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The James Webb Space Telescope bloomed one last time on Earth
Like a huge, technological flower, the James Webb Space Telescope has fully opened its vast mirror for the final time while still Earthbound, with the hexagonal array of precisely configured reflectors blooming for one last test before the instrument’s launch later in 2023. Set to supplant Hubble as NASA, the ESA, and the CSA’s preeminent eye-in-the-sky, Webb is intended to give scientists an unprecedented infrared view of the universe.
After it launches, the space telescope is designed to position itself in a halo orbit at the so-called second Lagrange point (L2) of the Earth-Sun system. 930,000 miles from Earth, and directly opposite to the Sun, it’ll be the perfect location to see deep into nearby galaxies and observe much older stars than Hubble or the Spitzer Space Telescope can.
Before that can happen, of course, Webb needs to launch, and that brings up a huge logistical challenge. The telescope is reliant on a huge mirror – more than 24 feet across – for its incredible optics, split up into 18 hexagonal pieces. That’s an engineering feat in itself, but it also leaves the instrument simply too large to fit into any current rocket.
The answer was turning the space telescope into a Transformer, too. Designed to fold up so that it can be slotted into a 16 foot rocket fairing, it then relies on 132 actuators and motors to extend its wings and then position, bend, and flex each mirror into its final prescription.
Indeed, no small part of the overall challenge involved in the telescope’s construction was getting all of those pieces to work in the correct way. After all, unlike with Hubble where post-launch fixes could address optical issues, there’s no way for astronauts to reach Webb should something go wrong once it has left Earth.
This new test, then, was a big hurdle before the Webb team could be confident that the space telescope is ready for its grand unfurling. Just as will be the case once it’s deployed, the command instructions were issued from Northrop Grumman, CA, which has been managing the testing of the instrument. Gravity-offsetting equipment was attached to the telescope itself, to better replicate the environment it’ll find itself in.
“This is not just the final deployment test sequence that the team has pulled off to prepare Webb for a life in space, but it means when we finish, that the primary mirror will be locked in place for launch,” Lee Feinberg, optical telescope element manager for Webb at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said of the landmark test. “It’s humbling to think about the hundreds of dedicated people across the entire country who worked so hard to design and build the primary mirror, and now to know launch is so close.”
With that out of the way, the team can begin the last few checks on the to-do list. That includes test extensions and retractions of the telescope’s radiator assemblies – which help dissipate heat – and the same for its deployable tower. The latter is responsible for separating the telescope mirrors and instruments from the spacecraft bus, adding vital insulation from both heat and vibrations.
Later this year, Webb – and its sizable sunshield – will be packed into an Ariane 5 rocket ahead of its launch. That’s currently expected to happen in October 2023.
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ChatGPT is a remarkable AI chatbot that can generate remarkably detailed human-like written content. This powerful tool can understand real human language and provide users with insightful answers to their questions. However, when users attempt to send multiple messages simultaneously, ChatGPT displays an error message that says “Only one message at a time, Please wait for any other responses before sending another message, or wait one minute”. This article will provide insight into the cause of this error message and offer tips on how to resolve it.
The “Only one message at a time” error message occurs when a user tries to send multiple messages simultaneously on ChatGPT or other platforms. ChatGPT is designed to process one message at a time to ensure that the responses generated by the chatbot are accurate and relevant. This error message is implemented to prevent users from sending multiple messages at once, which can cause confusion and disrupt the conversation. One potential cause of this error message is a program that provides a Web.
See Also: What is Auto-GPT, and why does it matter?
If you encounter the “Only one message at a time” error message on ChatGPT, there are a few simple steps that you can take to fix it. First, wait for one response to complete before sending another message. This will ensure that ChatGPT has processed one message before you send another, preventing any errors from occurring. Additionally, you can try clearing your browser’s cache and cookies or use a different browser. If you have been inactive for too long, you must log out and log in to ChatGPT or refresh the page. If the problem persists, you can contact the help center at chúng tôi for further assistance.
The “Only one message at a time” error message is implemented in ChatGPT to prevent users from sending multiple messages simultaneously, which can cause confusion and disrupt the conversation. To avoid this error message, you should wait for one response to complete before sending another message. This will ensure that ChatGPT has processed one message before you send another, preventing any errors from occurring. Additionally, you can try clearing your browser’s cache and cookies or use a different browser. If you have been inactive for too long, you must log out and log in to ChatGPT or refresh the page. If the problem persists, you can contact the help center at chúng tôi for further assistance.
See More: Can Turnitin Detect Chat GPT?
The amount of time you should wait before sending another message on ChatGPT depends on various factors such as the number of users on the platform, the time of day, and the server capacity. According to some sources, wait times could be as little as a couple of minutes. Others suggest waiting for 15 to 30 minutes if you keep getting the same problem message no matter how many times you try to visit ChatGPT. It is recommended to use ChatGPT during off-peak hours to ensure an error-free experience. However, if you encounter the “Only one message at a time” error message, you should wait for one response to complete before sending another message to prevent any errors from occurring.
As BU Prepares New Survey, Learn What Came Out of the Last One Strong response rate in 2023 Korn Ferry survey has led to many changes, especially with hiring and onboarding new employees, HR head says
A new survey will give the BU community an opportunity to share their experiences and help improve all aspects of campus life. Photo by Cydney Scott
University NewsAs BU Prepares New Survey, Learn What Came Out of the Last One Strong response rate in 2023 Korn Ferry survey has led to many changes, especially with hiring and onboarding new employees, HR head says
A new survey is on its way next week across the Boston University Campus—the 2023 Belonging & Culture Survey will give faculty, staff, and students an opportunity to share their experiences and help improve all aspects of campus life.
But whatever came of BU’s last major survey, in 2023, when staff were asked questions about diversity, equity, and inclusion on campus by consulting firm Korn Ferry. It turns out, that survey, which had an overall response rate of 75 percent (4,647 staff answered), has quietly sparked a lot of movement and change.
Amanda Bailey, BU vice president for human resources. Photo by Jackie Ricciardi
“That response was excellent, and this time we’re hoping to hear from even more of you,” says Amanda Bailey, BU’s vice president for human resources.
Making sure students understand why it’s vital that they take the new survey is a point of emphasis for BU’s Human Resources department.
“The core of what we do, BU’s mission, is to create an excellent academic experience so students can go out and do lifelong service,” Bailey says. “For us, that requires seeking their opinions on things that matter to their experience. At our core, we exist to create an experience for students. If we don’t learn from them where we can improve, then we will always miss the mark.
“HR is working to deliver human resources that impact positively the experiences for everyone on campus, through the lens of these initiatives,” she adds. “Without their additional feedback, we are not able to continue to enhance these services.”
Jason Campbell-Foster, interim associate provost and dean of students, emphasizes how important it is for students to realize their story matters. “How you feel connected, or disconnected from us, matters,” he says. “This is an opportunity for you to tell that story and have it reach the highest levels of the institution. The more we learn about your experiences, hopes, and expectations for our community, the more precise we can be in creating meaningful change.”
Among the findings from 2023—a staff-only survey—17 percent of respondents identified as “asexual, bisexual or pansexual, gay, lesbian, queer, questioning, or something else.” Of the respondents, 42 percent were below age 40, 39 percent said they have caregiver responsibilities, and 10 percent said they are most comfortable speaking a language other than English.
The Korn Ferry survey revealed areas where staff believe BU is performing favorably when compared to its peers, as well as places where they believe it’s lagging.
One example of how the survey led to concrete change was in how the University hires and on-boards new employees.
“All of that came from feedback that people told Korn Ferry—it was a real pain point,” Bailey says. “We were losing people to go elsewhere because once they got hired, they didn’t have a lot of interaction to know where to go for multiple services, beyond just benefits documents to complete. Employees were not navigated by any office to the multiple features BU has to offer.
“New hires were feeling lost. It’s a big community. What we took away is they needed more guidance because we are a large, complex institution, and they needed help to know where to go and become a part of the BU community.”
She says that the new onboarding experience will take longer, but now includes “a suite of activities we will invite them to complete. None of that would have been possible without this feedback.”
Among other positive factors revealed in the survey were having managers and supervisors who are flexible in allowing employees to handle personal or family matters; being treated respectfully by coworkers; having a solid understanding of what it means to be “antiracist”; and feeling valued and appreciated for making contributions.
A total of 32 initiatives were developed from the Korn Ferry survey and are now in various stages of implementation, with some still in progress, others completed, and several not yet underway. A partial list of ideas and initiatives that came from staff sharing their experiences through the Korn Ferry survey follows. (Find a complete list and status report here.)
Partner with diverse member associations to connect with underrepresented professional and veterans groups.
Virtual and in-person job fairs, including with the National Urban League, Boston While Black 2023 Summit, and other affinity group associations.
Expand partnership with LinkedIn to include sourcing diverse applicants passively; continue to promote key jobs and increase our social media presence on LinkedIn.
Expand candidate qualifications by standardizing all jobs to offer education and/or experience, including gender-neutral language.
Reinforce respectful workplace programs through organizational structure, programs, and feedback channels.
Deploy inclusion learning programs for staff leaders and individual contributors.
Design a mentorship program.
Establish a more clearly defined process for onboarding new employees.
Review and redesign HR structure and processes: talent acquisition.
Define a DEI strategy aligned to talent strategy.
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Anyone who has ever had an ant infestation know how insidiously and rapidly they can take over a kitchen or home. The humble ant is one of the most successful and dominant animals on the planet. They are hyper-organized and have developed tight interaction with everything from plants to fungi to other insects and larger vertebrates. American biologist Edward O. Wilson called them “the little things that run the world.” “Ants make up two-thirds of the biomass of all the insects,” Wilson wrote in 1990 book The Ants, co-written with Bert Hölldobler. “There are millions of species of organisms and we know almost nothing about them.”
In plain terms, they are everywhere. Due to their ubiquity, scientists have long wondered just how many of these six-legged bugs are on this planet and what their total weight would be.
A study out today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA has a potential answer. The new research from The University of Hong Kong estimates that the Earth is home to 20 quadrillion (or 20 × 1015 or 20,000,000,000,000,000) ants. The previous estimates, including one from famous Hölldobler and Wilson, ranged from 1015 to 1016 individuals and were essentially educated guesses, since a a global, representative dataset was not available while they conducted their research. In this new study, the total number of ants on Earth is estimated to be 2 to 20 times that number.
This international team of researchers gathered data on ground-dwelling and arboreal (tree-dwelling) ants from 465 studies, spanning continents, major biomes, and habitats. This gigantic global dataset took six years expands on previous efforts to pinpoint just how many ants there are on this planet.
[Related: When insects got wings, evolution really took off.]
“For decades, ant researchers have been incredibly busy studying ant communities the world over. They have collected thousands of ant samples to identify the species, and often counted all the ants as well when publishing their results in scientific articles. We were able to compile such data from nearly 500 different studies from all over the world and written in many different languages. In this way, we have been able to quantify the density of ants in various parts of the globe, and also to estimate the total number of ants on Earth,” co-lead author Patrick Schultheiss, now a Temporary Principal Investigator the University of Würzburg in Germany, told Popular Science in an e-mail.
The insects are incredibly important as ecosystem engineers in many biomes and ecosystem types, like rainforests, grasslands, and deserts. They turn and aerate the soil, which allows water and oxygen to reach plant roots. They spread seeds to grow new plants, eat a wide variety of organic material, and also provide food for other predators.
This many ants on Earth corresponds with biomass of approximately 12 megatons of dry carbon.
“Our estimate of the global ant population is 20 × 1015 individuals”, says co-lead author Sabine Nooten, now a researcher at the University of Würzburg wrote in a statement. “That’s a 20 with 15 zeroes, which is difficult to appreciate. In terms of biomass, all the ants on Earth weigh more than all the wild birds and mammals combined, or about 20 percent of human biomass.”
Marauder ants (Carebara nr. diversa) are some of the most abundant ants in the tropical rainforests of Asia. As shown by the ants depicted, this species is extremely polymorphic: individuals of the same colony vary in size and shape. These specimens were found on Lamma Island, Hong Kong SAR, China. CREDIT: François Brassard; Patrick Schultheiss; Sabine Nooten.
The study also found that ants are unevenly distributed over the global land surface. Typically, tropical regions harbor more ants than non-tropical regions, but this also depends on the local ecosystem.
The team was quite surprised since most scientists don’t go out to specifically individually count the numbers of ants, but instead strive to generally answer questions regarding biodiversity, ecological processes, and evolution. The number of ants is often reported as a measure of sample size. The team was also surprised that the final list didn’t cover everywhere on the planet. According Schultheiss and Nooten, there are areas of the world (Central Africa or some parts of Asia) where they have hardly any data of this kind.
[Related: A killer fungus could help the US South fight back against insatiable ants.]
“We hope that this study raises awareness of how important ants are on a global scale. We also hope to inspire scientists and other citizens to go out there and study ants in the parts of the world we know the least about. Counting ants using standard methods is really not difficult to do, but our study has shown that even very basic data can be incredibly informative. In the end, we need such global datasets to help us understand what we should or need to protect,” said the authors in an email.
With this global dataset in hand, the team’s next step is to investigate why some parts of the world have more ants than others. They speculate that it is due to climate, human land use, or other environmental features.
Who Invented the Space Suit?
Before humankind was able to explore the sky outside of Earth’s orbit, we first had to get an understanding of what happens to our bodies once we ascend past a certain elevation. Fly too high in the sky and the human body will succumb to a lack of oxygen. And if you survive that, the colder atmosphere will surely lead to hypothermia. Believe it or not, it took the perseverance of one determined Spaniard to figure out how to work around those issues, allowing for exploring the skies at great heights.
His name was Emilio Herrera, and his motivation was not to create a suit in which he could traverse outer space. Rather, Herrera was set on building a suit that would allow him to explore the skies in a hot air balloon.
Herrera was born into a wealthy family in Granada, Spain in 1879 (via Open Mind). Drawing on inspiration from both his military father and the novels of Jules Verne, Herrera became passionate about the fields of aerostatics and aviation. He joined the army as a young adult and graduated from the Engineers Academy in Guadalajara. Herrera emphasized his studies in the field of aerostats, a more technical term for hot air balloons.
While in the Spanish army, Herrera was part of the Hot Air Balloon Unit. He participated in many successful missions over the northern part of Africa. Herrera also earned the distinction of becoming the first person to cross the Strait of Gibraltar by balloon.
Herrera wished to push balloon travel to the limit. Traveling upwards into the Stratosphere was his goal, but he knew it was one that had dire consequences for many who had attempted it before (via The Fanatic). This second layer of the Earth’s atmosphere begins nine miles above the planet’s ground level. According to NASA, it stretches to 31 miles above the Earth’s surface. Traveling at this altitude had meant death for those who tried before, prompting Herrera to invent gear to make this quest possible.
Along with a vessel that could safely rise to higher altitudes, Herrera knew he would need to make a specialized suit to protect the rider. To accomplish this, he designed a suit that had a wool layer, covering the person from head to toe in this material. As wool will absorb the liquid in the atmosphere, Herrera added a second layer made of rubber to his suit to protect the wool from moisture. A steel-threaded final layer was added, encasing the suit entirely.
Completing this suit was an aluminum helmet, complete with rebreathing apparatuses, thermometers, and microphones. The prototype was completed in 1935.
Sadly, this suit was never able to be tested. Soon after it was crafted, civil war broke out in Spain in 1936. Herrera, loyal to the Republic, fled in exile to South America. He later settled in France. During World War II, Herrera was offered money for his suit by the Nazi government, which he refused.
Herrera’s design had not gone unnoticed, but did not fall into practical use until NASA offered money for his assistance some 30 years after his first prototype was created. Herrera declined NASA’s request for help in creating a new space suit when they refused to place a Spanish Republic flag on the helmet.
Nonetheless, Herrera’s suit was the inspiration for the design of NASA’s first space-used space suit. Nearly 100 years after Herrara’s suit was first built, inspiration from his design can still be seen in astronaut gear created by space organizations of all sorts, and indeed in those space suits in active use today.
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The pace of progress with a lot of consumer technology has finally slowed down. In 2010, a three year-old laptop was two years out of date. Now, it’s common to see people holding onto phones and computers for a lot longer which has prevented us from constantly splurging to upgrade our gadgets.
But some components cannot keep up with the longer lives of our devices, which has resulted in more and more people having to deal with major battery problems.
“Batteries are consumable”, explains Craig Lloyd, head of content operations at iFixit, “and more people are starting to realize that.”
A few years ago if your battery died it made more sense to just get a new smartphone. But people are starting to realize that getting a new battery will leave their phones as good as new. And that’s more than enough to run the latest apps—even for devices with two or three years of use.
In most cases, you’ll notice something is up with a battery because the power in your phone or laptop won’t last as long between charges. Some devices will also notify you when a battery is approaching the end of its rated lifespan. Devices running MacOS, for example, are known for notifying users earlier than other operating systems when batteries are holding a subpar amount of energy.What happens when a battery “dies”?
Each time you put your battery through a charge cycle—where it uses all its stored power and is then fully recharged—you wear it down a little. That’s because you can recharge your battery at its full capacity only a limited number of times. You can find this stat for your device online or in the product manuals under maximum rated cycle count.
However, when a smartphone, laptop, and other consumer device batteries “die” they mostly just won’t hold a charge for as long.
“My wife’s laptop went seven years before I replaced the battery,” says Lloyd, “And it was at the point where the battery only lasted an hour or two when it should have lasted eight or ten.”
[Related: Cell phone batteries are destined to die, and we have physics to blame]
But this doesn’t affect the device, which is still safe to use and won’t suddenly explode. Those kinds of failures are normally the result of manufacturing defects or damage, not regular use, explains Lloyd. If you’re curious, you can check how many cycles your laptop has already gone through and compare it to its rated lifespan as stated in its user’s manual.
On a PC, open Command Prompt (you can find it by searching for it next to the start menu), type powercfg /batteryreport, and then hit Enter. Next, open File Explorer and go to your user folder. (If you have trouble finding it, type C:Users[YOUR USERNAME] in the folder navigation bar. Once you’re there, open the file called battery-report.html. There you’ll find your battery’s cycle count, as well as other information about it like how much capacity it currently has.When to replace your device battery
In short, whenever you want to.
Regardless of what your laptop or smartphone is telling you, if your device is still performing normally, you don’t have to change the battery. And even if it’s not holding as much charge as it used to, if it’s still lasting long enough for you, then you don’t have to do anything about it. It’s only when the drop in performance starts to affect you that you really need to get another one.
But if you’re planning to keep your gadgets around for longer, you should plan on replacing their battery at some point.
“You have to think of your phone like a car,” says Lloyd. “There are things that can degrade and wear out over time that just need to be replaced.”How to replace a battery
How easy it will be to replace a battery will depend on the device you’re working with. It can be a simple process involving a single screw, or an incredibly complicated enterprise that requires you to disassemble your entire computer and melt an incredibly sticky adhesive while you try not to break anything (we’re looking at you Apple).
If the battery starts to fail within the warranty period, the easiest thing to do is to contact the manufacturer, as they might cover the part and the replacement. If your warranty is expired, you can take your device to a repair store—or replace the battery yourself.
[Related: Make your laptop battery last all day]
If you choose the DIY path, check out iFixit’s step by step guides to see what’s involved. Keep in mind that it may be a bigger job than you’re prepared to do, and if that’s the case, it’s totally fine to reach out to a repair shop. If you feel confident and are ready to get your hands dirty, iFixit also sells kits that include reputable sourced parts and all the tools you’ll need for most popular devices.
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