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We don’t follow Android as closely as we probably should, so this is news to us:  Today’s USA Today says that Google is using an entirely different VoIP neutering strategy at the behest of Tmobile.  AT&T forbids Apple from allowing VoIP applications from running on their network.  T-Mobile makes Android use theirs according to the report.

Apple does allow VoIP applications over Wifi (or at least they had until Google Voice came along), esentially because AT&T doesn’t control any part of that ecosystem.  For instance, should Apple kill Google Voice functionality on the iPod touch because AT&T doesn’t want it on the iPhone?

Strangely, Tmobile/other carriers are forcing Google’s Android to take an entirely different approach.  Instead of allowing full Skype VoIP access on Android, they are only allowing Skype Lite to work on the device.  Skype Lite works a bit like Google Voice – which requires Skype to go over Tmobile’s voice line – which incurs voice minutes and often negates the benefits of VoIP. 

Also, FYI, Tmobile doesn’t allow the Skype application to work in countries where it carries the iPhone.

This policy might even be worse than AT&T…which is why Google is now being investigated by the FCC as well. 

Android “does not support a full-featured version of Skype,” Skype told USA TODAY. “In order to make Skype available on Android devices, as well as hundreds of other regular mobile phones, we designed Skype Lite.”In a statement prepared for USA TODAY, Google acknowledged that it “has the ability to filter,” or block, VoIP. The search giant said it does that “at the request” of individual operators. Right now, there are just two Android devices in the USA: the G1 and MyTouch, both sold by T-Mobile.

Google’s explanation would seem to suggest that T-Mobile requested the block on Skype, but the carrier says that’s not the case. “T-Mobile has not asked Google to block that service,” says spokesman Joe Farren, referring to original Skype.Google says the latest version of Android for developers would support full VoIP, but no developer has submitted an app.

It is good to see that the FCC is opening up the inquiry to the whole industry and not singling out Apple/AT&T.  We’re pretty sure Verizon and Sprint could use a good looking over too.

Update: Andry Rubin of Google wants to clarify that the USA Today might have been speculating without cause (and takes a second to jab at the Apple/AT&T situation:

I wanted to briefly set the record straight about an inaccurate claim in Friday’s USA Today. The article stated:

“Consumers who use Android, the Google-developed operating system for wireless devices, can’t use Skype, a leading Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service. A pioneer in free Internet calling, Skype allows you to talk as long as you want without draining cellphone minutes.”

Here are the facts, clear and simple: While the first generation of our Android software did not support full-featured VoIP applications due to technology limitations, we have worked through those limitations in subsequent versions of Android, and developers are now able to build and upload VoIP services.

While individual operators can request that certain applications be filtered if they violate their terms of service, USA Today is wrong to say that:

“Google’s explanation would seem to suggest that T-Mobile requested the block on Skype, but the carrier says that’s not the case. “T-Mobile has not asked Google to block that service,” says spokesman Joe Farren, referring to original Skype.”

As we told USA Today earlier in the week Google did not reject an application from Skype or from any other company that provides VoIP services. To suggest otherwise is false. At this point no software developer — including Skype — has implemented a complete VoIP application for Android. But we’re excited to see — and use — these applications when they’re submitted, because they often provide more choice and options for users. We also look forward to the day when consumers can access any application, including VoIP apps, from any device, on any network.

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Voip And Cellular Mobile: Blurring The Lines

Pushing IP voice calls across cellular data networks: It’s technically feasible, but the business model has always been tricky, with carriers ever anxious to maintain the financially rewarding model of billing voice and data as distinct plans.

Now that distinction may be breaking down, with one top tier carrier poised to allow the use of VoIP via GSM, or voice within its data network. A third-party partner would bill voice and data use as a single plan, with the carrier taking a share of the usage fee in exchange for the use of its network.

Such is the deal announced recently by VoX Communications Corp. (a subsidiary of Pervasip Corp.) and Unified Technologies Group (UTGI), who say they will team with a leading mobile network, as yet unnamed.

In the big picture, the model being established here could potentially change the rules of the game, pushing carriers to look beyond the traditional separation of voice and data, said VoX founder and CIO Mark Richards.

“This is a first step over the divide, with the end result being that major carriers all migrate to a data network, so that the voice network with all its complexities eventually goes away,” he said. “It is potentially that invasive.”

When the offering goes live—before the end of the year—UTGI will charge users $69.95 for unlimited voice and data, including taxes and fees, according to CEO Ben Piilani. The carrier will be named then.

The product will be sold under the band name Zer01, and while UTGI already has over 100 distributors signed on, Piilani said the company is searching for more.

“Our biggest challenge is in notifying the general public. Most of our distributors already have business-to-business relationships in place and affinity groups, but even those relationships still don’t get us all the way to the general public.” He’s looking to word of mouth to help get the ball rolling.

VoX meanwhile will be there to handle the nuts and bolts: managing the SIP signaling, providing phone numbers, managing origination and termination, delivering number portability, provisional DID servicing, emergency services, caller ID, three-way calling and other services.

Richards said that, while this initial effort will rely on the network of a tier one carrier, in the long run it may be the smaller carriers who benefit most from such arrangements.

It’s hard right now for smaller carriers to out-market tier one carriers in the effort to woo customers. By allowing voice traffic over data lines under a revenue sharing plan, smaller players might lose revenue-per-capita, but they also stand to pick up considerably more customers with the promise of a cost-effective offering. “The alternative is to lose the entire revenue stream to a larger marketing machine,” Richards said.

Above and beyond the business model, UTGI is bringing to the table technical savvy, in the form of a software solution to a problem that has long plagued the mobile environment, Piilani said. There’s too much fragmentation, he said, with 200 device makers, 20 operating systems.

“We’ve seen from other demonstrable projects like Fring and Trufone that VoIP is able to be done over a mobile device, but there are a lot of issues in the mobile environment,” he said. Part of UTGI’s offering involves the ability to cut across the clutter in order to make it simple for carriers to transport data efficiently across diverse variables.

The software likewise has been built with stability in mind, loaded with features that automatically seek out the most stable configurations. Developers have built in the capacity to change codecs, modify bandwidth compressions, “whatever needs to happen for it to be stable in a mobile situation,” Piilani said.

This striving for stability also helped inform UTGI’s decision to work with VoX as a partner on this project. In the first place, VoX has geographic redundancy in its resources, offering some reassurance that service will remain consistent even in the face of unexpected events.

At the same time, Piilani noted, VoX’s tools all have been developed in house, making it relatively easy to tweak capabilities as needed to suit UTGI’s needs. “They were able to customize it exactly the way we needed it to be,” he said.

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The Best Iphone Apps 2023 (Updated Recently)

Your phone is capable of anything nowadays, from fostering your relationship prospects to searching for recipes. In case you’ve got an iPhone or iPad, then Apple’s App Store provides a massive group of software to download and revel in.

With so many different apps available — and so many classes — where do you begin? Additionally, since costs may fluctuate between different choices, which ones are worth the higher price and which ones are not worth it at no cost? We have assembled the very best apps, showing which choices grow over the rest.

If you’re looking to spend some time playing great games, take a trip over to our frequently updated list of the best iPhone games.

The best iPhone Apps iOS essentials Google

Should you require a refresher about which Google is, well, honestly, we are not certain how you were able to find us . While it might not be Android, Google’s app is at home on iOS, also it supplies all of the super-powered search abilities you have come to expect in the Big G.

It is maybe the best method to come across some info, whether it’s who won the Soccer World Cup in 1958 (Brazil), or that neighboring restaurants arfe still available and accepting orders.

Your info from the Google accounts is synced and it is going to push any events or news it believes you might find curious to the front part of the app when you bring this up. A superb app, and consistently worth downloading.

Google Chrome

Need to pull the site you’re considering a week back on your computer? No issue, Chrome recalls. Additionally, it comprises a range of different attributes, such as search bar autocomplete, information saving solutions, and infinite tabs. Just make sure you wash out your tabs sometimes — nobody needs 80 tabs.

Compare Your iPhone Below:


While it might have peaked, there is little doubt in anybody’s mind that Facebook is that the social networking website, and if you would like your phone to become Facebook official, then you want this app.

Facebook has evolved from only being upgrades by friends, and today you’ll come across a neighborhood market, video centre, as well as memories in yesteryear.

Additionally, it is a must-download as a lot of different apps like to use Facebook as a login option, providing you a easy alternative for registering — that provides a fantastic choice to Sign in using Apple.

Also read: iPhone 14 Pro Max Is Apple’s New iPhone To Be Launched In September (Know The Release Date, Specification, Rumour & More)


YouTube has had something of a rugged time on iOS, with vanished at Apple’s whims at iOS 6. Luckily, Google brought it right back again. It is another program you most likely already know about — and if you do not, please meet us in 2005.

So many men and women use YouTube and upload movies to a daily basis, therefore there is a shocking number of videos accessible from everybody from mom bloggers, to video game pros, to individuals who prefer to shoot phones apart.

It currently features YouTube Premium, a subscription-based service which allows playlists to be downloaded and viewed offline, ad-free seeing, and video playback using a lock display.

It is going to cost you $12 per month, however, and YouTube is nevertheless excellent with no, and thus don’t feel as if you’re missing out if you’re not ready to pay.


It might be possessed by Facebook, but Instagram stays the finest social network for sharing images and destroying them with absurd filters. We state destroying, but we place X Pro II on virtually everything.

You are able to follow certain interests in addition to individuals, which makes it a wonderful spot to gather inspiration for jobs, vacations, or just about anything.

If you are not the kind to shoot a lot of images you do not have to feel pressured into share — only scatter on the homepage and also relish shots from those that you follow along.


It is the largest app on earth at this time, and the reason is because Houseparty makes it super simple to get in touch with friends and nearest and dearest in the comfort of your own house.

As opposed to relying on you to put calls and await friends to input, Houseparty works at a more casual manner. If your friends come online, Houseparty will alert you, and provide you the choice to connect in any continuing calls, or begin one of your very own. It’s also got quizzes and games to pass time together with your pals.


For people who find themselves engaging in a whole lot of group chats, GroupMe makes it simpler to keep an eye on all of them. Add folks simply with only their telephone number, and they are able to start chatting without even having to download the app.

It is possible to name your classes, place avatars, and save your photographs and videos inside group chats to refer back to afterwards. There is a desktop variant , which means that you can keep on chatting without having your phone from your pocket.


Facebook’s Messenger support can also be offered as a standalone app, helping you to talk to your Facebook friends and anyone on your contacts that has the app installed. On top of that, you do not even have to get signed in to Facebook to utilize it.

Also read: Top 5 Automation Tools to Streamline Workflows for Busy IT Teams


WhatsApp, that is an excellent pick for anybody who does not have unlimited texting and spends a whole lot of time linked to Wi-Fi, enables you to send and receive messages, photos, music notes, and video messages. It is among the most feature-packed chat apps on the market, and certainly worth downloading if you are a normal chatter.

Despite this being a global sense, many Americans do not utilize it, which is strange, as it is a fantastic app. Do yourself a favor and give it a go.

Marco Polo

A movie chatting app from the vein of the renowned app, Marco Polo is the best video chat app for active men and women.

As opposed to waiting until you are ready for a telephone in precisely the exact same moment, Marco Polo recordss your movie and sends it out if you’ve got a moment — essentially altering the idea of a live video conversation to a movie letter.

If your recipient (or recipients) is prepared to see your video, then they could load it up and respond in kind. A superb group speaking tool, Marco Polo is ideal for if text chatting just is not romantic enough, but linking on live movie is hard.


If you would like to install or are searching for a chat set to get a lot of like-minded men and women, then Discord is your thing to do. It is fully cross-platform, which means that you may go from the telephone to the pc, and again without losing a minute of banter, and it has all of the qualities you expect from a chat app.

It has voice conversation, You can combine groups readily via a connection, which makes it easy to connect your buddies.

Dating app Tinder

Also read: The Proven Top 10 No-Code Platforms of 2023

Food NYT Cooking

The New York Times is not only about the news; in addition, it can supply you with some outstanding recipes. NYT Cooking is your home for thousands of recipes, with new recipes added weekly.

It’s a strong filtering system, which means that you are able to look by diet, cuisine type, preparation method, and much more, and you are able to mark down that recipes you have tried (and the way they moved ). You can even get the very same recipes and your profile from any apparatus too.

Explain The Usage Of Classes And The Benefits Of Inheritance In Swift


This article will guide you about the usage of Class and what are the benefits of using inheritance in the Swift language.

In this article, we will cover the following things −

What is a class and what is its usage in Swift?

What is inheritance and what are its benefits?

What is a Class?

In the Swift language, a class is a representation of properties and methods. We use classes to encapsulate properties and methods into a single entity that has the same characteristics.

We use classes to store information in variables and constants. A class can contain methods to calculate information and return values if required.

For example, we can create a class named Student to store information like name, age, grade, score, school, etc using variables. To manipulate the properties we can define methods.

Benefits of Class

It is possible to inherit characteristics from one class to another by using classes.

During runtime, typecasting allows users to verify the type of the class.

The de-initializer releases memory resources.


In this example, we will create a Student class to store some basic information about a student. We will see how to use these properties by creating a student class.

class Student { var name: String var grade: Int = 0 var score: Float = 0.0 var city: String = "" var schoolName: String init(name: String, schoolName: String) { chúng tôi = name self.schoolName = schoolName } func displayInfo() { } } let john = Student(name: "John Johnson", schoolName: "Notional School") print("name: (") print("school name: (john.schoolName)") Output name: John Johnson school name: Notional School How can we Store Information in a Class?

Basically, we can store information in a class using properties. Swift’s classes can be used to access various types of properties.

Using properties in a class, we can read and write information. We have two types of properties in Swift: stored properties and computed properties.

Swift Language offers Different Types of Properties

Stored Properties −These are used to store information permanently. Until that instance is in memory, it will exist in memory. Once you create an instance of a class, it takes up space in memory.

Lazy Stored Properties −These are special types of stored properties that will be calculated when accessed for the first time. We used the lazy modifier as a prefix while declaring a lazy property.

Computed Properties −For some calculations on the properties of a class, we can use computed properties instead of changing the original values. To achieve this, we can use computed properties that return the calculated value.

Using methods, we can perform different actions inside a class.

func greeting(_ name: String) { print("Good morning, (name)") } What is Inheritance?

Inheritance is a way to adapt the characteristics and methods of one class to another class. By inheritance, we can extend the functionalities of an existing type by adding supplementary characteristics to another type.

When we inherit a class (for eg Class B) from another class (for eg Class A), Class B is called a subclass and Class A is called a superclass.

Benefits of Using Inheritance

There are some benefits to using inheritance in the Swift language. There are the following −

Reduce code redundancy.

Provides better code reusability.

Parent and child classes are easy to maintain while writing code.

We can add extra functionality to a subclass by overriding the existing functionality of the parent class.


In the below example, we will create a superclass and some subclasses by inheriting them from the superclass. Let’s see how superclasses can be beneficial for us while writing code.

import Foundation class Person { var name: String var address: String var age: Int init(name: String, address: String, age: Int) { chúng tôi = name self.address = address chúng tôi = age } } } class Student: Person { var collegeName: String var grade: Int init(collegeName: String, grade: Int, name: String, address: String, age: Int) { self.collegeName = collegeName self.grade = grade super.init(name: name, address: address, age: age) } func checkAgeEligibility() { if self.isYoung() { print("( is eligible to take admission.") } else { print("( is not eligible to take admission.") } } } class Voter: Person { var isPreviouslyCasted: Bool = false func eligibleToVote() { if self.isYoung() && isPreviouslyCasted { print("( is eligible to cast vote.") } else { print("( is not eligible to cast vote.") } } } let student = Student(collegeName: "Primary School", grade: 11, name: "Amit Bhalla", address: "New Delhi", age: 13) student.checkAgeEligibility() let voter = Voter(name: "Sunil Chandra", address: "Bangalore", age: 21) voter.eligibleToVote() Output Amit Bhalla is not eligible to take admission. Sunil Chandra is not eligible to cast vote. Explanation

In the above example, we created a class called Person with the method isYoung() to check the eligibility of the person.

The Student and Voter classes are now inherited from the Person class, with the addition of methods associated with sub-classes.


Inheritance is the most important concept in Swift language to write the core in proper hierarchy. Always, try to define superclasses to make common things separate.

The Power Of Critique And Redrafting

Create a culture of critique and redrafting in your classroom by adapting the seven-step Audience Response protocol to your subject matter and students’ needs.

Editor’s note: You’ll notice British standard spelling throughout this post. It was authored by a U.K.-based educator as part of our Schools That Work coverage of School 21.

Critique allows students to learn from each other and become accountable for their own ideas. It gives them a glimpse of how the real world would respond to their work, and insight into what is working and what needs redrafting. When the culture is right, students see critique as a gift to redraft their work and reach for a better outcome.

Audience Response is a talk protocol that I’ve created and use in my drama class to empower students in critiquing each other’s work and then redrafting their own. My Audience Response protocol is one of many oracy talk protocols that I use in my daily practice, and I believe that it’s adaptable for teachers across all subjects and levels to aid students in redrafting their work through critical talk.

By using a clear and concise response model to students’ work, the process empowers them to express their views without directly offending or deflating their peers, and it allows them to receive feedback without reacting defensively.

This is a culture that grows over time. I’ve found that although students will fixate on trying to get their work “right” at first, after we nurture this approach to critique, they develop a growth mindset about their work and become open to developing it as part of their process.

If you want to develop a culture of critique and redrafting in your classroom, below you’ll find the Audience Response protocol, and three tips for implementing it.

Audience Response Protocol

1. One group watches another group’s play or presentation of their work.

2. The group watching becomes a critical audience. They keep in mind what they feel that the presenting group should keep, add, or take away.

3. Once the play or presentation is over, you’ll discuss the work. The audience sits in a circle with you, and the students being critiqued sit in an outer circle, facing the centre.

4. Using the protocol of keep, add, and take away, the audience responds critically to the play or work they’ve just seen. They may agree or disagree with each other, or build upon each other’s ideas, helping the presenters understand what’s working, what’s not working, and what they can change. You can also add your own critique during this time.

6. When introducing the Audience Response protocol, give your students sentence stems to help them become comfortable with critical language. Once your students are accustomed to the language and critique process, encourage them to organise their own talk.

8. The groups then swap. The presenters become the critical audience, and the critical audience members become the presenters.

3 Tips for Using the Audience Response Protocol

1. It Takes Time to Build a Culture

The first time you try the protocol, it will probably go wrong. Students may find it strange or feel that they can’t help but respond out of protocol. As an oracy school, we embed talk protocols in our daily routines. And like any routine, you need to nurture it over time to perfect it. Your role — especially at the beginning — is important. Make sure that all students are involved. If your students speak out of protocol, stop and guide them back on track. Over time, you want your students to lead the critique themselves.

2. Hard on the Content, Soft on the Person

You need to model and insist on judging the ideas and not the person. As your students learn to appreciate being critiqued, this approach will come more naturally to them. A negative judgment like, “Sarah, I really think you shouldn’t do your monologue. I think you should change that,” becomes, “I think that Sarah’s monologue should be taken away. It would be better if they added a group scene here to include the reactions of all characters.” The critiquer doesn’t look the person in the eye and criticise him or her. The critical audience is having a discussion with each other; it’s done in a safe protocol with an emphasis on what is best for the piece of art, not the person involved.

3. Use the Feedback

What I learned through creating and using the Audience Response protocol with my students is that they either forgot the feedback or ignored it. I noticed that my students’ work wasn’t improving and realised that, although I was giving them an opportunity to critique, they didn’t know what to do with their feedback. I now encourage them to record their feedback, and I’ve included their decision-making process on what will be redrafted within the Audience Response protocol. In step seven (see above), students voice three things that they’ll commit to change by the next session, and then the critique cycle continues. You can use the Audience Response protocol on the same piece of work multiple times to continue redrafting and developing it.

Critique is embedded into a growth mindset culture. Rather than having students fixated on getting tasks done or being the best, by using critique protocols and nurturing the redrafting process, we can create a culture that builds on the experiential development of making something rather than completing it.

The Pros And Cons Of Herbicide

Welcome to the third installment of my GMO series, which aims to expand on a story I wrote for Popular Science’s July issue. In this post, I will discuss herbicide-tolerant crops—among the most common GMOs currently on the market—as well as the technology’s pros and cons. And despite what you may have heard one way or the other, there are both. And it’s complicated.

Farmers are constantly battling pests in the field, whether insects or weeds. No matter what kind of farming it is—organic, conventional, whatever—some level of intervention is required on both fronts. Each of those interventions comes with a cost, whether it’s economic, environmental, or a mixture or both.

For weeds, there are a several common tools, says Steve Powles, a plant scientist at the University of Western Australia and director of the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative. The first is simply good agronomy, which includes maintaining crop nutrition; rotating cover crops to promote soil health; and keeping crop rows fairly tight so there isn’t enough room—and eventually, when the crops grow tall enough to form a canopy, sunlight—for unwanted plants to grow. A healthy, well-planned field helps crowd out weeds.

Weeds can still grow, though, so there are various approaches to kill them including: mechanical (tilling or hand-weeding), heat-based (“flaming” with propane torches) and chemical (herbicides).

The best option for weed control, says Powles, is to use a combination of all of these tactics as appropriate for a specific piece of land. And for herbicides and the potential for resistance, he adds: “If you’re getting great weed control with a herbicide, stop using it for awhile.”

The easy fix that wasn’t

Across the developed world, conventional farmers have relied heavily on chemical weed control since the mid-1900s. In 1996, Monsanto made chemical control even easier by bringing herbicide-tolerant soybeans to the market (other crops followed). The seeds were genetically-engineered to withstand a popular broad-spectrum herbicide called glyphosate, marketed as Roundup Ready, which meant farmers could plant the crops, spray the field with herbicide, and call it a day. Monsanto didn’t spark the love affair with herbicides, but extended it, says Stephen Duke, a plant physiologist and glyphosate expert with the USDA Agricultural Research Service: “It continued our dependence on herbicide, but even in the absence of the GMOs, we were pretty much extremely dependent on herbicides. It really didn’t change anything—it just changed which herbicide we were using.”

The upside of the Roundup Ready system was that farmers could stop tilling, which prevented the associated environmental pitfalls. Glyphosate also has a low toxicity—lower than that of caffeine. “It’s probably one of the safest herbicides in terms of environment and human health,” says Keith Solomon, an environmental toxicologist and pesticide toxicology expert at the University of Guelph in Ontario.

As the Roundup Ready GMOs became increasingly popular, glyphosate replaced older chemistries, some of which are more toxic. This, too, was considered a bonus by some. But it came at a cost. “We are seeing a huge increase in glyphosate resistant weed, which is totally expected because of the increased use,” says Andrew Kniss, a weed ecologist at the University of Wyoming. Sometimes these weeds are called “superweeds” in the press, although Kniss says that’s a misnomer. It isn’t that the herbicide-tolerant genes in the GMOs are mixing with the weeds to cause the resistance; instead, it’s just a matter of old-fashioned evolution.

In the US, the biggest problem-weed is glyphosate-resistance palmer amaranth, which was first discovered in Georgia around a decade ago, according to Stanley Culpepper, a weed scientist at the University of Georgia. Since then, he adds, the industry has spent $1 billion to control the weed. Many farmers have returned to hand-weeding..

Worse still, research from Powles group in Australia suggests that the genetic changes in glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth don’t come at a great cost for the plant. In other words, even in the absence of glyphosate, the plant will remain resistant. This means that in some fields where resistance has run amok, the herbicide is completely lost—we can’t simply give glyphosate a break for a few years and then return to it, because the palmer amaranth will still be immune.

Can we break the herbicide cycle?

It costs up to $256 million and around nine years to develop a new active ingredient for a pesticide. And for herbicides, there are no new options in the pipeline, says Jason Norsworthy, a weed scientist at the University of Arkansas, who adds that the last new herbicide came out in the 1980s. “It’s like climbing a mountain, climbing a cliff. We’re accumulating all these resistant weeds, we’re not accumulating new modes of action. And at some point we’re going to go over the cliff.”

And even if chemical companies find a new molecule that shows promise as an herbicide, it likely won’t be as powerful or useful as glyphosate. Norsworthy adds that in his lifetime, he “will never see another herbicide that will have the impact of global agriculture as glyphosate.”

With glyphosate losing efficacy in many fields, biotech companies are poised to roll out new herbicide-tolerant GMOs that use older chemistries, including 2, 4-D and dicamba. (The former is often called the Agent Orange herbicide in the press, which isn’t quite right. Agent Orange was a mixture of 2,4-D and another herbicide called 2,4,5-T. In Agent Orange production, the 2,4,5-T was contaminated with a dangerous dioxin, which is what likely caused the health problems you hear about).

Many experts I’ve talked to worry that farmers will see the new herbicide-tolerant GMOs as a panacea, sparking a new generation of resistant weeds, although it might not be as widespread as the glyphosate problem because 2,4-D doesn’t work on as wide a range of plants as glyphosate and might not be used as broadly (2,4-D, for example, is ineffective against grasses).

Still, overuse is a worry. “As an agricultural society, we have to get out of the habit of using herbicides until they break, thinking industry is going to save us with a new mode of action,” says Norsworthy.

Powles, who helped successfully battle herbicide-resistant weeds in Australia long before the glyphosate problem started in the US, agrees. The key is to alleviate reliance on herbicides by diversifying weed control. Farmers in the US and beyond must adopt a multiple-pronged approach, says Powles. This includes proper agronomy and various mechanical tactics along with a regular rotation of herbicides, which should be used judiciously as needed. “I have absolutely no doubt that herbicide resistance can be managed in the US,” he adds. “But not without very substantial change to the current paradigm—the current way people think—which is ‘what herbicide and what way.’”

Some states are already implementing diversified weed strategies, including farms under Culpepper’s watch in Georgia. But whether farmers across the country—and world, for that matter—will adopt the approach broadly remains to be seen.

So, the TL;DR version is that while herbicide-tolerant GMOs have played a large role in driving glyphosate resistance, they’re part of a larger systemic problem in modern agriculture, which is overreliance on herbicide. A diversified weed plan—tailored to each farm, depending on location and other details—would be ideal. All of the scientists I’ve talked to on this matter say GMOs could play a role in a sustainable weed system, but only if they are not overused. Of course, biotech companies have an incentive to push their products, which certainly could drive overuse and thus resistance. I don’t have the answer to fixing that, although, as Kniss tells me, public funding for weed management would help.

Updated March 30, 2023: An earlier version of this story stated that Georgia farmers have spent $1 billion hand-weeding cotton fields over the past decade, which isn’t right. The farmers have spent $1 billion controlling Palmer amaranth using a variety of weed management, including hand weeding, herbicides, and more.


Additional reading:

For more on how we might break the resistance cycle, read: “How we can fight back against herbicide-resistant superweeds,” by Nathanael Johnson at Grist.

For more on the controversy over 2,4-D GMOs, read: “The Next Generation of GM Crops Has Arrived—And So Has the Controversy,” by Brandon Keim at Wired.

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