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This post has been updated. It was originally published on April 11, 2023.

There are more than 700 steel knots in The “Bobbed Wire” Bible, Jack Glover’s “illustrated guide to identification and classification” of barbed wire. They have names like Scutt’s Wooden Block, Greenbriar, Glidden Union Pacific, and the J. Brotherton Parallel. Scrupulously updated and republished by Cow Puddle Press starting in the 1960s, the bible—like the rest of barbed wire’s history—is one-part Americana and one-part innovation. Glover’s book and similar materially-specific compendiums (the Barbed Wire: Identification Encyclopedia comes to mind) document the minutiae of fencing materials and techniques. But these texts are also treasure chests of historical and cultural insight; behind each illustration is an inventor, a time, place, and origin story.

Because that’s the thing about barbed wire: It’s a physical object—you could hold it in your hand if it wasn’t so sharp—but it’s also an idea.

The use of barbed wire in the West

The American frontier was never actually empty. Native Americans have lived on the land for at least 15,000 years. The evidence is clear, from the Mesa Verde Dwellings in Colorado to the millions of indigenous people still living in the southwest today. But white settlers, unleashed on the landscape by Abraham Lincoln’s Homestead of Act of 1862, which gave each citizen the right to claim 160 acres of public land, certainly treated it that way. As they worked their way west, they sought to clear the land of its human and non-human inhabitants, and exert control over the dirt that remained. One of the most practical challenges these families faced was drawing boundaries—keeping people, crops, and cattle in (or out).

With too few trees to build wooden fences, and walls of prickly vegetation too slow to grow, some enterprising settlers began tinkering with wire. But there was one major problem: “[W]hen a wire fence was placed between a 1,000-pound Texas longhorn and a patch of lush green pasture, it proved to be something of a pushover,” writes George Pendel in his Atlas Obscura article on the barbed wire mecca of La Crosse, Kansas. That’s where the barbs came in. According to Atlas, the U.S. Patent Office processed more than 200 different patents for various types of “spiked fencing” between 1867 and 1874. The contraptions varied widely, from lines alternating spikes and wooden boards, to sheets of wood studded with spikes. But Lucien Smith is credited with making the first barbed wire prototypes, which he called “thorny wire.”

Barbed wire production took off in the early 1900s once machines allowed it to be made at scale. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration

That answers the questions of who invented barbed wire and when was barbed wire invented. The trouble was that all of these products were made by hand. It wasn’t until 1874, when Illinois farmer Joseph Glidden emerged victorious from patent battle over a mechanically-produced fencing material that barbed wire could be made at scale. Glidden’s machine pulled two strands of wire tight around the barb, then wound the wires together around the regularly-spaced spikes. Just two years later, Glidden’s company was making 3 million pounds of the stuff each year, making Glidden a quick and sizable fortune. Other speculators won big on barbed wire, too. John Warne Gates, better known as “Bet-A-Million Gates,” went from selling the poky product to manufacturing “moonshine” (or unpatented) wire himself. His company was acquired by U.S. Steel, where barbed wire would make robber baron J.P. Morgan even richer.

Mass-production sent homesteaders on a fencing spree. Previously, the design podcast 99 Percent Invisible explains, the “law of open range” prevailed out west. As cowboys drove their cattle to sale, the herd could crisscross the land, drinking water and grazing as they went. But barbed wire restricted cattle’s access to streams and rivers. And it was everywhere. By 1885, the entire Texas panhandle was already fenced, according to the Texas State Historical Association, creating a patchwork of privately-owned lands, each wrapped in a barbed wire bow. The effect on wildlife was quick and catastrophic: In a review article for the The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Wayne Gard described “leathery longhorns … crazed by thirst.” Native Americans called barbed wire “devil’s rope”, because it ensnared wild buffalo. (Like cattle, they struggled to see the thin wire lines before they were wrapped up in it.) Trapped, they died of hunger or thirst, or succumbed from infection as their barbed wounds festered.

[Related: A new mapping method could help humans and wildlife coexist]

Humans weren’t exempt from barbed wire’s wrath. From the earliest days, it’s been marketed as a tool of oppression and control. “Companies promoting barbed wire fencing used imagery in their promotional materials that played on familiar prejudices of the day,” Rebecca Onion writes in her political history of barbed wire for Slate. “[F]armers and ranchers interested in buying knew that they could keep Native Americans, black people, children, beasts owned by others, and poor people out with the new invention.” It persists in prisons, concentration camps both historical and terribly contemporary, and border walls, which continue to threaten wildlife today).

The making and significance of barbed wire today

Barbed wire’s biggest use hasn’t changed, though. Charlie Rugh is the vice president of sales and marketing for the San Antonio Steel Company. “The primary goal was to fence in cattle,” he says, but “it’s a lot more diverse now.” Specifically, people aren’t just fencing in cows, but horses, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, and even exotic animals like bison, elk, or deer. This has forced a big shift over the last 50 to 75 years, Rugh says, stimulating new innovations in an old industry.

SASCO, for example, sells fixed knot fences, which is barb-free but strong enough to hold up on widely-spaced posts; horse fence with tight 2-by-4 inch spacing to keep hooves from getting stuck; and, of course, five variations of classic barbed wire, which remains crucial, in Rugh’s words, for “keeping 1,500 pound animals off the highways and byways and motorways.”

These wires are more durable than ever, thanks to two big developments. First, in the 1980s, manufacturers began developing high-tensile barbed wire, Rugh says. They mix steel with a miniscule amount of carbon fiber for more flexibility, without compromising strength. By exposing polymers to high heat, scientists can forcibly crystallize carbon molecules, concentrating them at unusual densities, while keeping substances light.“You’re getting a wire that weighs half as much, but performs the same if not better,” Rugh says. And because it’s lighter, it’s also cheaper, making it more appealing to farmers who struggle to keep their agricultural operations profitable.

Wire rods were used for the production of spiked fencing. Photo: Department of Transportation National Archives and Records Administration

Then, in the early 2000s, Rugh says, the industry turned its focus to new methods for galvanizing the steel, the better to ward off rust. The best barbed wire is now coated in a mixture that’s 95 percent aluminium and 5 percent zinc. “That’s been used in utility wires, stranded cable, and things like that. And they’ve begun to transfer that to ag wire,” Rugh says. While conventional Class I barbed wire lasts seven to 10 years and the Class III galvanized products on the market can keep up to 20 or 30 years, the zinc/aluminum-coated cables could last on the order of 50 years, at least according to salt spray tests designed to see how these products stand up to the elements.

Despite its evolution in the American west, the biggest innovations in barbed wire are coming from other shores. “A lot of the fencing technology and improvements have always developed in Australia and in New Zealand,” Rugh says. “The North American market has lagged behind and been slower to adopt these new technologies.”

[Related: Travel through time on history’s most ridiculous rides]

But barbed wire’s cultural resonance has persisted in the US. There are barbed wire museums, competitions, even an Antique Barbed Wire Society. Mostly, though, it provides structural support to the myth of the wild West: an endless expanse for the taking, a dangerous template for conquest that’s been transposed from California to other countries, the internet, and even outer space.

In his 1949 post-war poem Memorial for the City, W.H. Auden used barbed wire as a recurrent motif—a symbol for borders, bureaucracy, and violence. “Barbed wire proclaims that you are kept out or kept in, and, when you resist, it rips you,” he wrote. “Other barriers weather, crumble, grow moss; wire merely rusts, and keeps its sting.” For many people, that’s the appeal.

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What Is The History Of Corporate Governance?

Before we go any further, let’s define: corporate governance involves all the systems influencing a company’s direction – all the processes, structures and mechanisms. 

In some ways, the concept had existed since the dawn of modern corporations – around the 17th century, when European powers began to exert their dominance worldwide. 

In other ways, corporate governance is new, because the modern idea only emerged in the latter part of the 20th century. It is this idea that this article will focus on, and we can reduce its history to a few key takeaways:

It is generally accepted to have begun in the United States during the 1970s.

Lawmakers have often increased its importance in their drive to avoid economic crashes and large-scale business scandals. 

Such growth has repeatedly been interrupted by periods of pushback, particularly from fiscal conservatives and proponents of laissez-faire economics. 

Legislation around corporate governance has coalesced into national “codes” that act as corporate governance rulebooks. 

That “1970s” beginning point might seem odd. How could this vital business concept have been born so late in the game?

Part of the answer is that corporations have always undergone some form of governance, but nothing compared to modern times’ level of control and oversight. Now, governments, consumers, and corporate culture care a lot about ensuring that companies live by a strict system of laws and practices. 

Looking to the future, it is doubtful that this drive for more accountability will fade. 

How did corporate governance start?

The modern iteration of corporate governance started in 1970s America – when authorities began to care more about the inner workings of some of the country’s biggest companies. Most of these companies had spent the previous two decades enjoying enormous success in the markets, with little legal oversight, while their boards largely went along with management decisions.

Corporate governance was born in this environment, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – the country’s market watchdog – led the efforts to develop it. 

Although the SEC had been in operation since the 1930s, it was only forty years later that it began clamping down on what it deemed foul play in the markets and boards that were “asleep at the wheel” while it was occurring. 

Reform through legislation began from that point on. In the 1980s, it endured a backlash from Reagan-aligned opposition, who didn’t want this regulatory reboot. Legal and economic scholars joined them as they thought more research was needed to develop a comprehensive package of rules to govern companies. 

From the 90s, investors and shareholders finally began to care more about the companies they worked with. After the 2008 economic crash, that attention grew again. Suddenly, everyone wanted answers on how businesses behaved and how they made internal decisions. 

That level of attention has continued to grow to this day.

Corporate governance outside the US

Elsewhere in the world, things have evolved a little differently, although many other countries have considered the US an early example. 

Another notable example is the United Kingdom. Because while the US was the first to place importance on good corporate governance, the UK was arguably the first to get to the nitty-gritty. In other words, it sought to answer the question, “how do we make companies behave themselves?”

The UK was the first country to introduce a detailed corporate governance “code”, and it has been copied and adapted in many countries across the globe since. 

In the early 90s, a string of corporate scandals prompted the government to commission a report – dubbed the Cadbury Report – which contained the framework for a new set of rules.

The code was fully launched in 1998 and was the first to include the “comply or explain” concept, which has been copied in other national codes since. “Comply or explain” requires companies to adhere to the law, and if they don’t, they must explain why in writing. 

Lawmakers hoped that his policy would enforce a more rigorous standard of corporate governance in the UK and prevent high-profile scandals from happening again. 

Elsewhere in Europe, attention began to fall on corporate governance in the early 2000s – but it failed to stop the high-profile losses of the late-2000s recession. Increasingly, as the EU becomes more centralised in regulating markets, the rules for corporates within the bloc are becoming stricter. 

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What did early corporate governance look like?

Early corporate governance culture had a lot of hope but little follow-through. 

By the 1970s in America, officials had realised that reform was needed to steer corporations away from cheating the marketplace, but by and large, they hoped that this problem would sort itself out. The only input that authorities would have in the meantime was encouragement. 

Throughout this period, businesspeople (and lawmakers) jealously defended the right of corporations to pursue a more laissez-faire business model. They wanted to make their own business decisions independently of government oversight.

The early days did produce some critical milestones in America, however. The Protection of Shareholders Rights Act 1980 introduced, for the first time, a minimum standard for large public companies – making rules for independent boards, thorough audits, and safeguarding shareholders’ rights. 

The first corporate governance codes

1998 – The United Kingdom. Introduced after years of review and building on the work of the Cadbury Report. This code served as a template for others and pioneered essential principles like “comply or explain”.

2000 – India. One of the earlier adopters of a corporate governance code came following the work of the “Birla Committee” – set up to improve standards in corporate governance that existed at the time. The Indian code was influenced heavily by its British counterpart.

2002 – The United States. Introduced party in response to the high-profile bankruptcies of telecoms company WorldCom and energy and commodities firm Enron.

2002 – Australia. The Australian government has updated it several times, mostly due to financial scandals.

2003 – Canada. Canada’s law was passed to complement the American version and was heavily influenced by it.

2024 – Japan. Established by the Tokyo Stock Exchange.

The EU has no corporate governance code defined in legislation, instead relying on directives for this kind of guidance. Directives, essentially, are a level down from laws. They set out requirements, but the responsibility for introducing legislation to enforce them lies with member states.

Some European examples of this include:

2002 – Germany, after the nation’s second-largest construction company Phillip Holzmann filed for bankruptcy in a major corporate scandal.

2010 – Spain.

2014 – Ireland, upon the passing of the Companies Act.

Why is corporate governance necessary now?

Corporate governance has grown thanks to expanded codes, more rigorous legislation, and a general shift in marketplace culture. 

Far from the early days of the 1970s, now there are stakes, and they are here to stay. This means that if a firm fails to, or in some cases chooses not to, act in the name of good corporate governance, its decision could have catastrophic effects. 

It’s a simple chain reaction: bad corporate governance creates an environment of poor ethical decisions, which will land the firm in hot water. Once a company starts going down this road, it’s a question of “when”, not “if” trouble will occur. 

Is corporate governance more important now than ever?

Yes – plain and simple. There are several reasons for this:

The amount and severity of corporate scandals, bankruptcies, and financial penalties against corporations are not decreasing. Government pressure to do well is mounting, and public scrutiny is right alongside. 

Legislation mandating corporate governance is being expanded and is increasingly cross-border in focus. 

COVID-19, the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and the global supply crisis have all created a tremendously uncertain environment where investors are screaming for clarity and safety. 

The rise in importance of Environmental, Social and Corporate governance ( ESG ) – which essentially requires companies to care about goals besides profit – demonstrates that the world values corporate integrity, and wants to maintain that priority in future.

Corporate governance is a standard on which businesses will be judged. Those judging are also those who can provide funding and business, so it’s a simple choice: please them and survive, or don’t and face bankruptcy. 

What can happen if things go wrong?

Much of the legislation and codes above were rolled out in response to big scandals – in other words, the worst examples are what fuel the strictest laws. This alone should be enough for companies to realise the importance of good corporate governance. 

Not following governance codes, getting lax, boards falling asleep at the wheel – not only could these land a company in trouble with lawmakers, but it can also seriously harm their business prospects. 

Examples of when things went wrong:

2002 – WorldCom. Already mentioned, many accept this scandal as the main reason the US launched its corporate governance code a short time later. 

Essentially, this long-distance telecommunications company (the second largest in America in the early 2000s) was forced to “re-state” its corporate earnings for the five previous quarters in a row, leaving a hole of approximately $3.8 billion. 

This massive gap was intentional – perpetrated by senior management, using complex accounting techniques to hide losses so that they could meet their Wall Street targets. Internal accountants, in conjunction with external auditors at KPMG, eventually discovered what they had been doing. 

By the time the board grasped the gravity of the situation, it was too late. The company was already struggling with poor credit ratings and piling debt. It ultimately announced it would lay off 17,000 employees and file for bankruptcy. 

WorldCom survived, albeit under a new name of MCI, and was subsequently acquired by Verizon in 2006.

2014 – Tesco. It is one of the biggest supermarket chains in the UK and Ireland, but in 2014, the organisation tumbled into chaos over misleading accounts, which the board failed to supervise appropriately. 

That year, it was discovered that the company had “artificially” inflated its recorded profits by £263 million to make itself more attractive to investors.

After the discovery, four senior executives were suspended from the company, accounting firm Deloitte and audit company PwC also came under scrutiny for their roles, and the Tesco board had to wipe £2 billion away from the company’s value. 

2024 – WeWork. WeWork is a lesson in how not to manage one of the most pivotal moments in a startup’s lifespan. The company – a provider of co-working spaces – aimed to go public in 2023, but was forced to cancel this plan a short time later. 

Ahead of going public, the company was valued at around $47 billion, on the back of several investment rounds and years of business. Around this time, WeWork filed a public prospectus, showing potential buyers the company’s financial state. 

This document is supposed to provide reassurance and entice investors, but WeWork’s 2023 document did the opposite – spooking buyers by revealing a string of financial losses. It cast severe doubts over the $47 billion price tag. 

Critics condemned the company, primarily for its poor corporate governance record and how it impacted WeWork’s ability to make even tiny profits. 

Ultimately, the company had to cancel its plans to go public, while co-founder and CEO Adam Neumann resigned. 

In summary

Corporate governance may have come late in the game compared to the companies themselves, but decades of history have shown that its importance will only grow. 

The concept has won the attention of investors, consumers and politicians alike – largely thanks to a string of financial scandals: the shining examples of what can happen if corporate governance doesn’t exist. 

These stakeholders are eager to prevent these types of scandals in future, and they are now going further than ever to ensure this is a reality.

4 Of The Best Internet History Tracking Apps You Can Use

Viewing Internet browsing history has many uses. You can do online research, keep track of idle surfing and prepare mental notes. While parental control solutions can achieve the same goal, the focus of this article is not surveillance. Instead, it is about gaining a bird’s eye view of the websites you surf.

Here are some of the best Internet history tracking apps you can use.

1. History Viewer

History Viewer is a nicely-rated freeware which offers basic website and application tracking on Internet Explorer, Firefox and Google Chrome. Available only with Windows, the software is extremely lightweight at less than 2 MB.

With this, you can easily view every website, its cookies and your file histories. History Viewer works quietly in the background, so it is best to install if someone else is using your computer.

2. Time Your Web

The extension also allows you to pause your history tracking whenever you want. Also, you can add ignoring rules for frequent websites you do not wish to track. You can see a summary of all the websites on a daily, weekly and monthly basis.

Overall, it is a pretty neat extension which gives the feeling of a microscope when it comes to your surfing activities.

3. Activity Watch

Apart from Windows and Chrome, Activity Watch is also available as a Mozilla extension and measures the time you spend on each site in Firefox. It is an open-source Internet history tracker and remains free for all users.

Keep in mind that right now they do not have proper installers and packages for Linux users. You have to download the GitHub zip file and then follow the step-by-step config instructions at this link.

At the moment of this writing, the build for Windows and Mac is broken which may improve soon.

4. RescueTime

RescueTime is a premium full-fledged software which helps you keep complete track of all your online activities. You can monitor all the applications and websites directly from the system tray. The software allows you to pause and resume tracking whenever you want. You can visit any of the forgotten websites from the dashboard itself.

A free light version is available which does the job perfectly. A premium version is available for $9 per month or $72 per year. There is a two-week free trial if you want to try out the extra features. One strength is “Focus,” which allows you to block all distracting sites for a certain number of minutes.

The Premium version also allows you to neatly categorize websites based on how distracting they are. Additionally, you may compare the times you spend on mobile phones with desktops.


Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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Exploring The History In Our Blood

In the video above, watch as Desa Larkin-Boutté learns more about her family history.

Desa Larkin-Boutté knows her mother’s family well. Growing up, she would listen to stories about how her great-great-grandmother danced around a fire to celebrate her emancipation from slavery. Or how her great-grandfather, from Coffeeville, Miss. — a town whose main attraction is the Piggly Wiggly — sent his children to school by renting land to sharecroppers.

But she never did learn much about her father’s side.

That changed when Larkin-Boutté (COM’10) enrolled in the Family History Project, developed by the Howard Thurman Center and New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS), the oldest and largest genealogical society in the country.

Larkin-Boutté, who has lived with her mother since her parents divorced when she was five years old, saw the project as an opportunity to reconnect with her father and his family. Mainly, she was interested in uncovering some of her multicultural roots. “Although he’s fair and could pass as white, if you ask my dad about his race and roots, he identifies as black-Creole,” says Larkin-Boutté. “So I found it compelling that I was never able to trace his family back to Africa. Through DNA tests and historical documents, the furthest back I traced was to Scandinavia.”

The semester-long project includes a series of research trips, classes, and workshops, led by scholars such as John Thornton, a College of Arts & Sciences history professor, Linda Heywood, a CAS professor and director of the African American Studies Program, and Harvard University’s Henry Louis Gates, Jr., who produced the PBS series Faces of America. The scholars help answer questions about family history and explain the origins of people and world events that shaped migration, including conflict, genocide, slavery, economics, and political and religious persecution.

Each student is paired with a NEHGS genealogist, who helps navigate the center’s resources, including chúng tôi — the world’s largest online family history database — and off-line resources, such as compiled genealogies, birth and death certificates, census records, marriage licenses, and immigration and naturalization records. For documents unavailable on site — as is common with international records — NEHGS orders them through the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, which contains more than 2.4 million rolls of historical records on microfilm.

In the video above, Brandon Stinchfield learns how he’s related to Bill Gates.

Before the first meeting with the class, NEHGS genealogists did some digging, which revealed, among other things, that Brandon Stinchfield (CAS’10) was related to Microsoft chairman Bill Gates. The name of the Stinchfield family, which has lived in Massachusetts for at least 12 generations, was immediately recognizable to NEHGS genealogists, who tracked Brandon and Gates to a common ancestor, Thomas Tupper (b.1567), founder of Sandwich, Mass.

D. Joshua Taylor, NEHGS director of education and programming, says tracing names and dates is only the beginning of a genealogical quest. “Genealogy connects people to the historical past by discovering how their ancestors lived during pivotal events like World War I and the Salem witch trials,” he says. “It makes history come alive.”

In the video above, Raul Fernandez searches for answers about his ancestors, such as why one moved from Mexico to Puerto Rico.

Raul Fernandez understood that well when he discovered that one of his ancestors, Antonio Fernandez, immigrated to Puerto Rico from Mexico. “Before I discovered Antonio, my connection to Mexico was intangible,” says Fernandez (COM’00), assistant director of the Howard Thurman Center. “Afterwards, I began caring more about its culture and current events. As I continue researching, I want to answer questions about my ancestors’ motivations, like why did Antonio have to leave Mexico?”

The TV show Who Do You Think You Are? whose season premiere features Taylor, has helped to make it cool to trace family roots. NBC’s Friday night series takes seven celebrities — Sarah Jessica Parker, Emmitt Smith, Brooke Shields, Susan Sarandon, Lisa Kudrow, Matthew Broderick, and Spike Lee — throughout the world, tracing their family histories. Sarah Jessica Parker stops at NEHGS in that first episode and with help from Taylor, finds an ancestor who was spared from being tried as a witch in 17th-century Salem. The season finale, with Spike Lee, is tomorrow night, April 30.

“Genealogy is no longer just an old person’s hobby,” says Taylor. “It has been refreshing to work with students who are overflowing with questions, rather than being stopped at a brick wall for 30 years. They help us see how research is evolving with the new generation.”

Robin Berghaus can be reached at [email protected].

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Iphone Os 1 To Ios 17 – A Brief History Of The Iphone Software

Apple’s iOS operating system has come a long way since it first released in 2007. Over the years, every new version has introduced groundbreaking features and improvements. From the introduction of the App Store in iPhone OS 2 to the addition of 5G connectivity in iOS 14, the history of iOS is packed with some remarkable stories. 

In this editorial, we will take a trip down memory lane and explore Apple’s iOS versions, from the first-ever iPhone OS to the latest iOS 17. We will delve into the key features and improvements that each version brought to the table, highlighting the significant milestones in the evolution of the iOS operating system.

iOS 17

iOS 17 is announced on June WWDC 2023. The focus of iOS 17 was redesigning and upgrading the system apps and features. The Message, FaceTime, and Phone apps got several enhancements. Besides, Apple worked on connectivity by introducing NameDrop and FaceTime on Apple TV.

The most highlighted features of iOS 17:

Personalized Contact Posters 

Live Voicemail 

Video voicemail and Reactions on FaceTime 

Search Filter, Catch up arrow, Swipe to reply, Transcription of voice messages, Check-in features in Messages app

Live Stickers 

StandBy feature 

Share contact card using NameDrop 

Journal app

Mindfulness feature on Health app

Create Profiles on Safari 

Collaborated playlist on CarPlay

Upgraded Autocorrect and Dictation abilities 

iOS 16 – September 12, 2023

iOS 16 was announced at the WWDC event in June 2023 and released in September 2023.

The most noticeable upgrade in iOS 16 was the supported features for Dynamic Island for iPhone 14 Pro models. It made the new notch design more fun by displaying animated notifications and offering controls around the camera. 

Also, Crash Detection, Always On display, Emergency SOS via Satellite, etc., are exclusive features of the iPhone 14 series supported with iOS 16. 

Key features of iOS 16:

Customizable Lock Screen

Live Activities

Better Focus Filters

New Message features

Redesigned Apple Maps

Apple Pay Later

Apple Order Tracking

iCloud Shared Photo Library

Live Texts on videos


Safety Check function

Improvements to Spatial Audio

Voice Isolation in phone calls

Advanced Data Protection for iCloud

Apple Music Sing karaoke

iOS 15 – September 24, 2023

Unlike iOS 16, the iOS 15 update was more focused on software bug fixes, system improvements, and polishing features of built-in apps.

Additionally, the pandemic era influenced the feature upgrades. Apple worked on increasing security and privacy, preventing ad tracking, and improving Siri, Camera, FaceTime, Messages, etc. 

As of writing, iOS 15 is supported on iPhone 6S series and later and the iPod touch 7 Gen.  

Key features of iOS 15:

New FaceTime features – Spatial audio, SharePlay, FaceTime Link, Mic modes, Portrait modes, etc.

iMessage Share with you 

Better Focus Filters with Notification Summary, Signal your status, etc.

Live Text and Memory features in the Photos app

Advanced Spotlight search

App Privacy Report

Mail Privacy Protection

On-device Siri

Digital Legacy program

Redesigned Safari tabs

Detailed Maps  

Improved Health and Wallet app

iOS 14 – September 17, 2023

iOS 14 version lists similar system improvements very much like iOS 15. There were no significant changes. Apple added a few enhancements like privacy controls, Home Screen widgets, customization options, etc. 

Key features of iOS 14:

Widgets on the Home Screen

App Library

Improved call notifications

Picture in Picture Mode

Redesigned Siri 

Translation, Password monitoring, and Website Privacy Report in Safari

Pinned Conversations and improved group texting in Messages

New Memoji Styles and Stickers

Cycling directions and Electric vehicle routing in Maps

Translate app

App Clips

iOS 13 – September 19, 2023

Before iOS 13, iPad also ran iOS. But Apple took a big step by introducing a new iPadOS to make the iPad more productive and a possible laptop replacement. Since then, iOS and iPad OS have always been rolled out simultaneously.

The most visible new feature was the Dark Mode. Additionally, iOS 13 improved essential functions, like a faster app start, Face ID, Portrait Lightning, redesigned pre-installed apps, etc.

Key features of iOS 13: 

System-wide Dark Mode

30% faster Face ID unlocking

Revamped Apple Maps

Smarter HomeKit

Sign In With Apple user account

New privacy and security options

Portrait Lighting effects

New, improved Siri voice

Overhauled system apps like Photos, Mail, Reminders, and Notes

iOS 12 – September 17, 2023

The 12th iteration of the iPhone software had just a few new additions. Primarily, it improved regularly used functionality for providing a better user experience. Apple introduced Siri Shortcuts, ARKit 2, Screen Time tracking, etc.

Key features of iOS 12:

Grouped Notifications

Screen Time

ARKit 2 for enhanced Augmented Reality

Siri improvements


iOS 11 – September 19, 2023

iOS 11 got special features to support the iPod touch, iPad, Apple Watch, and Apple TV.

Therefore, its primary features included more iPad-specific features like split-screen apps, drag-and-drop functionality, a file browser app, and support for Apple Pencil handwriting, etc. 

Key features of iOS 11:

iPad functions

AirPlay 2 

Support for Augmented Reality

iOS 10 – September 13, 2024

The release of iOS 10 was a watershed moment for the Apple ecosystem. It offered several APIs to integrate third-party solutions into the system apps. Thus, iPhone got a boost of interoperability and customization in its UI and applications. Also, Siri became more accessible to third-party apps. The best part was Apple allowed users to uninstall built-in apps.

Key features of iOS 10:

Embedded ​iMessage apps

Delete built-in apps

Split Control Center into multiple panels

Integration of Siri with third-party apps

Smarter QuickType keyboard

3D touch displayed widgets 

iOS 9 – September 16, 2024

iOS 9 prioritized building a solid base for the operating system to improve the speed, responsiveness, stability, and performance of older devices. After significant modifications to iOS’s design and technological base, users started to feel that iOS was no longer the reliable, trustworthy, and competent it previously was. 

So, Apple decided to work on strengthening the OS’s basis rather than introducing new features, laying the framework for the larger enhancements in the next iOS updates. To get a public reaction and acceptance, iOS got the Public Beta feature. So, before the actual release of the upcoming iOS version update, people can get a taste of it.

Key features of iOS 9:

iOS 8 – September 17, 2014

In iOS history, iOS 8 was a significant update as it introduced the contactless payment system named Apple Pay and the Apple Music subscription service. Also, it polished the iCloud features for more reliable and consistent performance. The most useful feature unveiled was the Handoff feature to seamlessly switch between Apple devices.

Apple walked in for a Dropbox-like iCloud Drive with the addition of iCloud Picture Library, and iCloud Music Library. To save subscription costs, Apple offered Family Sharing to enjoy content individually with a single subscription. Moreover, the HealthKit and HomeKit features focused on users’ daily living.

Key features of iOS 8:

Apple Music

Apple Pay

iCloud Drive


Family Sharing

Spotlight Suggestions

QuickType in keyboard

HomeKit and HealthKit

Extensibility framework for third-party extensions

iOS 7 – September 18, 2013

iOS 7 was a troublesome update, and users were dissatisfied as things didn’t operate as expected. It included a significant redesign of the user interface in the update and opted for a flat look. But some users found it difficult to read because of the tiny, thin letters, and others experienced motion sickness because of the constant animations. 

Besides, Apple provided quick access to the most used features with Control Center and launched AirDrop, Activation Lock, and CarPlay. Additionally, Siri got new voices and a redesigned look.

Key features of iOS 8:

Activation Lock



Control Center

Thumbnails in App Switcher

Improved Notification Center

Smarter Siri

Touch ID

iOS 6 – September 19, 2012

In the history of iOS versions, iOS version 6 saw the most controversies because of Apple’s escalating rivalry with Google. Although the newly launched Siri was a real breakthrough technology, issues with it resulted in significant revisions.

Besides, from iPhone OS version 1.0, Google has included the Maps and YouTube applications pre-installed. But this time Apple replaced Google Maps with a new Apple Maps. But it was not up to the mark because of glitches, inaccurate instructions, and issues with other functionalities. 

Sidelining the flaws, iOS 6 got a Podcast app, more capable Siri, a Panoramic mode in Camera, and access to make FaceTime calls over cellular data.

Key features of iOS 6:

Apple Maps

Do Not Disturb

Passbook (now Wallet)

New features in Siri like launching apps

Panoramic photos

FaceTime over cellular data

iOS 5 – October 12, 2011

iOS 5 was a turning point for Apple as it introduced crucial new features like Siri, iCloud, wireless iPhone activation, and Wi-Fi iTunes syncing. Users could download and install software updates on their iPhones without a computer. Besides, for better user experience and accessibility, iPhone got Notification Center and iMessage.

Key features of iOS 5:




Notification Center

Redesigned Reminders and Newsstand apps

Wireless syncing and activation

iOS 4 – June 22, 2010

With iOS 4, the futuristic iOS started to take form as Apple tagged the “iPhone OS” as “iOS” for the first time. Many revisions to this version included features like FaceTime, multitasking, iBooks, Game Center, arranging programs into folders, custom wallpapers, Personal Hotspot, AirPlay, and AirPrint.

Moreover, Apple included Bing as a search engine for Safari and allowed users to merge multiple email accounts in one inbox. It was the first iteration of iOS to stop supporting all iOS devices. It was incompatible with the first-generation iPod touch or the iPhone.

Key features of iOS 4:






Game Center

Personal Hotspot

System-wide spell checking

5x digital zoom

iPhone OS 3 (iOS 3) – June 17, 2009

iOS 3 was the first operating system for the iPad and came out of the box with the iPhone 3GS without any charge. Users were able to copy and paste text system-wide. Besides, Spotlight search, MMS support in the Messages app, and the capability to shoot films using the Camera app are just a few of the new features it included.

Key features of iOS 3;

Copy and paste​

Spotlight​ search​

Voice Memo app

Recording videos

iPhone OS 2 (iOS 2) – July 11, 2008

iPhone OS 2 was meant for iPhone 3G model, which included support for the 3G network. As iPhone became a big hit, app developers tried to jailbreak iPhone to install third-party apps. So, Apple introduced development tools like APIs and SDKs for software companies to launch apps in App Store to prevent installing apps from the web.

During its debut, the App Store had around 500 applications. Besides, Podcast support, walking, and public transportation instructions in Maps, iTunes Genuine playlist, and enhancements to Mail, Calculator, and Contacts using Microsoft Exchange support were other significant additions to iPhone OS 2.

Key features of iOS 2:

App Store​

Developer APIs and SDKs

Support for Microsoft ActiveSync and Microsoft Exchange

Improved Maps app​

iPhone OS 1 (iOS 1) – June 29, 2007

But it lacked support for actual third-party applications and came with basic pre-installed apps like Calendar, Pictures, Camera, Notes, Mail, and Phone.

Key features of iOS 1:

Visual Voicemail​

Multitouch interface









Music (iPod Touch)








Videos (iPod Touch)



What to expect from iOS 17?

The new update, which is set to be rolled out at WWDC 2023 on June 5, may get features like call recording, Lock Screen widgets, Split Screen, dual apps, third-party App Store, etc. To find out more, go through our article on iOS 17 rumors and expectations.

Long live iOS!

Apple’s iOS has evolved significantly over the years, from its humble beginnings in iPhone OS 1 to the latest iOS 16. With each new version, Apple has introduced innovative features and improvements that have transformed the way we use our iPhones and has continuously pushed the boundaries of what is possible in mobile technology.

Explore more…

Author Profile


Ava is an enthusiastic consumer tech writer coming from a technical background. She loves to explore and research new Apple products & accessories and help readers easily decode the tech. Along with studying, her weekend plan includes binge-watching anime.

Nasa Full Form: History, Interesting Facts & Areas Of Research

What is the Full Form of NASA?

NASA is the world-leading space agency that millions look upto for making the impossible possible. The full form of NASA is  National Aeronautical and Space Administration which came into existence on 29 July 1958. It got operational on 1 October 1958.

From opening an office of Planetary Protection to launching a spy satellite, NASA is full of wonders. Let’s walk through the journey of this International Space Agency.

Watch our Demo Courses and Videos

Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.

NASA: The Global Space Leader

Currently is headed by Administrator Bill Nelson, a former US. Senate and payload specialist of latitude shuttle mission 61-C in 1986.

NASA Strategic Plan

Broaden knowledge with new scientific discoveries.

Establishment of human’s sustainable presence on the moon by 2025 through its Artemis program, active since 2023.

Drive innovation to address national issues and catalyze economic growth.

Upscale operations and skills for the current and future success in missions.

NASA Pyramid of Functioning

NASA has four functional mission directorates that govern its overall functioning:

1. Aeronautics Research 2. Science

This center specializes in Astrophysics, or the area of expertise in studying the evolution of the universe, solar system, and Earth.

3. Space Technology

It deals with working on new developments in exploration technologies and space science.

4. Human Exploration and Operations

This center deals with everything, from launching services to space and robotic communications.

The crewed space missions are a motto of the Human Exploration and Operations center.

Infrastructure of NASA

With an annual budget of $23.2 billion as of FY 2023, the space agency has nine centers and 8 test laboratories, including Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

History of NASA

President Eisenhower founded NASA by signing the National Aeronautics and Space Act after Sputnik 1’s launch by the Soviets.

The government eventually dissolved NACA ( National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics).

Langley Aeronautical

Ames Aeronautical

Lewis Flight Propulsion

In December 1958, It acquired control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, operated by the California Institute of Technology.

The Rise of Space Age

Then President John F Kennedy’s proposal that the country must send one to the moon by the end of the 1960s kickstarted its space launching journey.

First Human on Moon

Neil Armstrong was the initial to step foot on the moon in 1969. Afterward, 24 American astronauts reached the moon, of which 12 walked on it through 9 Apollo programs.

Interesting Fact

Apollo was America’s one of most expensive scientific missions, costing it more than $280 billion!

This jumpstart continued with some of NASA‘s uncrewed missions viz Viking, Galileo, Mariner, and Galileo to explore the solar system.

The Last moonwalk with Apollo 17, the last crewed mission beyond low Earth orbit, ended the Space race.

A Research Boost

This mission brought with itself enormous data and samples for research in:


Computer and Telecommunications



Physics, etc.

Launch of Satellites

NASA launched numerous Landsat satellites in 1972 as a part of Earth applications.

Launching communication and weather satellites, it came to the forefront with its outer Earth explorations.

Launch of the 1st Space Shuttle

NASA launched Columbia, the first space shuttle, on the 20 anniversary of the first human spaceflight.

On June 1983, the First American woman Sally Ride into space and boarded Space Shuttle Challenger STS-7 mission.

With the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, the agency’s focus shifted to reaching Mars by 2030.

Some Areas of Research

Human Spaceflight (2005-Present)

Near Earth Object detection(1998 onwards)

In 2023, the Head of the Science Mission Directorate space agency announced the agency’s plan to join the hunt for unidentified objects(UFOs) and aerial phenomena.

With numerous active programs and space ventures, working at NASA is the dream of millions of astrophysics enthusiasts.

NASA has come a long way from the phenomenal in-space repair of the Hubble Space Telescope to detecting ghost lights from the galaxies with it.

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