snagit Mac 1. Command + Shift + O – Grab text from image
Do you know that Snagit has built-in tool for Optical Character Recognition? Yes, you can easily select the text portion on an image and grab the text with a keyboard shortcut. First, select a text on image using “Selection” tool and press “Command + Shift + O” keys. This will open a “Grab Text Results” box and show you the text content for you to copy.
Grab Text from Image2. Command + Shift + X – Trim image
Sometimes your image may have plain white or no background beyond the required portions. Simply press, “Command + Shift + X” keys to trim the image and remove the outside portion.3. Control + Shift + T – Flatten All
Snagit allows you to create image with multiple layers. This means you can copy and paste one image on another and bring to front or back to adjust. The layering also allows to drag each element on the image like text, stamps, etc. to move independently. When you are done with the complete image, press “Control + Shift + T” to flatten all parts and make it a single image.4. Command + Shift + Z – Save as to Select Image Quality
Quality of an image highly depends on the type of extension you choose to save. PNG is good for high quality images with transparent background. However, you can’t adjust the image size with PNG. On other hand, JPEG allows equal quality with an option to adjust the image quality thus reducing the size. When your image is ready, press “Command + Shift + Z” shortcuts keys to open “Save As” menu.
Trim and Image Quality
Select, “jpg” option from the “Format” dropdown on the bottom of the pop-up. Now you will see a quality slider which you can slide to reduce the quality of the image. We recommend you choosing 60% to 70% quality for the instructional images used on webpages. Since webpages need to load each image as a separate HTTP request, this size reduction will help a lot in improving the page loading speed.5. Command + , – Preferences to Set Keyboard Shortcuts
If you don’t like any of the existing keyboard shortcuts on Snagit, you can customize it from the preferences section. Press, “Command + ,” and open Snagit preferences section. Go to “Keyboard” tab to change the hot keys for the available shortcuts.
shows the shortcut keys to completely remove the shortcuts or assign the previously used one. If you have messed up the setup, press “Restore Shortcuts” to reset the shortcuts to app default.6. Hold Shift – Select Square or Circle Portion
The selection tool on the toolbar helps you to grab a portion of the image. You can then copy, move, blur or do other stuffs with the selected portion. You can hold and drag the mouse pointer to select the portion as per the selection tool properties. The problem arises when you want to select a perfect square or circle portion. First select the rectangle option and simply hold the shift key when selecting with mouse. This will help you to precisely select square portion from the image.
Selection Tool Properties
If you want to select a perfect circle portion then change the selection tool to ellipse from the properties.
Bonus Tip: you can choose the background fill as “Auto-Fill”. This will help to retain the background when you drag a portion of an image.
7. Command + 1 – Image Library
When you have hundreds of images processed over time, you may need to navigate to the “Library” to choose previously processed images. Pressing” Command + 1” will simply take you to the “Library” from where you can search and find your old images.8. Command + Option + T – Toggle Recent Capture Tray
Snagit will retain some of the previously captured images in the “Capture Tray”. You can quickly select the images from the tray. However, this tray occupy considerable bottom portion of the editor. When you want to increase the editor area, press “Command + Option + T” to hide the tray. You can again press the same keys to show the tray for image selection.
If the sidebar distracts your attention, press “Command + 4” to hide or show the sidebar that shows the properties and effects.9. Command + ] or [
When you have large number of images on the capture tray, it is difficult to find the image you are currently processing. Sometimes, you also need to capture few images in sequence and go to the next or previous image for processing.
Press, “Command + ]” keys to highlight and select the next image.
Similarly, press “Command + [“ keys to highlight and select the previous image.10. Control + R – Open Favorite Quick Styles
Snagit offers hundreds of can quickly collect all different styles like callout, text, arrows, stamps, etc. in a single place and use it quickly. For example, you don’t need to go to stamps and look for your favorite every time. Instead, add the stamp to favorite and use it quickly by using “Control + R” keyboard shortcuts.
Favorite Quick StylesFinal Words
Top Line and Bottom Line
The two sections of the income statement, or profit & loss (P&L) statement, of a company
Published July 24, 2023
Updated July 7, 2023What are Top Line and Bottom Line?
The top line and bottom line are two sections of the income statement, or profit & loss (P&L) statement, of a certain company.
The top line item on the income statement refers to a company’s gross sales or total revenue and the bottom line, which is often listed at the end of the income statement, is the net income (also be referred to as net earnings or net profits) generated by the company after deducting the cost of goods sold (including direct labor and materials), general and administrative costs, depreciation and amortization charges, interests, and taxes.
The bottom line of a company is not carried over from one period to the next on the income statement from an accounting standpoint. At the end of the accounting year, upon the closing of all revenue and expense accounts, the net account balance, or the bottom line, is transferred to the retained earnings account.
The income statement, or profit & loss (P&L) statement, is one of the three most important financial statements used for reporting a company’s financial performance over a specific accounting period. It essentially focuses on the company’s revenues and expenses during a particular period.Summary
The top line, which is part of the income statement of a company, refers to the gross sales or total revenue of the company.
The bottom line, which is the item that gets listed at the end of the income statement, is the net income generated by the company after deducting the operating expenses, depreciation, interest, and taxes.
If the ratio of the company’s earnings growth to revenue growth diverges a long way from “1” for a prolonged period, that should be a warning sign as its strategy to generate future profit growth is probably decaying.Understanding the Top Line and Bottom Line Figures Net Income (or Bottom Line) = Gross Sales (or Top Line) – Total Expenses
Top-line and bottom-line figures are useful in determining the financial strength of a company; however, they are not interchangeable. While the bottom line describes how efficient a company is with its spending and operating costs, the top line does not take into consideration operating efficiencies and only indicates how effective a company is at generating sales.
Conversely, they can increase their bottom line through cost reduction – lowering the cost of materials, operating out of less expensive facilities, utilizing tax benefits, limiting the cost of capital, etc.
The most profitable companies typically experience both top-line and bottom-line growth simultaneously by earning more revenues (top line) and reducing their operating costs (bottom line). However, established companies might have flat sales or revenue during a particular period but are still able to boost their bottom line through cost-cutting measures.
A company like Apple might experience sluggish sales and, consequently, weaker top-line growth due to maturing products, lack of new products, and supply constraints. A fall in the top line will often feed through to the bottom line, leading to a smaller net profit.Divergence between Top Line Growth and Bottom Line Growth
The divergence between earnings growth and revenue growth is quite common in companies, particularly mature companies, at least over short periods. Due to a sharp decline in input prices or strict cost control measures undertaken by companies, profits can grow much faster than revenues.
However, only a few companies are in the position that they can go on getting price increases over and above the inflation rate in their revenues year after year. There’s always a limit to how much profit even the most efficient company can squeeze out of any fixed amount of revenue.
Therefore, if a company’s revenue growth has been consistently falling behind its profit growth, its capacity to generate future profit growth will be in deep decay.
The same remains true if the profit growth is slower than the sales growth year after year. To put it differently, if the ratio of the company’s earnings growth to revenue growth diverges a long way from “1” for a prolonged (say five to seven years), it should be a warning sign as its strategy to generate future profit growth is probably decaying and looks doubtful. The value potential of the company’s strategies is just about spent, and there are problems around the corner if the ratio consistently diverges by a large margin.More Resources
Ubuntu’s Update Manager makes it relatively easy to upgrade your installation to a new major release. The utility’s graphical interface guides you through a step-by-step wizard that should be easy to follow.
But there are times when you cannot use a graphical utility – for example, on servers you don’t have access to a graphical interface. In this case you are forced to use the command line to upgrade Ubuntu.
However, this is not the only scenario where this is useful. The command line interface usually lets you see more about what is going on. Most command line utilities output a lot of text while they work. Consequently, you might prefer this method if you want to see the details of the upgrade as it happens. You can also more easily spot potential errors if they arise.do-release-upgrade Command Line Switch “-d”
The utility to upgrade Ubuntu from a previous version to an upgraded version is called do-release-upgrade. It’s actually a script written in the Python programming language.
Normally, the script will upgrade from one stable release (or LTS – Long-Term Support) to the next. For example, it might update Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04. However, when a new LTS version appears, you cannot upgrade to it until its first point release. What this means is that if you’re currently using 16.04.5, you can’t upgrade to 18.04. You have to wait until 18.04.1 is launched. It’s recommended to actually wait for the first point release. The first new LTS release might still hide nasty bugs, but if you really need the new LTS, as soon as it comes out you can use a command line switch to force the utility to upgrade. So if 18.04 just came out, you can upgrade with
before 18.04.1 comes out. Otherwise, if 18.04.1 is already available, use the command without the switch:
sudodo-release-upgrade How to Upgrade Ubuntu with do-release-upgrade Command
Before the upgrade it’s recommended that you temporarily disable any third-party repositories, such as PPAs or entries you added in “/etc/apt/sources.list” or “/etc/apt/sources.list.d/.” If you know you didn’t add any repositories from other providers except Ubuntu, you can, of course, skip this step.
Some packages from these repositories might interfere in unexpected ways with new packages from the next Ubuntu release. Afterwards, run sudo apt update to refresh package information. Then, use a command such as sudo apt autoremove nginx to remove programs you have installed from third-party providers.
If the do-release-upgrade command is not available on your system, install it with
It’s usually installed by default though.
Your software packages have to be up to date before upgrading to a new Ubuntu release. Update all packages on your system.
apt upgradeUpgrading to Short-Term Support Ubuntu (Optional)
Even numbers, such as 18.04, indicate a long-term support release (LTS). Odd numbers, such as 19.04, indicate a development, short-term support release. If you’re currently on an LTS version and want to upgrade to the next LTS, skip the steps in this section. But if you’re currently on an LTS version, such as 18.04, and want to upgrade to 18.10 or 19.04 (whichever is the next available), edit this file:
Change Prompt=lts to Prompt=normal. Press Ctrl + X, then y followed by Enter to save the file.If You’re Upgrading Your Local Computer
Although you can open a terminal emulator on your graphical desktop, this presents a problem. When the graphical server gets upgraded, it might get restarted. This would, in turn, make you lose your terminal session, so it’s better to log out from your graphical session. Afterward, press Alt + Ctrl + F2 or Alt + Ctrl + F3 and log in on the TTY console before starting the upgrade script below.Start Ubuntu Upgrade
Simply start the upgrade script.
Now, carefully follow the steps in the wizard. They will be slightly different depending on your upgrade scenario. For example, when connected to an SSH session, you will get an extra step like the one in the following image.
In later steps you will almost certainly be asked what to do with configuration files that have changed in new package versions.
If you have changed the mentioned configuration file, you might want to type “N” to keep your changes. The same is true if your server provider has made changes to those files. This is something that you will have to investigate yourself. If you or your provider didn’t make any special changes, type “Y” to pull in the updated configuration file.Conclusion
The upgrade process is not complicated, but complications may arise. It usually depends a lot on how “clean” your system is (no third-party repositories). After the upgrade utility finishes its job, all you have to do is reboot your machine. Normally, the script will give you the option to reboot, but if it doesn’t, you can just run:
Provided you don’t run into any upgrade bugs or bugs with new software installed, everything will work perfectly once the machine is rebooted.
Fell in love with computers when he was four years old. 27 years later, the passion is still burning, fueling constant learning. Spends most of his time in terminal windows and SSH sessions, managing Linux desktops and servers.
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If there’s an app that you’ll want keyboard shortcuts for on Mac, it’s Keynote. You can navigate your presentation and any videos in it, move around views as you’re creating a slideshow, or simply control the Keynote window.The Keynote window
Control the Keynote window by minimizing, hiding, or closing it using these handy keyboard shortcuts:
Minimize the window: Command + M
Minimize all windows: Option + Command + M
Hide Keynote: Command + H
Hide all other app windows: Option + Command + H
Enter full-screen mode: Control + Command + F
Zoom out: Command + < (left angle bracket)
Zoom to selection: Shift + Command + 0 (zero)
Zoom to fit: Option + Shift + Command + 0 (zero)
Return to normal size: Command + 0 (zero)
Open Keynote preferences: Command + , (comma)
Open the Pages User Guide: Shift + Command + ? (question mark)
Close the window: Command + W
Close all windows: Option + Command + W
Quit Keynote: Command + Q
Quit Keynote with windows open: Option + Command + QKeyboard shortcuts for playing a presentation using presenter mode
When you’re ready to play your presentation using presenter mode, have this list of keyboard shortcuts nearby to move smoothly through the slideshow:
Play your presentation: Option + Command + P
Pause your presentation: F
Pause your presentation with a black screen: B
Pause your presentation with a white screen: W
Go to the first slide: Home or Fn + Up arrow
Go to the last slide: End or Fn + Down arrow
Go to the next slide: Right arrow or Down arrow
Go to the next slide without animation: Shift + Right arrow
Go to the previous slide: Left arrow or Up arrow
Go through previously viewed slides: Z
Show the slide number: S
Show or hide the pointer: C
Show or hide the Presenter Notes: Shift + Command + P
Scroll up the Presenter Notes: U
Scroll down the Presenter Notes: D
Increase Presenter Notes font size: Command + Plus sign (+)
Increase Presenter Notes font size: Command + Hyphen (-)
Switch the primary and presenter displays: X
Reset the timer: R
Hide the presentation and move to the last app used: H
Quit presentation mode: Escape or Q
Show or hide keyboard shortcuts: ? (question mark) or / (forward slash)Keyboard shortcuts for controlling a video in your presentation
If you have a video embedded in your presentation, you can control it with keyboard shortcuts too:
Play your video: Space bar
Pause or resume playing the video: K
Rewind the video by frame when paused: J
Fast forward the video by frame when paused: L
Move to the beginning of the video: I (capital letter “i”)
Move to the end of the video: O (capital letter “o”)Keyboard shortcuts when using Navigator view
For moving through your presentation as you’re creating it, use these shortcuts in Navigator view:
Select multiple slides: Shift + Drag through the slides
Indent selected slides right: Tab
Move indented slides left: Shift + Tab
Add a new slide at the same level as the selected slide: Return or Shift + Command + N
Duplicate a selected slide: Command + D
Delete a selected slide: Delete
Go to the next slide: Down arrow
Go to the previous slide: Up arrow
Skip a slide in your presentation or show a slide you’re skipping: Shift + Command + H
Expand a group of slides: Right arrow
Collapse a group of slides: Left arrowKeyboard shortcuts when using Light Table view
For moving through your presentation as you’re creating it, use these shortcuts in Light Table view:
Select the first slide: Command + Up arrow
Select the last slide: Command + Down arrow
Expand your selection to the next slide: Shift + Right arrow
Expand your selection to the previous slide: Shift + Left arrow
Expand your selection to the first slide: Shift + Command + Up arrow
Expand your selection to the last slide: Shift + Command + Down arrow
Go to the next slide: Right arrow
Go to the previous slide: Left arrow
Using keyboard shortcuts for Keynote on Mac can help you not only create your slideshow faster but navigate while you play it easier.
For more, browse through our Keyboard Shortcuts section for controlling other Mac apps.
Check out next:
interface) that’s made to look and act somewhat like Windows and Mac.
tasks that are difficult or impossible with the GUI, and for tasks that you do a lot, such as launching the same applications everyday, it’s often faster. When you read about using the command line, which is often abbreviated to CLI for “command-line interface”, they usually mean typing commands into a terminal. This is a term leftover from the olden days of interfacing with mainframes via dumb terminals which had no processing power of their own; they were pretty much just monitors and keyboards. When we refer to a Linux terminal it’s a software application, and if you want to get technical it’s a terminal emulator.
So the first step is finding a terminal on your Linux system, and I haven’t seen a Linux distribution yet that didn’t include several by default. On KDE look in your start menus for Konsole, and on Gnome look for Terminal or Gnome-Terminal. There are dozens of different terminals: xterm, aterm, rxvt, eterm, and many more. Apparently Linux geeks love terminals.
Wading through all those menus to launch our terminal is tedious, so our first step in learning mighty command-line powers is a fast keyboard shortcut for opening a “run command” dialog. This way we can quickly type in the name of an application to start it. Press the Alt and F2 keys at the same time, and on KDE you see something like Figure 1. Gnome calls it “run application” and it looks similar, with one very nice addition– an alphabetical graphical menu to browse. On KDE type in konsole and press Run, and in Gnome type terminal or gnome-terminal and press Run. Lo and behold, your shiny terminal opens before you, just like Figure 2 shows.
What you see displayed in the terminal is the command prompt, in this example carla@xena:~$. This tells you the name of the user, the name of their computer, ~ means the current directory is Carla’s home directory, and $ means ordinary, unprivileged user. When you see # that means all-powerful root user.
called locate. It’s a very fast way of finding files on your system.
somewhere in the name.
the command line. Type:$ locate tiger
get the computer to do that work for me?
So what if I try:$ locate squirrel
specific file in that mess looks way too hard.
The locate command depends on a database of every filename on your system, and most Linux distributions automatically update this database daily. It doesn’t hurt to update it manually just to make sure, using the updatedb command. You need root powers to do this, which on Ubuntu you get with the sudo command:$ sudo updatedb
It can take a few minutes, so be patient.Pipes to the rescue
many squirrel pictures as I do, try searching for files containing “cat”:
Remember, q will get you out of less and back to the command prompt.
useful command Linux offers.
lines matching a particular pattern.
the name. Now I know exactly where the file is.Counting lines
files with “cat” in the name are programs.
in the name:
wc (word count) program:
words and characters.
How many do you have?
GIMP: From Novice to Professional.
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