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The Indian Constitution is an outstanding piece of writing that has stood the test of time and continues to serve as the cornerstone of the largest democracy in the world.
The Drafting Committee is a group of outstanding individuals who are the inspiration behind this colossal work of law, politics, and philosophy. When tasked with drafting the Constitution, these pioneers rose to the occasion with extraordinary fervour and skill.
The important members of the Drafting Committee, their contributions, and their effects on the creation of the Indian Constitution will all be covered in this blog.What Is the Drafting Committee?
In comparison to the other committees of the Constituent Assembly, the drafting committee was the most crucial. The Constituent Assembly was established on August 29, 1947, with the aim of reviewing the draught Indian Constitution prepared by the Constitutional Adviser. Implementing the Assembly’s decision and putting it up for consideration were its main goals.
Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, N. Gopalaswami, B.R. Ambedkar, K.M. Munshi, Mohammad Saadulla, B.L. Mitter, and D.P. Khaitan were among the seven members of the drafting committee. On August 30, 1947, the Drafting Committee convened for the first time, with B.R. Ambedkar was elected as its chairperson.
October 1947 Draft Constitution submitted by Sir B.N. Rau
August 29, 1947 Drafting Committee formed under Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
February 21, 1948 Draft Constitution delivered to the President of the Constituent Assembly
November 26, 1949 Constitution completed
January 26, 1950 Constitution goes into effect
Time taken Two years, eleven months, and seventeen days
Number of sessions 166
Days spent debating the Draft Constitution 114 out of 166
Chairman of the Drafting Committee Dr. B.R. AmbedkarWhat Was the Purpose of the Drafting Committee?
The Drafting Committee was tasked with creating the new Indian Constitution. The first draft of the Constitution was released by the drafting committee on February 21 of that year. It was later examined by the citizens of India after about eight months. The public also suggested additional changes.
The Indian Constitution was drafted in its entirety by the drafting committee over the course of two years, eleven months, and eighteen days after its founding in 1947.
The Constituent Assembly met for approximately 11 sessions over a total of 165 days, of which 114 days were devoted to discussing the draft Constitution and the work of the drafting committee.Function of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee
There were five phases to the assembly’s work:
The committees presented their reports on the issues.
B.N. Rau created an early draft of the constitution in accordance with the findings and his research into other nations’ constitutions.
The B. R. Ambedkar-led drafting committee created a thorough draft constitution that was made available for feedback.
There was discussion about the draught constitution, and changes were put forth and adopted.
The Congress Party, now known as the Congress Assembly Party, headed a committee of experts that was instrumental in getting the constitution passed.Final Draft of the Constitution
Each member of the Constituent Assembly signed the Indian Constitution twice; once in Hindi and once in English after it was recently drafted. Each page of the original constitution was handwritten and embellished by well-known Shantiniketan artists like Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose. Prem Behari Narain Raizada was the work’s calligrapher.
In Dehradun, the Indian Constitution was published, and at the Survey of India, photolithography was carried out. The original Indian Constitution was written over the course of nearly five years. The Constituent Assembly was expected to cost 6.3 crore. Since it was adopted, the constitution has undergone more than 100 amendments.FAQs
Q1. Who created the drafting committee of Indians?
Ans: In order to create a draught constitution for India, the Constituent Assembly established a Drafting Committee on August 29, 1947, with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as its chairman.
Q2. Who was the first president of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution?
Ans: The Indian Constitution is credited to Dr. BR Ambedkar, who served as the committee’s chairman and gave the country a comprehensive and adaptable framework for governance while taking into account its distinctive social, cultural, and religious diversity.
Q3. Who is the drafting committee president?
Ans: The new president of the Constituent Assembly is Dr. Rajendra Prasad. The constitution was written and approved by the Constituent Assembly. The constitution became operative on January 26, 1950.
Q4. When was the drafting of the Constitution started?
Ans: In 1946, work on the Indian Constitution got under way. The constitution was drafted over the course of nearly three years by the 389-member assembly, which was reduced to 299 after India was partitioned.
Q5. Which is the biggest Constitution in the world?
Ans: The 26th of January 1950 saw the official adoption of the Indian Constitution. The document gives the government instructions on how to operate in accordance with its principles. India’s constitution is the world’s longest piece of writing.
Q6. What is the history of drafting the Indian Constitution?
Ans: The Constituent Assembly, which was chosen by elected representatives of the provincial assemblies, drafted the constitution. The 389-member assembly, which was reduced to 299 after India was partitioned, held eleven sessions over a total of 165 days to draft the constitution, taking close to three years.
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Vicarious liability describes a situation in which one person is accountable for the actions of another. The legal ‘maxim qui facit per se per alium facit per se’, which literally means “he who does an act through another is deemed in law to do it himself,” is the foundation of this doctrine. The person at whose direction the act is performed as well as the person who performs the act are both liable in the case of vicarious liability.Examples of Vicarious Liability
Common examples of such liability include −
Principal’s liability for the tort of his agent;
Partners’ liability of each other’s tort;
Master’s liability for the tort of his servant;
State’s liability of the administration.Components of Vicarious Liability
Therefore, the following are the components of vicarious liability −
There must be a particular kind of relationship.
The wrongful act must in some way be connected to the relationship.
The wrongful act was committed within the course of employment.The Legal Regime Governing State Liability
The legal system governing state liability for the tortious acts of its employees is based on Article 300 of the Indian Constitution. According to Article 300, actions may be brought by or against the Government of India or the Government of a State in the name of the Union of India or the State. Under this provision, the Government of India and the governments of each state may be held legally liable.Origin and Evolution of the Doctrine
In the middle ages, when this state liability first appeared, the proverb “the king can do no wrong” began to lose significance in the eyes of the population. In order to bring justice to those who had been harmed by the government’s illegal actions, new industries, and democracies began to emerge after the 18th century.
These new industries and democracies subjected government actions to judicial investigation and review. Due to expanding state obligations, the Crown Proceedings Act was enacted in 1947. By doing this, the crown was held just as liable as the individual.Evolution in India
There was no law establishing the state’s liability in India, unlike the Crown Proceedings Act, of 1947, which established the state’s liability in England. The East India Company developed this law long before 1858, then. A person could sue the government under Article 300. However, this article came into effect in 1950 after the adaptation of the Constitution.Sovereign and Non-Sovereign Functions
Sovereign Functions − The term “sovereign functions” refers to government tasks for which the state is immune from legal liability for the actions of its agents. Defense operations, maintaining armed forces, maintaining peace and war, and diplomacy are examples of sovereign functions for which the state is not responsible.
Non-Sovereign Functions − These are the state functions that are not Sovereign Functions.Present Position of Sovereign and Non-Sovereign Functions
There is no longer a distinction between sovereign and non-sovereign power.
It all depends on the nature of the power and how it is used. It would contradict even modern notions of sovereignty.
Thus, the outdated and antiquated idea of sovereignty is lost. The people now possess sovereignty. The people are the reason why the legislature, executive, and judicial branches were established and put into place. In reality, our country’s rulers never imposed the concept of sovereignty in the Austinian sense, in which the king served as the source of law and the fountain of justice.
No civilized system can allow a government’s executive to oppress its citizens while asserting its sovereign right to do whatever it pleases. Changing social structures have altered how we think about the public interest.Conclusion
Sovereign immunity as a defense was never admissible when the State engaged in commercial or private activities, nor is it admissible when its officers violate a citizen’s rights to life and liberty without a valid legal basis. In both cases of infringement, the State is morally, legally, and constitutionally required to compensate the victim’s damages and defend them. Given the significant changes that have been made to the idea of sovereignty itself, the doctrine of sovereign immunity is no longer applicable.Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. What is the vicarious liability of the state in India?
Ans. The legal concept of vicarious liability of the state allows the state to be held accountable for the actions or omissions on the part of its agents, officers, or employees when those actions are taken in the course of their employment or official responsibilities.
Q2. What is the legal basis for vicarious liability of the state in India?
Ans. In India, the common law doctrine of “respondeat superior,” which literally means to “let the master answer,” serves as the foundation for the state’s vicarious liability. This principle states that an employer is liable for the actions of their employees in the course of their employment.
Q3. What is the legal basis for vicarious liability of the state in India?
Ans. Article 300 of the Indian Constitution, which states that the government may be sued in its own courts in the same way as a private individual, is the primary source of the law that forms the basis of the state’s vicarious liability in India.
Q4. Who can sue the state for vicarious liability in India?
Ans. Anyone who has been affected due to the negligence of a public servant may bring a vicarious liability claim against the state.
India is one of the growing economies that has been impacted by globalization profoundly. From economy to culture and politics, India has witnessed a large-scale impact of globalization. Many analysts argue that globalization has a net positive effect on India as the Indian economy has got many new opportunities to progress due to the spread of globalization in the country. The impact of globalization can be discussed under various circumstances, but we will limit the impact on the economic sector in this article.
The effect of globalization on the Indian economy can be seen in the job market, increase in consumer choices, and increased disposable spending.
Increase in jobs: One of the major effects of globalization, due to the presence of more foreign companies in India, there has been a steady growth in the number of new jobs created. However, most of these jobs have been created in the service sector which has crossed the previously largest GDP provider, the agricultural sector in the last few decades.
Due to the concentration of new jobs in the service sector, people without skills or with low education levels have been left behind in the race for employment. The last decade in the employment sector is known to be associated with jobless growth as the number of jobs created newly could not match the level of economic growth of the country.
Increased consumer choices: Globalization has provided a greater number of choices to Indian consumers as new players in almost all fields of business have thronged the untapped Indian market. Indian consumers now have access to a large variety of goods as opposed to the economic phase before globalization when only a few options were available to Indian consumers.
Higher disposable income: Globalization has led to opportunities where people can earn higher incomes in cities. This has helped to modify the lifestyle of Indian employees. With an increased disposable income, the demand for foods, such as meat, egg, pulses, and organic food products has increased exponentially. This has resulted in a phenomenon popularly called protein food inflation.
Protein food inflation is a major food inflation phenomenon where protein-rich foods are demanded more than their supply. As people’s disposable income rise, they want to consume more protein-rich foods in the form of eggs, meat, and milk. As dietary patterns change along with the rising population, the supply cannot meet the demand. This creates inflation known as protein food inflation which is a direct result of globalization.
Indian farmers have been more interested in the cultivation of cereals and the farming of oilseeds and pulses has been neglected traditionally.
With the service sector becoming dominant in providing GDP, the share of agriculture in the GDP has come down to about 15 percent. The World Trade Organization (WTO) has reduced support from the government to the agricultural sector, thereby reducing the influence of the agriculture sector on the economy.
The impact of globalization has increased the vulnerability of Indian farmers. The farmers have also been more dependent on fertilizers and seeds sold by the MNCs. Globalization has some seriously detrimental effects on the agricultural sector. Due to globalization, the focus of the government has shifted from agriculture to other sectors. Moreover, whenever there is a price rise in agricultural products, the governments import the items from other countries. The subsidies offered to farmers are also increasing with the growing impacts of globalization. Traditional Indian farmers have also been threatened by genetically modified (GM) corps and herbicide-resistant corps etc.
Increase in healthcare costs: The interconnectedness of nations has resulted in an increase in the number of diseases. Diseases spread from one to another in greater numbers now than at any time before. International travel has led to an increase in infectious diseases.
For example, the world has seen the global impact of the COVID 19 pandemic recently. Such occurrences of diseases increase healthcare costs and governments need to invest more in healthcare systems to meet the requirements.
The global nature of diseases has also called for an integrated and collaborative approach among the nations and India has shown some notable efforts in containing the disease. The COVID 19 pandemic has revealed the truly global nature of pandemics and has shown that a collaborative effort is needed to contain such diseases.
Child labor: It is believed that child labor is also an indirect effect of the growing globalization process. Although the Indian constitution prohibits child labor, according to studies up to 115 million children in India work in detrimental conditions. In rural India, most child labor is related to agriculture while urban child laborers work in manufacturing, processing, repairs, and servicing industries. Globalization directly exploited about 300,000 children working in the hand-knot carpet industry which sells carpets worth $300 million a year.
In 2006, Indian Parliament has legislated a law that exclusively deals with the issues related to food safety and it is named as Food Safety and Standards Act or simply FSSAI. This legislation states that
” It is an Act to consolidate the laws relating to food and to establish the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import, to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.“Before FSSAI
Before this law was created, the following procedures were used to oversee the nation’s food security
Order for the Control of Vegetable Oil Products, 1947
Act of 1954 to Prevent Food Adulteration
Order for Fruit Products, 1955
1973 Meat Food Products Order
Several further actions were also carried out. But in 2006, the government enacted the FSS Act, which is a comprehensive legislation that covers wide range issues related to food safety.Major Provisions of Food Safety and Standards Authority Act
The Indian Food Safety and Standards Authority carries out the following provisions
Setting Rules and Guidelines − The FSSAI establishes rules and guidelines that must be adhered to by all food manufacturing businesses while taking cleanliness and food safety into account.
Granting License − The owner must obtain a certificate and license with the approval of FSSAI in order to pursue any food-related company.
Test the Standard of Food − The organization itself determines the standard and quality of food manufactured by all businesses registered under FSSAI.
Regular Audits − To make sure the standards are in compliance with the recommendations, proper inspection is conducted for food manufacturing and production organizations.
Spreading Food Safety Awareness − The FSSAI is in charge of informing the public about the significance of eating food that is both safe and clean.
Maintain Documents and Data − The FSSAI is also in charge of keeping accurate records and data for all the organizations that have registered. The license may be revoked for breaking any of the FSSAI regulations.
Keeping the Government Informed − Any threat to food safety must be reported to the appropriate government authorities for follow-up action. help them develop food standard policies as well.Initiatives Taken by FSSAI
The FSSAI has also undertaken a number of significant projects with a focus on food safety and standards. Several of these significant endeavors are listed below
Eat Right India’s mission is to give high-quality food to all people, not only to those who need it. The FSSAI hopes to increase access to high-quality food for all of the nation’s citizens through this effort.
Diet4Life is a different campaign the FSSAI has launched to raise awareness of metabolic illnesses.
Save Food, Share Food, Share Joy is a campaign to encourage food donation and discourage food waste. By doing this, FSSAI hopes to link food-collecting organizations with food-producing businesses and distribute the food to those in need.
In addition, on June 7, 2023, the FSSAI observed the first-ever World Food Safety Day to recognize the role that states, food businesses, and individuals play in preserving food safety.Evaluation of the Act
Food quality and safety are equally important at the household level as they are in large-scale food production and processing, where food is created and delivered instantly. Many different cuisines used to be made at home.
Moreover, public health must be concerned with the quality of food products, both raw and processed.
There are a few obstacles that FSSAI must overcome
The Organization has to set up suitable laboratories for evaluating the quality of food.
Assembling skilled personnel to test and validate the manufacturing standards of food.
Reevaluating the rules and conditions in accordance with international standards.
Acquiring finances to purchase cutting-edge technology.
Ensuring that each person and company involved in the production of food has the appropriate licenses.
The organization is capable of regulating and maintaining the food safety standards in all areas of the nation after the Government of India and FSSAI address these issues.Conclusion
Likewise, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is a statutory body, which established in 2006 under the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India Act. The FSSAI is accountable for protecting and promoting public health through the proper regulation and supervision of food safety. The Act empowers the FSSAI to lay down science-based standards for food items and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale, and import, to ensure the availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.Frequently Asked Questions
Q2. What is major duty of FSSAI?
Ans. The Food Authority’s duty is to: I establish standards for food products based on science; (ii) control the production, storage, sale, and import of food; and (iii) promote food safety.
Q3. What are the FSSAI’s top priorities?
Ans. Major priorities of FSSAI are: to establish science-based standards for food products and the regulation of their manufacturing, storage, distribution, sale, and import of quality products, which ultimately guarantee the availability of healthy and safe food for human consumption.
A month after banning 59 Chinese Apps, the Indian government on Monday banned 47 China-origin apps, according to reports.
According to an India Today report, these 47 apps were operating as clones of the earlier banned 59 apps. The list of the 47 apps will be released soon by the Indian government.
Reports cited sources informing that the government has also prepared a list of over 250 Chinese apps, including apps linked to Alibaba, for privacy and security violations.
This list also includes the famous PlayerUnknown’s Battleground popularly known as PUBG game.
According to the media outlet, the listing comprises some high gaming software which the government is currently considering to prohibit India. These Chinese apps are thought to discuss date of Indian customers with no knowledge.
The unprecedented ban on 59 Chinese apps took place Following a Struggle between India and Chinese Military on the Line of Actual Control near Ladakh.
The authorities prohibited these apps on June 29 mentioning they had been”prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of state and public order”.
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The unprecedented ban on 59 Chinese apps took place after a fight between India and Chinese army on the Line of Actual Control near Ladakh.
The government prohibited these apps on June 29 citing they had been”prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of state and public order”.
The government immediately asked Google and Apple to eliminate these apps from their app stores for India.
The move was hailed all around the nation, leading to some people even boycotting Chinese goods such as smartphones.
The move has been called’digital attack’ from India’s Union minister Ravi Shankar Prasad.
The banning of those apps acted as a blessing for Indian app developers as instantly their daily busy users (DAU) and download amounts taken upward, forcing them to update their own backend hardware to manage the overload.
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Reacting to the 59 apps banned by India, the Chinese foreign ministry had said the nation is”firmly concerned concerning the conclusion of the Indian government”.
“China is strongly concerned, verifying the situation,” Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian was quoted as saying by news agency ANI earlier.
The smartphone industry is ever evolving with something new every now and then. From improvements in performance to camera and design, everything keeps changing with every new launch. If we talk about design only, sleek designs, metal bodies, and the bezel-less displays have become the latest fad this year. Especially the bezel-less display, it seems like the trend in the market that everybody is loving. More phones with minimum bezels are coming every other day.
Owing to a bezel-less display the fragility of the device increases which is why it is still not a mainstream feature and also a premium one. Still, we see new phones having bezel-less displays very often now. The devices starting at as low as below Rs. 10,000 and going as high as Rs. 60,000 can be found in this category. here, we have compiled a list of some the best bezel-less phones available in India.Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+
The Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+ are this year’s flagships from the South Korean giant. The phones do not need any introduction as they are the true definition of an infinity display. These are currently one of the best Android phones that you can buy today. The company has been touting the curved ‘Edge to Edge’ display with the flagship and they may have perfected it. The S8 and S8+ look amazing with the infinity display.Specs:
Display: S8 – 5.8-inch, S8+ – 6.2-inch, Quad HD+ 2960 x 1440 pixels
Processor: Octa-core Exynos 8895
RAM: 4GB (S8), 4GB/6GB (S8+)
Storage: 64GB (S8), 64GB/128GB (S8+)
Rear Camera: 12MP
Front Camera: 8MP
Battery: 3,000mAhSamsung Galaxy Note 8
After the recall of the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 due to exploding batteries, Samsung has made a successful comeback in its Note series with the Galaxy Note 8 this year. The Samsung Galaxy Note 8 comes with minimal bezels on top and bottom and follows the Infinity Edge design. Despite a big display of 6.3-inch, the device is true bezel-less and also easy to hold.Specs:
Display: 6.3-inch, Quad HD+ 2960 x 1440 pixels
Processor: Octa-core Exynos 8895
Rear Camera: Dual 12MP
Front Camera: 8MP
Battery: 3300mAhLG G6
Just like Samsung, another South Korean giant, LG is also using a full view display with 18:9 aspect ratio on its latest flagship LG G6. However, LG’s design approach is completely different as it does not offer a curved display like Samsung. The LG G6, with its ultra-thin bezels, offers one of the sleekest and unique designs on a flagship this year.Specs:
Display: 5.7-inch, 2880 x 1440 pixels
Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 821
Rear Camera: Dual 13MP
Front Camera: 5MP
Battery: 3300 mAhMi Mix 2
Xiaomi has launched the successor of the Mi Mix, the Mix 2 which is another bezel-less device. The Mi Mix 2 was launched earlier this month in India. The latest edition in bezel-less displays, the Mi Mix 2 comes with a 5.99 inch full HD+ IPS LCD display with a resolution of 2160 x 1080 pixels. The phone offers a screen-to-body ratio of 80.8% and an aspect ratio of 18:9 which makes it truly an infinity display device.Specs:
Display: 5.9-inch, 1080x2160pixels
Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 835
Rear Camera: 12MP
Front Camera: 5MP
Battery: 3400 mAhVivo V7 Plus
The Chinese smartphone maker Vivo also didn’t lag in the race of infinity displays. The company launched Vivo V7 Plus back in August in India. The V7+ features a 5.99 inch HD+ (1440 x 720 pixels) IPS display with 18:9 FullView display and 2.5D curved glass. It comes with Corning Gorilla Glass 3 protection. The device has not been priced as aggressively as its competitors.Specs:
Display: 5.9-inch, 720 x 1440 pixels
Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 450
Rear Camera: 16MP
Front Camera: 24MP
Battery: 3225 mAhHuawei Honor 9i
Huawei’s sub-brand Honor launched it infinity display device dubbed as Honor 9i just last week in India. The phone offers quite good specifications along with infinity display for you in almost all the departments. The recently launched Honor 9i has brought the bezel-less technology to the mid-range devices. The Honor 9i price in India is just Rs 17,999. Another highlight of the device is that it comes with four cameras.Specs:
Display: 5.9-inch, 1080 x 2160 pixels
Processor: Huawei’s Kirin 659
Rear Camera: Dual 16MP+2MP
Front Camera: Dual 13MP+2MP
Battery: 3340 mAh
Apart from Honor 9i, if we look more into budget category there are some others as well that can make it to this list of infinity displays. The devices like LG Q6 and Micromax Canvas Infinity are also some of the Infinity display phones, that come in the budget segment.
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