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Introduction to IoT Protocols

IoT stands for the Internet Of Things. We are very good at many communication technologies, such as WIFI, BLUETOOTH, 3G/2G/4 G, and now 5 G is coming in the market, but there are several fresh waves networking choices on the market. The IoT system can only operate and transfer data online if the two devices are linked securely from the communication network. What makes it possible for such a link? IoT standards and protocols consist of an unseen language that allows physical objects to “speak” among themselves. General protocols used for computers, smartphones or tablets may not meet IOT-based solutions ‘ specific conditions.

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Types of IoT Network

IoT networks are given below:







1. NANO Network

Nano-network is a nano-scale communication network among nano-devices. To use the various functions of nano-machines, a series of nano-devices in a complete nano-network must be managed and controlled by the appropriate architecture. Nano-network can collect important patient information in the healthcare field and provide it to computer systems to make health monitoring more accurate and efficient. In addition to the tumor detection process, the internet of Nano-Things in health systems will provide diagnosis and support in the treatment of patients by precise and localized medications.

2. NFC

NFC stands for Near Field Communication. This wireless connectivity short-range (ECMA-340, ISO / IEC 18092) allows communication between devices when they’re interconnected or placed within a few centimeters. The standards, co-designed by Philips and Sony, provide equipped with a manner to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) network for information exchange.

When the P2P network is established, other wireless technologies such as Bluetooth or WiFi can be used for extended communication or to transfer bigger information. Now, most Android smartphones have the same technology accessible, meaning you can digitalize your wallet using services such as Google Pay, TecTile, etc.

3. PAN

A Personal Area Network (PAN) is the interconnection of IT devices in the range of a single person, generally within 10 meters. Take an example of a user traveling with a notebook, a private digital assistant (PDA), and a mobile printer that might connect them with wireless technology without the need to plug in anything. This type of private area network could typically also be interconnected to the Internet or other networks without cables.

4. LAN

LAN means Local Area Network. This is used for small area networks. Computers and other mobile devices share resources, such as printer or network storage via LAN connection. Wi-Fi and Ethernet are the two primary ways to enable LAN connections. Ethernet is a specification that allows machines to interact. Radio waves are used for the Wi-Fi connection of computers, printers, mobiles and etc. A user has access to files stored on the LAN server with others; a network administrator has read and write access.

5. MAN

MAN stands for the Metropolitan Area Network. This is a computer network that helps users connect with computer resources in a geographical area. It can cover a smaller region than WAN (Wide Area Network) but is bigger than the Local Area Network (LAN) LAN area. It can also be used to define interconnections between them point to point in a metropolitan region with several local area networks.

6. WAN

WAN stands for the Wide Area Networks. Wide Area Networks are also called data networks. Basically, this network also uses to connect the cities, country, states. A virtual private (VPN) network allows WAN sites to connect. Wired and wireless technology can include WAN connections. Enterprise WANs help users to share access to central apps, services, and other sources.

Protocols of IoT

Some of the most significant IoT protocols are mentioned below :

1. Bluetooth

2. Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is an acronym for Wireless fidelity. Wireless internet is one of the leading modern technological developments. It can be locked, secured, or opened and also free over a short or a long distance. Without the need for flexible cables, WiFi is capable of connecting the phones, and from that, we can access the internet. To the devices, wi-fi is a wireless connection to access the internet. Wi-Fi utilizes radio waves to send data at particular frequencies rather than using wired links, typically at 2.4GHz or 5GHz, though many more are being used in additional niche setups. A standard Wi-Fi network can be reached in the open air up to 100 meters.

3. Z-Wave

Z-Wave is a wireless protocol used mostly in intelligent home networks to link and exchange control and information with smart devices. The Z-Wave protocol offers low-cost, wireless connectivity to home automation, a lower-power alternative to WiFi, and a long-ranging alternative to Bluetooth with two-way communication by mesh networking and messages acknowledgment. The Z-Wave protocol operates in the United States on the low-frequency 908.42 and in Europe on the 868.42 MHz band. The Z-Wave provides small data packet transmission rates at 9.6 kbps, 40 kbps, or 100 kbps throughput rates.

4. SigFox

SigFox has developed a worldwide network to listen to the data transmission of billions of machines. Sigfox is capable of collecting very tiny signals from IoT devices around the globe – using the smallest energy levels in order to achieve the efficiency of natural energy harvesting systems.

This SigFox based on three pillars:

Low consumption energy

Low in cost

Complementary technology

Sigfox offers a standard way to collect information from sensors and devices with one standard API package. Sigfox is Bluetooth, GPS 2G/3G/4G, and Wifi compatible.

5. Thread 6. Cellular

The use of cellular communication functions such as GSM/3G/4 G is possible with these IoT apps. Cellular is one of the protocols for IoT Communication which can send or transfer high information volumes. Cellular requires not only high costs but also high electricity consumption for several applications. The Frequencies of the cellular is 900/ 1900/ and max it will go to 21000 MHZ, and the range is 35km maximum For the GSM and for the HSPA is almost 200km.

7. 6LoWPAN

6LoWPAN is an IP-based communication protocol. 6LoWPAN stands for IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a 128-bit internet protocol developed to overcome the limitations of 32-bit IPv4 in addressing. Because of it, a number of devices can be connected to each other. The 6LoWPAN system is used for various purposes, including the wireless networks of sensors. This wireless sensor network form transmits the data as packets and uses IPv6 as the basis of the IPv6 name over low-power WLAN networks. As the globe migrates to IPv6 packet information, such a 6LoWPAN scheme provides many benefits for low-power wireless sensor networks and other low-power wireless network types. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a 128-bit internet protocol developed to overcome the limitations of 32-bit IPv4 in addressing. Because of it, a number of devices can be connected to each other.


RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification. Radio waves are used to read and record data that is stored on an item tag. There are two parts of the RFID component on the Tags: a microchip that stores and processes data and an antenna which transmits a signal. There are normally two types of RFID first is passive, and the second is battery powered. A passive RFID tag is used to relay the stored data to the interrogator via radio wave power. A battery-operated RFID tag is built into the data relay using a tiny battery. The tag includes the serial number for a particular item.

9. Zigbee

Zigbee is a Short-range wireless communication protocol. It is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol. It is majorly used in home automation and industry. It is preferred in applications when there is a low power requirement. Low power consumption, high scalability, security, and durability are the main features of Zigbee. Zigbee’s range is 10 meters, but this range can be extended up to 100 meters. The maximum data rate in Zigbee is 250 kbps.


In this article, we have seen what are different types of IoT networks, which protocols are used in communication.

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Learn The Various Types Of Microcomputers

Introduction to Microcomputer Types

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List of Microcomputer types

There are different Microcomputer types given below.

Desktop Computer





1. Desktop Microcomputer 2. Microcomputer Laptop

A laptop, also known as a “Notebook,” is a computer that looks like a sleek briefcase. They can also handle more sophisticated tasks, such as a desktop computer, and they can run on their own in-built battery and a wall socket. Since different small-size components, including a keyboard, LCD monitor, touchpad, and other internal parts, are incorporated into these microcomputers, they are more costly than desktop computers (CPU, Motherboard, Hard disk, etc.). However, its greatest benefit is its portability.

3. Tablets and Smartphones


Tablet microcomputers are compact mobile computers with touch screen displays that are smaller than laptop computers but larger than smartphones. On the LCD panel, users can perform both input and output operations. In addition, they can access the internet through Wi-Fi and other cellular networks. Users can experience issues due to a lack of a keyboard, but they may use an external keyboard if more is needed. Tablets such as Apple’s iPad, Microsoft’s Surface, and Amazon’s Kindle Fire are commercially available.


PDA is short for “Personal Digital Assistant,” and it is a portable device that is equivalent to a tablet, palmtop, or smartphone in terms of portability and scale. It has a small LCD screen for both input and output functions.  a PDA can communicate with other computers such as desktops, laptops, and other devices Via infrared (IR), LAN cable, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, radio waves, and wireless beams. PDAs are mostly used to keep track of to-do lists, appointment schedules, address books, and to take notes.

4. Palmtop microcomputer

The term “pocket computer” refers to a palmtop microcomputer. It is a smaller computer than a PDA, and it uses less power as a result of its compact scale. It is also a very lightweight laptop. Instead of using a keyboard, palmtop computers use a stylus pen stick to enter data. Palmtops don’t usually have disk drives because of their limited size, so they rely on PCMCIA slots to allow disk drives, multiple modems, memory management, and another terminal. Palmtop computers and other portable computers usually run Windows CE operating systems.

Workstation Microcomputers

Workstation microcomputers, also known as efficient one-side computers, are multiprocessor computers with several CPUs. Typically, this microcomputer is programmed by a single user to run specific programs that need more power than a standard PC.

The server microcomputer looks like a computer, but it has a number of powerful features that enable it to render data to another terminal over a variety of networks, including local area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks (WANs) (WAN). Any type of server is programmed to accomplish a particular task, such as running the Apache HTTP server to manage all websites on the internet and the Mail server to send and receive emails.

Mini Tower Microcomputer

The mini-tower microcomputer was created in the shape of a small tower. Due to its small scale, it can be mounted on the table with less space than other desktop microcomputers. In addition, different buses may be used to link input/output devices to it.

Full Tower Microcomputer

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Different Types Of Frames In Html & Types Of Frame Tags

Introduction to Html Frames

Html frames are useful at dividing the web page or the web browser into multiple sections; they separate sections then load differently.

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A-frame displays content independent of its container. Multiple frames form a collection and are known as a frameset. The arrangement can be considered similar to the orientation of rows and columns in a table. The frame tag has been deprecated in HTML5.

Each frame has a frame tag to indicate. The horizontal frame is defined by the row attribute of the frame tag, and the vertical attribute is defined by the column attribute of the frame tag in the HTML document. The same window in one frame might display a static banner,  a second navigation menu, etc.

Syntax of Frames

Similarly, as we saw above, the attribute rows take the value in pixels, and they help at specifying the number and size of rows in a frameset.

Different Type of Frames in HTML

The different and some commonly used attributes in the frame are attributes such as border, scrolling, src, name, etc.

Types of Frame Tag

Following are the different types of frame tags:

1. Col: The col attribute gives the vertical frames. The width, however, can be specified in 4 ways:

Pixels: absolute values can be mentioned in pixels. If we have to create three vertical frames, we can give the value: cols=”100,50,100”.

Percentage: The percentage of the browser window can be mentioned. If we have to create three vertical frames, we can give the value: cols=”40%,20%,40%.”

We can also make use of the wildcard here (*) and let the wildcard take the remaining of the window, which remains un-mentioned.



2. Rows: The row attribute gives the horizontal frames. It specifies the rows in a frameset. If we have to create three horizontal frames we use:

Eg: Rows=”10%,80%,10%’.

We can also set the height of each row as we had done in the case of columns previously.


3. Border: It specifies the width of the border of each frame in pixels.

E.g., border=”4”. If border=”0”, it means there is no border.

4. Frameborder: If a three-dimensional border needs to be displayed between frames, then we use this attribute. The value which the attribute takes is either 1 or 0 ( Yes or No).

E.g.: frameborder=”0” means no border.

5. Framespacing: This attribute specifies the amount of space between frames in a frameset. Any integer value can be given here for this attribute.

E.g., framespacing=”12” means between the frames, there should be the spacing of 12 pixels.

There are 8 attributes that can be listed here in this section.

1. src: We provide the file name to this attribute that is supposed to be loaded into the frame. The value of this attribute can be any URL.

E.g., name=”abc.htm.”

3. frameborder: This attribute is specified to show if the borders are to be shown or not. The value takes up is 1 or 0 (Yes or No).

4. marginwidth: The attribute is helpful at specifying the width of the space between the left and right of the frame’s border and also the content of the frame. The value is given in pixel.

5. marginheight: The attribute is helpful at specifying the height of the space between the top and the bottom of the frame’s border and also the content of the frame. The value is given in pixel.

E.g., marginheight=”10”.

6. noresize: This attribute basically prevents the user from making any changes to the already present frames. In the absence of this attribute, any frame can be resized.

E.g., noresize=”noresize.”

7. scrolling: This attribute takes control of the appearance of the scroll bars, which are present on the frame. The value either a ‘yes, ‘no’, or ‘auto’.

E.g., scrolling=” no” means it should not have scroll bars.

8. longdesc: This attribute lets you provide a link to another page containing a long description of the content of the frame.

E.g., longdesc=”framedesc.htm.”

Frames and Browser Support

It is a nice approach to put up a message in such scenarios for the user who use old browsers. Messages like “ Sorry! Your browser does not support frames.” to notify.


Frame technology is not supported by quite a number of browsers these days. It is often noticed that the contents of the web page are not displayed properly for smaller devices. Anyway, it is good to have knowledge of what existed so that better models could be developed to be compatible with new technologies.

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Internet Of Things (Iot) Security Market

Yet, despite the obvious security nightmare posed by the IoT, there is a strong desire to fully exploit its business and management potential. Governments around the world, for example, are partnering with IoT vendors to add connected sensors and devices as part of smart city projects. Manufacturers are connecting disparate systems within their operations to provide far more granularity into processes, output, and products. Consumers, too, are being armed with IoT sensors that do such tasks as remind them to order certain groceries. This mushrooming number of connected devices is fueling IoT innovation.

According to the Internet of Things (IoT) Security Product market report, rising penetration of mobile network connectivity greatly increases security threat and overall risk. This perceived threat is driving the Internet of Things (IoT) security product market, which is growing at a robust rate of 15% per year between now and 2030.

“Demand for IoT is significantly increasing owing to rising demand for connected devices, such as smart cars, smart meters and machine-to-machine (M2M) communications — such factors are increasing demand for the Internet of Things (IoT) security product market,” the report says.

Specific to applications, the smart grid segment is expected to witness the highest rate of growth during this decade. Smart grids are very much in demand, are part of ongoing U.S. Department of Energy efficiency programs and are being supported by utilities, IT vendors, and the consumer population at large.

The upside for the security market is huge. After all, the global market for overall IoT solutions is already in excess of $200 billion, after surpassing $100 billion in 2023. According to Statista, the market could be worth as much as $1.6 trillion by 2025. If IoT security even grabs 5%, that’s a huge boon to both startups and traditional security players.

However, it has to be understood that the IoT needs different technologies, procedures, protocols, and standards compared to traditional IT security. There is no place for two-factor authentication in many consumer devices, for example. Imagine having to log in to your fridge, then receive a text and type in a code in order to grab the orange juice. Not workable.

Similarly, in many enterprise applications, two-factor authentication might present too many barriers to shop floor productivity. Perhaps the authentication happens initially and then the user is free to operate without further security burden. Such details will have to be developed over time based on the right balance of security and functionality.

See more: Internet of Things (IoT) Security Trends 2023

Take the case of health care. The health care industry is another area where the IoT undoubtedly holds real promise. But the shift to the Internet of Things to raise the connectivity of medical devices poses serious challenges. On the plus side, patients and providers gain more efficient management, faster access to data, better analytics, and higher levels of automation. However, security measures must be in place sufficient to keep hackers at bay.

Such measures must safeguard patient data as well as patient health. But the last thing you want is a nurse waiting urgently to access medications when a person’s survival is at stake. Again, balance is the key.

It is up to IoT security vendors to work with the health care industry and general IT players to evolve the rules, and procedures that function best in the real world. This may necessitate a change of operating basis for many.

Traditionally, vendors noticed a problem and worked on it for months or years and then brought it to market. But the pace of the IoT boom and the needs of the market merit much closer collaboration. When you get into highly specialized applications, such as health care, automotive, telecom, or manufacturing, IT and security personnel must recognize one essential element: They may be expert in security as a general discipline, but they are largely limited when it comes to the modes of operation of these specialized fields. Therefore, they must partner closely with users in each vertical to develop solutions for security that dovetail well with ongoing operations.

There are many well-known players as well as a raft of startups in the IoT security space. These include:


Kaspersky Lab






Trend Micro


CheckPoint Software Technologies

Infineon Technologies



ARM Holdings



See more: Best Threat Intelligence Platforms for 2023

Types Of Graphs With Examples

A graph is a non-linear data structure that consists of vertices and edges. The vertices contain the information or data, and the edges work as a link between pair of vertices.

Graphs can be of multiple types, depending on the position of the nodes and edges. Here’re some important types of Graphs:

Directed Graph

The edges of the Directed Graph contain arrows that mean the direction. The arrow determines where the edge is pointed to or ends.

Here’s an example of the Directed Graph.

Directed Graph

We can go from Node A to D.

However, we can’t go from node D to node A as the edge points from A to D.

As the Graph does not have weights, traveling from vertex A to D will cost the same as traveling from D to F.

Undirected Graph

Undirected Graph contains edges without pointers. It means we can travel vice versa between two vertices.

Here’s a simple example of the undirected Graph.

Undirected Graph

In the above Graph,

We can move from A to B

We can also move from B to A

Edges contain no directions.

It’s an example of an undirected graph having a finite number of vertices and edges with no weights.

Weighted Graph

Graph that contains weights or costs on the edges is called a weighted Graph. The numerical value generally represents the moving cost from one vertex to another vertex. Both Directed and Undirected Graph can have weights on their edges.

Here’s an example of a weighted graph (Directed).

Directed Graph with weight

A to B, there’s an edge, and the weight is 5, which means moving from A to B will cost us 5.

A point to B, but in this Graph, B has no direct edge over A. So, we can’t travel from B to A.

However, If we want to move from A to F, there are multiple paths. The paths are ADF, ABF. ADF will cost (10+11) or 21.

Here, the path ABF will cost (5+15) or 20. Here we’re adding the weight of each edge in the path.

Here’s an example of an Undirected Graph with weights:

Undirected Graph with weight

Here, the edge has weight but no direction. So, it means traveling from vertex A to D will cost 10 and vice versa.

Bi-Directional Graph

Bi-directional and undirected graphs have a common property. That is

Generally, the undirected Graph can have one edge between two vertexes.

For example:

Here, moving from A to D or D to A will cost 10.

In a Bi-Directional Graph, we can have two edges between two vertices.

Here’s an example:

Bi-Directional Graph

Traveling from A to D will cost us 17, but traveling from D to A will cost us 12. So, we can’t assign two different weights if it is an undirected graph.

Infinite Graph

The Graph will contain an infinite number of edges and nodes. If a graph is Infinite and it’s also a connected graph, then it will contain an infinite number of edges as well. Here, the extended edges mean that more edges might be connected to these nodes via edges.

Here’s an example of the infinite Graph:

Infinite Graph

Null Graph

Null Graph contains only nodes or vertices but with no edges. If given a Graph G = (V, E), where V is vertices and E is edges, it will be null if the number of edges E is zero.

Here’s an example of a Null Graph:

Null Graph

Trivial Graph

A graph data structure is considered trivial if only one vertex or node is present with no edges.

Here’s an example of a Trivial Graph:

Multi Graph

A graph is called a multigraph when multiple edges are present between two vertices, or the vertex has a loop. The term “Loop” in Graph Data Structure means an edge pointing to the same node or vertex. Multigraph can be directed or undirected.

Here’s an example of a Multi Graph:

There’re two edges from B to A. Moreover, vertex E has a self-loop. The above Graph is a directed graph with no weights on edges.

Complete Graph

A graph is complete if each vertex has directed or undirected edges with all other vertices.

Suppose there’s a total V number of vertices and each vertex has exactly V-1 edges. Then, this Graph will be called a Complete Graph. In this type of Graph, each vertex is connected to all other vertices via edges.

Here’s an example of a Complete Graph with five vertices:

You can see in the image the total number of nodes is five, and all the nodes have exactly four edges.

Connected Graph

A Graph is called a Connected graph if we start from a node or vertex and travel all the nodes from the starting node. For this, there should be at least one edge between each pair of nodes or vertices.

Here’s an example of a Connected Graph:

Here’s some explanation of the above Graph:

Assuming there’s no edge between C and F, we can’t travel from A to G. However, the edge C to F enables us to travel to any node from a given node.

A complete Graph is a Connected Graph because we can move from a node to any other node in the given Graph.

Cyclic Graph

A graph is said to be cyclic if there are one or more cycles present in the Graph.

Here’s an example of a Cyclic Graph:

Here, vertex A, B, and C form a cycle.

A graph can have multiple cycles inside it.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A Graph is Called Directed Acyclic Graph or DAG if there’re no cycles inside a graph. DAG is important while doing the Topological Sort or finding the execution order. DAG is also important for creating scheduling systems or scanning dependency of resources etc. However, the above Graph above doesn’t contain any cycle inside.

Here’s a simple example of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG):

Cycle Graph

Cycle Graph is not the same as the cyclic Graph. In Cycle Graph, each node will have exactly two edges connected, meaning each node will have exactly two degrees.

Here’s an example of a Cycle Graph:

Bipartite Graph

These kinds of Graphs are special kinds of Graph where vertices are assigned to two sets.

Bipartite Graph must follow the rule:

Two sets of vertices should be distinct, which means all the vertices must be divided into two groups or sets.

Same set Vertices should not form any edges.

Euler Graph

A Graph Data Structure is said to be an Euler Graph if all the vertices have an even-numbered degree. The term degree of vertices means the number of edges pointing to or pointing out from a particular vertex.

Here’s an example of a Euler graph:

All the vertices have even degrees. Vertex A, D, E, and H have two degrees. Here, node C has four degrees, which is even.

Hamilton Graph

Hamilton Graph is a Connect Graph, where you can visit all the vertices from a given vertex without revisiting the same node or using the same edge. This kind of Connected Graph is known as the “Hamilton Graph.” The path you visit to verify if the given Graph is Hamilton Graph or not is known as Hamiltonian Path.

Here’s a simple example of a Hamilton graph:

In this image, we can visit all the vertices from any node in the above Graph. One of the paths can be A-D-C-H-B-E. It’s also possible to find a Hamilton Cycle. Hamilton Cycle starts and ends at the same vertex. So, the Hamilton Cycle will be A-D-C-H-B-E-A.

Types Of Hr Management Software

Gone are the days of manually recording and managing human resources data. HR software solutions can help businesses digitize and streamline their HR processes. In fact, a report by Grand View Research said the growing HR software market was expected to exceed $10 billion by 2023. 

If your business hasn’t yet implemented HR software, read on to learn what HR management software is and which problems it can solve, and get an overview of the top HR management systems available.

What is HR management software?

You may have heard the terms “human resource management system” (HRMS), “human resources information system” (HRIS) and “human capital management” (HCM). While they vary slightly, HCM, HRIS and HRMS are the same general concept: managing human resources via software. 

Instead of keeping manual HR information records, HR software lets you digitally store and manage core HR functions, such as staffing and onboarding, payroll and benefits administration, workforce management, employee training and development, performance management, and legal risk and compliance.

Bottom Line

HR management software, also known simply as HR software, streamlines HR functions like payroll, employee benefits administration, training and development, performance management, and HR compliance challenges.

What are the HR management system types?

There are several different types of HR software. While some HR systems serve one primary function, others are comprehensive and include a combination of services. 

Here are some of the most common HR management system types and the primary services they include.

1. Recruiting, hiring and onboarding

Some HR platforms can help you find, vet and integrate new employees. These are some such HR platforms:

Recruitment software

Applicant tracking software

Background check software and services

Onboarding and offboarding software


The top background check services protect your business by revealing critical information about a candidate’s criminal history, identity, employment and education history, credit score, and more.

2. Employee compensation

HR software can help you track how many hours your employees work and compensate them accordingly. Here are some examples of these HR platforms:

Employee scheduling software

Time and attendance software

Benefits administration software

Payroll software and services

3. Workforce management

Different types of HR software can help you manage your overall workforce. You can record important HR documents, track employee performance and improve employee engagement. These are some HR platforms like this:

Employee monitoring software

Performance management software

Employee engagement software

HR software

Which problems does HR management software solve?

HR management systems solve a plethora of HR issues. However, some are better than others, depending on your organization’s needs. 

Before choosing an HR solution, determine which of the following functions your HR software should accommodate:

Recruiting and onboarding

Workforce management

Employee compensation

Employee development

Performance management

Legal compliance

Recruiting and onboarding

Finding the right employees can be crucial to your success, but finding and attracting top talent can be a struggle for many businesses, especially those that haven’t hired an HR manager trained in recruiting and onboarding. 

HR software can be a game-changer when you’re recruiting new employees, allowing you to cast a wider (or more targeted) net to find qualified candidates. More businesses are using HR software in recruitment: A survey by PwC found that 58% of businesses use HR technology to find, attract and retain talent.

HR software lets you track applicants throughout the hiring process to ensure they move swiftly through the funnel before they get swooped up by the competition.

Some software and services allow you to conduct background screening by running pre-employment background checks on candidates to ensure they’re appropriately vetted for the job. 

Once a candidate is cleared, you can use HR software to onboard them successfully. The best HR software can digitize documents that candidates can e-sign and store for reference and compliance reasons.

Did You Know?

A bad hire can cost your business 30% of the employee’s first-year earnings, according to the U.S. Department of Labor.

Workforce management

If you want your business to be as efficient as possible, you’ll need to manage your workforce strategically. HR software provides data and features to help you with efficient workforce management. 

For example, you can manage employee schedules to ensure you have the correct number of people working at a specific time. Proper staffing can ensure that your employees aren’t overworked and customers receive proper attention. Similarly, HR software can help with resource allocation.

Employee compensation

Employee compensation management is one of HR’s most important responsibilities, and various HR software options can help. For example, you can use time and attendance software to track how many hours each employee works, the locations where they’re clocking in and out, and how much time they spend on specific projects or jobs. You can also track and manage time-off requests. These features can help you comply with critical labor laws.

HR software can also help you process payroll, file payroll taxes, report new hires to the state, track and manage PTO accruals, and compensate your employees. Some HR solutions also offer employee benefits administration that integrates with your payroll so that each employee is compensated appropriately. 

An all-in-one HR solution, or multiple solutions that integrate, is a great way to ensure your employees receive their total compensation on time.


There may be mandatory sick leave laws in your state, and HR software with compensation management features can help you comply with these laws.

Employee development

Employee development has become a key driver for many job candidates when accepting a new position. A defined employee development process helps you attract and retain top talent while improving your bottom line. With a team of highly skilled employees in place, your organization produces better work all around. 

HR software can help you provide professional development opportunities to your workers, often through e-learning platforms. Although some companies offer in-person training, online courses and workshops have become a popular way to upskill and educate employees. Giving your employees a clear path to their future can help increase employee engagement and satisfaction.

Performance management

In addition to offering employee development opportunities, HR software can help you manage employee performance. For example, employee monitoring software allows you to track when and where your employees are working and how productive they are when they’re on the clock. 

The best software compiles a vast amount of employee data that can be used to create a good employee performance process. You can identify your most efficient workers and reward them accordingly. You can also see who might be reaching burnout or who needs a little extra handholding.


If you notice that an employee is struggling to meet their goals, consider putting them on a performance improvement plan.

Legal compliance

Maintaining compliance with every federal, state and industry law and regulation can be challenging, especially for small businesses. However, HR software can help you maintain legal compliance by streamlining several HR processes. For example, it can store mandatory HR documents, maintain accurate time-tracking metrics in line with pay laws and manage payroll in compliance with tax laws.

Employees can often use HR software to access necessary training, including sexual harassment prevention training. Some HR software providers can also offer HR guidance to help you in your compliance with labor and employment laws, like COBRA compliance and OSHA compliance.

What are the best HR management systems?

There are many HR management software solutions, each with its own features, benefits and limitations. Some systems are more general, while others can be customized for specific businesses or industries. 

We researched and analyzed various HR systems to identify the top solutions. Here are some of our favorite options.

CompanyDescriptionWorkableBest recruitment software for small businessesBambooHRBest applicant tracking and performance management software (read our BambooHR review to learn more)GoodHireBest background check platform BerniePortalBest HR software for employee onboardingQuickBooks TimeBest time and attendance software for mobile workforces (read our QuickBooks Time review for more information)When I WorkBest time and attendance software for restaurants and retail (read our When I Work review for more information)GustoBest HR software for payroll (read our review of Gusto to learn more)InterGuardBest employee monitoring software for remote workforces (read our InterGuard review to learn more)ActivTrakBest employee monitoring software for workforce analytics (read our ActivTrak review to learn more)Paychex FlexBest HR software for remote teams (read our review of Paychex Flex to learn more)SAP SuccessFactorsBest HR software for employee experienceRipplingEasiest HR software to implement (read our Rippling review to learn more)WorkdayBest HR software for compensation management

When choosing HR software, pay attention to how it integrates with your other platforms. For example, if you use one platform for time tracking and another for payroll, they’ll need to integrate properly to ensure you’re compensating your employees correctly.

If you’re looking for a more comprehensive HR platform that can take care of some or all of your HR responsibilities, consider using one of the top HR outsourcing services or the best professional employer organizations available.

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