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SAP HANA Reporting

We have till now loaded data from SAP Source, Non-SAP, and Flat file through SAP SLT, SAP BODS and created information view (Attribute View, Analytic View, and Calculation View).

Now we will discuss the information view in reporting tools –The drivers like JDBC, ODBC, and ODBO in reporting tool are part of SAP HANA Client.

So by installing SAP HANA Client software (*.exe file) will make all the drivers available on the PC for connecting to reporting tools to SAP HANA.

We will use SAP BO, SAP Lumira, and Microsoft Excel to access SAP HANA information view in this tutorial.

The choice of reporting tool depends upon the type of reports that are required.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

Reporting in SAP BI (Business Intelligence) Overview

SAP BI is a data warehousing and reporting tool.

In BI (Business Intelligence) raw data will be cleaned, business logic applied, processed and provide meaningful information to the user. BI is a SAP Product, which provides the user friendly environment.

SAP BI support many databases, but when we migrate from source data to SAP HANA then architecture will be as below-

SAP BI is three tier architecture –

Database Server – In this, data is physically stored in PSA, ODS, Infocube.

Application Server – It is used to access data from database server and process data for Presentation server.

Presentation Server- It displays the data to the user.

SAP Bex Query Designer (Component of SAP BI) can access SAP HANA View as info provider and display data in Bex.

Reporting in Webi of SAP Business Object (BO) from HANA

SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence (SAP BO WebI) is part of the SAP Business Objects Platform (SBOP) client tools family. SAP Business Objects tool use the JDBC/ODBC driver to connect to the source system.

Features of SAP BO WebI is as below –

Webi is adhoc reporting tool.

Webi is used for detail level report.

Webi display the result in tabular or graphical formats.

User can create / modify their own queries for the report.

After installing SAP HANA client, JDBC/ODBC driver will be installed on PC.

These drivers act as an intermediate between SAP HANA and client reporting tools when presenting data to the user.

SAP BO Server and SAP BO Platform (SBOP) client tools.

How to Create Universe in SAP HANA Using Information Design Tool

In this step, we will create a universe Using Information Design Tool (IDT).

HANA can be accessed via ODBC and JDBC drivers, and its tables can be defined and queried with SQL language. Tables are managed with a tool called HANA Studio.

Launch IDT by navigating to

Information Design tool screen will appear. To create a universe we need a project in IDT.

    Navigate to Project Option as below-

    Select Project option.


    Select Project.

    A pop-up for New Project will appear- In this pop-up, enter following details:

    1. Enter name of project

    Project Name “WEBI_DHK_HANA” will appear under Local Projects Tab as below.

    A project is a local workspace where you store the resources used to build one or more universes.

    There are two connections available, detail of each is as below –

    Relational Connection – To access data from a table and access regular RDBMS use Relational Connection.

    OLAP Connection – To access data from the application (SAP, Oracle, Microsoft, SAP BO) and data stored in Cube / Information View use OLAP connection.

    A Pop-Up for New Relation Connection source name appear-

    Enter Resource Name.

    A Pop-Up for Database Middleware Driver Selection will appear-

    Select JDBC Drivers option under SAP HANA Database 1.0.

    A pop-up for New Relational Connection parameter will be displayed, enter following details into it.

    Authentication Mode will be selected as “Use Specified User Name and Password”.

    Enter HANA User Name.

    Enter Password.

    Select Single server in DATA Source section. Enter Host Name (here best: 30015).

    Enter Instance Number.

    A pop-up for Test Connection successful will be displayed.

    After successful Connection, a connection with name SAP chúng tôi will be created.

    To consume Universe by Web Intelligence, Dashboards or Crystal Report for Enterprise, we need to publish the connection. So, now we publish connection for SAP HANA.cnx.

    Select Publish Connection to a repository.

    A Publish connection with name chúng tôi will be created after successful publish in the repository.

    A pop-up for publishing connection to repository appears –

    Select Business IDT.

    A pop-up “The connection was published successfully” will be displayed.

    Now we create Universe by using SAP HANA Business Layer.

    Create Universe (Universe is a business representation of your data warehouse or transactional database. Universe allow the user to interact with data without knowledge of complexities of the database).

    To create universe, we use SAP HANA Business Layer as below –

    SAP HANA Business Layer

    From SAP BOBI 4.1, SAP provides a new option “SAP HANA Business Layer” while creating the universe using Information Design tool.

    Before SAP BOBI 4.1 version, we need to create a derived table while building data foundation and map the variable and input parameters.

    SAP HANA Business Layer automatically creates a data foundation and business layer based on selected SAP HANA Views.

    SAP HANA Business Layer automatically detects the input parameter and variables.

    We Create Universe through SAP HANA Business Layer as below-

    Select Project Created “WEBI_DHK_HANA”.

    Select option “SAP HANA Business Layer”.

    A Pop-up for SAP HANA Business Layer appears-

    Enter Business Layer Name.

    Enter Data Foundation Name.

    Enter Description.

    A Pop-up for Select SAP HANA Connection displayed-

    Tick on Connection “SAPHANA.cnx”.

    A Pop-up for selecting SAP HANA Information Model will be displayed.

    Now Select Analytic View (AN_PURCHASE_ORDERS) Created under HANAUSER Package.

    The analytic view will open in Information Design tool.

    Detail of Information Design tool will be as below-

    Under Project- all Relational Connection, Business Layer, and Data Foundation will be displayed.

    In repository resource section, object (Connection, Business Layer, etc.) stored in the repository will be displayed.

    Business Layer shows Business view of Analytic view. It is for Functional Person.

    Data Foundation shows table and column name. It is for Technical Person.

    Step 6) Select Layer section.

    Select Business layer section, go to the folder with the name of Analytic View.

    Now follow points as below-

    Select data foundation section.

    Drag and drop column to Analytic View

    It will display objects under Analytic View

    Dragged field will be displayed under Analytic View (AN_PURCHASE_ORDER).

    After that, follow the step below.

    Create a Query and view output.

    Go to Queries option.

    A Query panel will be displayed, Select the field to which you want to include in Query.

    Drag and drop them to “Result object for Query #1 “section.

    Result will be displayed.

    Reporting in SAP Crystal Report

    SAP Crystal Report help us to design, explore, visualize and provide report, which can be run on web or enterprises applications. With SAP Crystal Report we can create simple report or complex report.

    There are two types of SAP Crystal Reports –

    Crystal Report 2011 /13 /16: This will be used when –

    If you want to call a HANA stored procedure from Crystal Reports.

    If you want to create SQL Expressions

    If you want to execute a view with parameters or variables and submit non-default values

      Crystal Report for Enterprises: This will be used when –

      If there are Universe available or needed, then use SAP Crystal Reports Enterprises.

      We will use crystal reports for enterprises.

      Step 1) Login into Crystal Report for Enterprises.

      SAP Crystal reports for Enterprises will be displayed as below-

      It is Report Formatting section, which provides a different tool for formatting.

      This is an icon for the window (Data Explorer, outline, Group tree, Find).

      Detail of Data Explorer, outline, Group tree, Find, etc. will be displayed.

      Report Page Formatting option.

      Work Area for Report.

      Step 2) Now we create a connection for the data source.

      A pop-up for Choose a data source type will be displayed-

      Select Browse option from SAP HANA Platform Section.

      A window for Server connection will be displayed as below-

      Enter Connection Display Name (saphana).

      A connection Name will appear in the connection list.

      Enter HANA Server name.

      Enter HANA Server Instance Name.

      Enter HANA username.

      A pop-up for Test connection logon. Enter password for SAP HANA user.

      A message for connection successful will be displayed.

      A pop-up for connecting to the Server will display.

      Step 3) In this step,

      We will do the following thing

      Select server “saphana.”

      One more pop-up will appear for selecting HANA View.

      2) In this step, we select SAP HANA View.

      Select HANA View (Analytic View AN_PURCHASE_ORDERS).

        In this step, a window for Query will open.

        Follow below point to create a query-

        Select required column from the list for the query.

        Drag and Drop required field in Query.

        The result set will be displayed.

        Report Output will be displayed as below-

        Reporting in SAP Lumira

        SAP Lumira is new software by SAP to Analyze and Visualize data.

        By SAP Lumira user can create a beautiful and interactive map, infograpg, and charts. SAP Lumira can import data from Excel, and other source.

        SAP Lumira can access information view of SAP HANA directly. SAP HANA Perform visual BI analysis using dashboard.

        In SAP Lumira, the following steps need to be done to visualize data.

        Step 1) Create a Document and acquire a data set

        After open SAP Lumira, screen open for work on SAP Lumira, Detail about this screen as below-

        Application Toolbar – It contains toolbar like File, Edit, View, Data, and Help.

        Home Link – By using this option we can go to home screen.

        My Document Sections





        SAP Lumira Cloud – By using this option, we can use cloud options.

        Connections – W can see all connection here.

        Select New Option.

        SAP Lumira supports below dataset –

        Microsoft Excel


        Copy from clipboard

        Connect to SAP HANA

        Download From SAP HANA


        Query With SQL

        Connect to SAP Business Warehouse

        SAP Universe Query Panel

        Step-2) Connect to SAP HANA

        Here we will connect to SAP HANA and access SAP HANA Information View.

        So select Connect to SAP HANA.

        A pop-up for SAP HANA Server Credential will be displayed as below-

        Enter SAP HANA Server name.

        Enter SAP HANA Instance no.

        Enter SAP HANA User Name.

        Enter SAP HANA Password.

        Step 3) Access SAP HANA Analytic View

        A window for select SAP HANA View will appear as below-

        Select SAP HANA View (“AN_PURCHASE_ORDERS” here).

        Step 4 ) Define Dimension and Measure.

        The next window for select Measures and Dimensions will be displayed –

        All Measure will be grouped under Measure sections.

        All Dimension will be grouped under Dimension Sections.

        Step 5) Visualize SAP HANA Analytic View in SAP Lumira.

        After activating Information View in SAP HANA, a Column View with the similar name of information view, under “_SYS_BIC” Schema created in SAP HANA catalog node.

        When we need to access any SAP HANA Information View outside from SAP HANA, We can access it only from “_SYS_BIC” Schema.

        A Visualize screen will appear, which select column view under “_SYS_BIC” Schema –

        Different Chart Type can be selected from Chart Builder Section.

        Select Column Chart option.

        We have added “GROSS_AMOUNT” AND “TAX_AMOUNT” Measure.

        Select “CATEGORY”, “PRODUCT_ID”, “PRODUCT_NAME” from Dimension List to display on X Axis.

        SAP HANA Analytic view will be displayed in visualize tab of SAP Lumira, in which we have different screen as below-

        Tool for Ascending / descending, Ranking, Clear, refresh, etc.

        This can be used for Filtering.

        The output of SAP HANA Analytic views in SAP HANA lumira.

        Reporting in Microsoft Excel

        Microsoft Excel has powerful reporting inbuilt option; we can create report quickly by pivot tables and charts.

        MS Office uses MDX language ((Multi Dimension Expression language) to access data from SAP HANA.

        MDX Language is used by reporting tool to access data from a multi-dimensional object in a database environment. By Only MDX Query we can access sap Hana hierarchies.

        We can access only SAP HANA information view which has a property as ‘CUBE’ in semantic, so we cannot access attribute view by MS Excel.

        Connecting Drivers- MS Excel uses ODBO (OLE DB FOR OLAP) drivers for connecting to SAP HANA database.

        Now we will access SAP HANA database from SAP HANA as shown in steps below –

        Step 1) Connect To SAP HANA Excel-

        Open MS Excel. Go to Data Tab.

        Select From Data Connection Wizard.

        A screen for Data connection wizard will be displayed as below-

        Select “Other / Advance” option.

        A window for “Data Link Properties “will be open as below-

        Select “SAP HANA MDX Provider “under Provide Tab.

        A window for data link properties will be displayed –

        Enter the following detail as below –

        Enter Host Name of SAP HANA Database.

        Enter Instance number of SAP HANA database.

        Enter Username / password for SAP HANA database.

        Enter Language name.

        A message “Test connection succeeded” will be pop-up.

        Step 2) Till now we had created a connection from Excel to SAP HANA and tested the connection. Now we access SAP HANA Information View from Excel.

        Now a window for “Data connection wizard” will be displayed.

        Select the package in which contains SAP HANA Information View.

        Select Information View (Analytic View, Calculation View).

        A new window for data connection File will appear, enter following details.

        1. Give File Name (AV_SALES).

        2. Tick option “Save password in file”, for avoid to enter a password while open Excel file.

        3. A Pop-up for save password security related will be displayed.

        Step 3) Now SAP HANA Information View will be displayed in Excel as pivot table as below –


        We have learned in this tutorial below topic –

        Reporting in SAP BI overview

        Reporting in SAP BO Webi with an example of SAP HANA information View.

        Reporting in SAP Crystal Report Enterprises with an example of SAP HANA information View.

        Reporting in SAP Lumira with an example of SAP HANA information View.

        Reporting in Microsoft Excel by consuming SAP HANA Information view.

        You're reading Sap Hana Reporting Tool: How To Create Universe Using Idt?

        Sap Reveals Road Map Details For Its Hana In

        SAP has provided an extensive window into the future direction of its HANA in-memory database platform, which has emerged as the central pillar of the company’s product strategy.

        A lengthy HANA road map document, which was made public this week, reveals a wide array of upcoming features, although no specific release dates were given and it notes that plans can change “at any time.”

        Over time, HANA customers can expect improved integration with the Hadoop framework for large-scale data processing, including “tighter modeling and runtime integration with Hadoop structures and data,” according to the road map document.

        SAP will also enhance HANA’s integration with Sybase Power Designer, focused on “model interoperability and management” with HANA, it states.

        “Key” features and intellectual property from Sybase IQ, the columnar analytic database, will be embedded at some point into HANA as well, according to the document.

        On the deployment front, HANA customers can expect “enhanced and flexible data center deployment options,” the document states, without further explanation. SAP will also offer support for virtualized HANA instances “on validated appliances,” it adds.

        Other road map plans include various improvements to security and more support for third-party tooling.

        The new features will likely come in waves as SAP continues rolling out service packs for HANA.

        While SAP has been criticized in the past for having a slow pace of development, it would be hard to say the same thing about HANA. The product went into general availability in June 2011 and SAP has released six of the service packs so far.

        HANA generated €102 million (US$133.6 million) in software revenue during SAP’s second quarter and is on track to pile up between €650 million and €700 million by the end of the year, according to the company.

        SAP has ported its Business Suite software to run on HANA and recently launched a HANA-powered managed hosting service, which it expects will help drive further sales.

        It is not the only vendor building out in-memory database technology, with rivals such as IBM, Microsoft and Oracle readying their own products.

        SAP has an “18- to 24-month lead” over the competition with in-memory computing, co-CEO Bill McDermott claimed during the company’s second-quarter earnings call this week.

        When fleet management services provider Automotive Resources International decided to overhaul its aging data warehouse environment, it went with HANA, said Bill Powell, head of information management, in a recent interview.

        ARI is not an SAP ERP (enterprise resource planning) shop, but had been using its Business Objects BI (business intelligence) software on top of an Oracle-based infrastructure, he said. It evaluated several platforms for the upgrade, Oracle and IBM’s Netezza, but “for our requirements and use cases HANA was the right fit,” he said.

        SAP has said HANA provides major and in many cases staggering improvements in performance over other types of systems.

        But speed alone isn’t enough, and customers considering a move over to HANA have some considerations to make, Powell said.

        “First and foremost make sure you invest in a formalized [enterprise information management] process,” he said. “Understand that it’s not just inject HANA and solve all the world’s problems.” Without closely aligning a HANA project with what the business needs, “the only thing you’re going to do is provide bad information really fast,” he added.

        International Scientists Race To Create The Heaviest Element In The Universe

        Two international teams are competing to create the heaviest element in the universe. Super-heavy elements are the elements at the bottom of the periodic table with an atomic number (the number of protons) above 104. The previous heaviest element, temporarily called ununoctium, was “discovered” in 2002, and the two teams are now attempting to produce elements 119 and 120.

        Jon Petter Omtvedt, a professor of nuclear chemistry at University of Oslo, is working with scientists from Western Europe, Japan and the United States, running experiments at the German GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The other team is made up of Russian and American scientists working out of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. “The competition is razor-sharp,” said Omtvedt. “Super-heavy elements are highly unstable and very difficult to create. It is like finding something unknown in outer space.”

        Manufacturing a single atom of a new element is not sufficient to be credited with discovering a new element. The results need to be replicated. “No one will gain any recognition until another laboratory manages to recreate the experiment. In the worst case, it may take several decades before the experiment has been verified,” said Omtvedt. The heavier a super-heavy element is, the longer it takes to produce, and the shorter it will remain intact. A single atom of element 106 could be created within one hour when it was first discovered, and that atom decayers into lighter elements in 20 seconds. An atom of element 118 could be created in one month, and its half-life (the time before half of it decayed) was a mere 1.8 milliseconds.

        Two weeks ago, nuclear physicists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, created 20 mg of the highly radioactive element berkelium. Each team vying to create element 119 was given 10 mg of berkelium. They will bombard a metal plate laced with berkelium atoms with a beam of titanium atoms. The teams are working on a tight schedule. Berkelium’s half life is only 320 days, and once 320 days have passed, half of their sample will have decade into other elements. “It is extremely difficult to create intense titanium beams. To accomplish this, we have secrets that we will not share with others,” said Omtvedt.

        The basic principle of creating super-heavy atoms is simple: smash the atoms of one element into those of another and their protons will add up to create a new element. Titanium’s 22 protons will join berkelium’s 97 to create an atom with 119 protons, one atom of element 119. Most of the time, though, the atoms will collide and shatter or partially destroy each other. But rarely, “less than once a month,” the protons will collide to create a complete atom. Detecting such a rare occurrence is a challenge. “You will have to detect this one atom on a metal plate where more than 100,000 superfluous events are occurring each second,” Omtvedt said. The only way to detect the new atom is to observe the radioactive radiation it emits when it decays. There will be no evidence of the new element until it’s already gone.

        “We are working right at the cutting edge of what is experimentally possible,” said Omtvedt. “In order to study the heaviest elements, we have to stretch the current technology to its utmost and even a little further.”

        Science Daily

        How To Create Gifs Using Your Android Phone

        GIFs are crazy. GIFs are amazing. GIFs are everywhere.

        GIFs, the animated lil videos have taken the internet by a storm. You find them floating on every social network – Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr. It would be safe to say that GIFs are used not only for personal use, but even brands prefer GIFs – Buzzfeed Media being the top-notch player.

        GIFs – which convey emotions beautifully, are easily available on the internet. There are countless GIFs on the internet for every emotion that you can use in your posts.

        But what if you want to create your own GIF? Next time while watching a video if you stumble upon a clip that you think might make a good GIF, don’t chicken out. 😛 We will tell you how to make GIFs from videos or images.

        Also read: How to create video slideshow of photos on Android

        How to make GIFs from a video or multiple images

        If you thought that making a GIF was a troublesome process, you are wrong. The process to create GIFs is easy and uncomplicated.

        First, you have to download a GIF creator app from the Google Play store. There are many apps on the Google Play store like GIF Maker by Kayak Studio, GIF edit maker video by enjoytimedev, GIFMaker, GIF me Camera.

        I would recommend GIF Maker by Kayak Studio as the app is fast and does its job flawlessly. The app gives you multiple options to create a GIF. You can create a GIF from a new video, existing video, from multiple images, and from a video link. In addition to that, you can also edit the existing GIF with this app. Moreover, the app allows you to create a GIF from screen recorder. To modify the GIF, you can cut/crop the video and adorn it with labels/captions and stickers.

        How to use GIF maker app

        To use GIF Maker to create a GIF, follow the steps:

        Step 1. Open the app.

        Step 2. Tap Create New located at the top right corner.

        However, if you want to create a GIF from existing GIF on your phone or from GIPHY GIF, you will find the options on the first page itself.

        Step 3. After tapping Create New, you will get a new Menu with the following options:

        From Camera: Create GIF from a new video.

        From Video: Create GIF from an existing video.

        From Images: Create GIF from multiple images.

        From Screen Recorder: Record your android screen and create a GIF.

        From GIPHY or .GIF link: Create a new GIF from existing GIFs either from GIPHY website or any GIF file with a GIF link.

        From Link video: Create GIF from any video link. The file need not be in .GIF format. The only requirement is it should be a video file – YouTube, .mp4 etc.

        Choose a suitable option to create a GIF. For our tutorial, we have selected “From Video” option.

        Step 4. The app will automatically show the videos in your gallery. Select the video.

        Step 5. Once you select the video, the app will give you an option to cut and crop the video. Use the rectangle box to crop the video. Use the slider at the bottom to cut the video – to set start and end time. You can create a GIF of maximum 60 seconds. When you are done, hit the Apply button.

        Also read: 8 cool new WhatsApp Status Tips and Tricks

        Step 6. Hit the play button to play your newly created GIF. If you are happy with your GIF, tap the Save button located at the top right corner to save it in your phone. You can also share it directly via social networks by tapping the share button, present next to the Save button.

        However, you can further tweak your GIF with the extra settings provided by the app.

        The Menu above the slider has the following three options:

        Remove Background: With this option, you can remove any background or part of an image.

        Crop: If you are not satisfied with the initial crop option, you can further crop it using this option.

        Manager: The manager option allows you to add or remove a particular image from the GIF.

        The Menu below the slider has following options:

        Speed: It allows you to adjust the frame rate of your GIF. You can increase or decrease the speed of GIF in this option.

        Effects: This option provides filters that you can apply to your GIF.

        Frame: To add a border or frame to your GIF, use this option.

        Label: You might have noticed the text at the bottom of the GIFs. This is where you can add text to your GIFs. You can change the color, font, and size of your text.

        Sticker: The app further allows you to add stickers to your GIF.

        Add Image: You can overlay an image on top of your GIF with this option. Further, you can combine two GIFs with this option.

        Finally, when everything is done, hit the Save button at the top right corner – similar to step 6.  To share your GIF you can either share it from the gallery or tap the Share button.

        Now that you know how to create GIFs, use your skill to add new GIFs to the existing remarkable GIF library. 🙂

        →Download GIF Maker by Kayak Studio Android app

        How To Create A Membership Website Using WordPress

        Do you want to create a membership website using WordPress? Perhaps you already have a wordpress website, but now you want to create one with membership of different levels? This course shows you how to create a wordpress website using wordpress right from the very start – buying the domain, to the end membership site. 

        We cover how to set different membership levels – so you can have some members who are free and some who pay for their subscription. You can set it to have a free trial period, and membership can be weekly, monthly, annually – you decide! You can choos the currency. We cover how to link paypal, to take subscriptions, how to customise the site to add a menu and a log in and registration button and how to add social media buttons and much much more!

        You don’t need to have any previous experience of using wordpress to take this course. You may even have a wordpress website already, and you just want to add a membership option to it, or you may want to create a membership website from scratch. Either way – this course can help. We show you where and how to buy a domain, how to customise the theme for your website, how to add posts and how to add pages.

        Some content can be for paying members only. Some content can be visible to all. Some content can be partially visible to all, but they need to register before gaining access to the free bits. It’s completely up to you! Membership websites are becoming increasingly popular as ‘gurus’ find a way to monetise their knowledge by bringing their private facebook groups off, into their own membership paid-for content website. 

        The huge benefit of the wordpress membership website that we build – is that the moment a subscriber fails to pay their ‘monthly’ or ‘annual’ subscription – then access to the parts of the website that were previously available to them immediately shuts down. So, even if they subscribe for one day and then cancel – the website ‘knows’ and will immediately shut them out, so there’s no extra vigilence needed on your part to monitor subscribers and to kick out non-paying members. It is all automated!

        The course will take approx 1.5 hours to complete. It’s one of the most useful wordpress skills you can learn today. Note – the theme is free, so is the plug in. The only additional cost (if you wish to implement a membership site for yourself) will be the cost of the domain and the cost of hosting. Annually, this could be “$20” but there is no ongoing ‘cost’ to managing your membership website, so there are no hidden additional / extra costs!

        Your course tutor has multiple wordpress websites and has 2 membership websites which she has built herself so none of this is theoretical but a real, practical course. One of the sites in operation today is what was made on the course. Take the course and watch how a real membership website is made in less than 2 hours from start to finish!


        Build a WordPress membership website using WordPress

        Understand some extremely useful plug ins and widgets for wordpress websites


        Have an idea of a membership site that they’d like to create

        Students do not need any previous experience of using wordpress as we cover everything from scratch

        How To Create Animated Gif Images For Data Visualization Using Gganimate (In R)?


        Data visualization is probably the most important and typically the least talked about area of data science.

        I say that because how you create data stories and visualization has a huge impact on how your customers look at your work. Ultimately, data science is not only about how complicated and sophisticated your models are. It is about solving problems using data based insights. And in order to implement these solutions, your stakeholders need to understand what you are proposing.

        One of the challenges in creating effective visualizations is to create images which speak for themselves. This article will tell one of the ways to do so using animated GIF images (Graphics Interchangeable format). This would be particularly helpful when you want to show time / flow based stories. Using animation in images, you can plot comparable data over time for specific set of parameters. In other words, it is easy to understand and see the growth of certain parameter over time.

        Let me show this with an example

        Example – GDP vs. Life expectancy over time

        Let us say you want to show how GDP and life expectancy have changed for various continents / countries over time. What do you think is the best way to represent this relationship?

        You can think of multiple options like:

        Creating a 3D plot with GDP, life expectancy and time on 3 plots and draw lines for each continent / country. The problem is that human eye is really bad as interpreting 3D visualizations in 2D. Especially so, if there is too much data. So, this option would not work.

        Creating 2 plots side by side – one showing GDP over time and other life expectancy over time. While this is a 2 dimensional plot, we have left a lot for user to interpret. The person need to pick a country and see its movement on each plot and then correlate them. Again, I would ask this from my stakeholders.

        Now, let us look at this using an animated plot using .gif file:

        The recent development of gganimate package had made this possible and easier. By the end of this article, you will be able to make your own .gif file and create your own customised frame to compare different parameters on global or local scale.


        Please install the following packages:





        In addition to the above libraries in R, you will also need Image Magick Software in your system. You may download and install the same from Image Magick

        Get the Data

        The data set contains data for global seismic activity from 1965 to 2023. Please visit the above link and scroll down to get the .csv file.

        Earthquake magnitude of 7 points on Richter Scale from 1965-2023

        The dataset had been modified and only seismic value of 7 points on richter scale has been considered for the study.

        Data Manipulation

        From the .csv file we have only selected few parameters for the sake of simplicity.





        Type is the type of seismic activity

        Depth is the distance of the epicenter from the seal level.

        Magnitude is the reading on the richter scale

        ID is the event ID of the seismic activity

        We are all set to start coding in R. I have used RStudio environment. You are free to use any environment you prefer.

        R Codes ## Read the datatset and load the necessary packages library(plyr) library(dplyr) library(ggmap) library(ggplot2) library(gganimate) EQ=read.csv("eq.csv",stringsAsFactors = FALSE) names(EQ) ## Only Select the data with magnitude greater than or equal to 7. Speed up projection in .gif using animation package

        As we can see that plot has too many years from 1965 to 2023. Thus, in order to speed up the visualization, we can use the animation package to fast forward using ani.option()

        library(animation) ani.options(interval=0.15) gganimate(p) Conclusion

        This article was an introductory tutorial to the world of animated map. Readers can try this and apply the same in other projects. Some of the example are,

        The same technology can be used to compare the heat map for the weather data across nation

        Flood or other natural disaster in a particular location over a period of time.

        Aritra Chatterjee is a professional in the field of Data Science and Operation Management having experience of more than 5 years. He aspires to develop skill in the field of Automation, Data Science and Machine Learning.

        This post was received as part of our blogging competition – The Mightiest Pen. Check out other competitions here.


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