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Rosanna Warren on loving literature “The human mind doesn’t like to be boxed in”

An organization that seeks to unite novelists, poets, critics, theorists, editors, educators, and literature enthusiasts clearly needs a poet, critic, theorist, and educator to lead it. And so for the past year, Rosanna Warren — all of the above, as well as BU’s Emma Ann MacLachlan Metcalf Professor of the Humanities — has held another role, as the president of the Association of Literary Scholars and Critics.

The ALSC, currently headquartered in Boston, is a collective of scholars, writers, and students, all of whom work together to demonstrate that literature, in all its forms, is something that can be both studied and loved without restrictions of genre and ideology. The association’s annual conference, which takes place this year from November 4 to 6, will be held at the Hotel Marlowe in Cambridge.

This weekend’s event is the culmination of a year and a half of planning by Warren, who has been an officer of the ALSC for the past two years, while teaching at BU and working on her next book of poetry. The preparation, she acknowledges, has been an “amazing amount of work.” After 10 years with the organization, however, she has found that it has had a small but important effect on the literary landscape. “We started because we felt we were in a climate of intolerance,” Warren says. “The climate is different now.”

The ALSC was founded 11 years ago as a response to what Warren calls an intense narrowing of academic viewpoints. The study of literature, she says, had become dominated by particular political and social theories about which authors were worthy of study and how their work should be read — “and many of us,” she says, “simply felt we were no longer interested in this type of scholarship. We wanted to be free to investigate the arts of writing and the study of literature, free from political equations.”Â?

The study, she explains, had gotten separated from the love of the craft. “I felt that a literary culture was being lost, and it frightened and depressed me. I was worried for young people who had an instinct to tell stories and make poems. I began to wonder, where would they do this? Where would they learn to live in literature? And it began to matter intensely to me.”

The early days of the ALSC involved faculty from BU — including William M. and Sara B. Warren Professor of the Humanities Christopher Ricks — UCLA, Claremont McKenna College, Stanford University, and other institutions around the country. Funding was secured through a grant from the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, a mission statement was drafted, and in September 1995, after more than a year of discussion and planning, the association’s first conference was held in Minneapolis. Warren, UNI Professor Emeritus Roger Shattuck, and CAS English Professor Robert Pinsky were among the participants.

Since then, the association has grown dramatically. There are now more than 1,000 members and the organization puts out two publications: Literary Imagination, a triquarterly review that includes poetry, fiction, translations, and critical essays, and Forum, which invites writers and scholars to respond to current social issues. The most recent edition, Spring 2005, addresses the Reading at Risk survey released by the National Endowment for the Arts in 2004.

The annual conference remains a central event, and Warren, in her capacity as president and prior to that vice president, has spent 18 months planning this weekend’s gathering, which includes writers and editors from a wide variety of scholarly backgrounds. Warren says that it is devastating when participants are limited to discussing their own genres. “We’re making a playground where imaginative writers come together with scholars and critics for conversation,” she says. “If they fight, so much the better.”

This year, panel discussions will be held on Ancient Poetry and War, Mythology in the K-12 Classroom, The Fiction of Naguib Mahfouz, and Writing in the Wake of the Quixote, among other topics. Norman Mailer is the guest speaker; other participants include Christopher Maurer, the chairman of the modern foreign languages and literatures department, Shakir Mustafa, an MFLL assistant professor, and Irena Grudzinska Gross, the executive director of BU’s Institute for Human Sciences.

The conference marks the end of Warren’s tenure as president of the association; she will spend the rest of the academic year on sabbatical in Texas and in Berlin, working on new poetry and essays. It has been difficult at times, she says, but also “a very exciting experience.”Â? The ALSC has developed into a thriving community, but more important, the academic climate has changed. Literature, Warren says, can be both studied and enjoyed within a university setting.

“I knew colleagues who practically had to apologize for teaching novels, poems, and stories in the classroom — to apologize for liking them, for caring about them. I don’t think this is the case anymore,” she says. “It was a natural development. The human mind doesn’t like to be so boxed in. And real literature doesn’t like to be boxed in.”

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How Reading Literature Cultivates Empathy

“Nearly a quarter of American adults did not read a single book in the past year.” I was eating an apple when I read this this and I gasped and the apple piece got stuck and I ran around trying to find someone who Heimlich me and dislodge it. Although it came out, I’m still symbolically choking on this fact. It terrifies me.

Here’s another thing that scares me: the dearth of fiction in the Common Core State Standards. As most of us know, the Common Core emphasizes nonfiction text. Students will be reading informational text, speeches, short articles, and so on. There are very few novels, poems, or plays included in the mandatory readings. I’m not devastated that in the Common Core era students won’t be reading as much of the traditional cannon as they may have before. I am afraid, however, that children will have fewer opportunities to develop their empathy for others if their exposure to literature is reduced.

The Connection Between Fiction and Empathy

I remember the moment so vividly; even now, I get an achy feeling in my chest. I was ten years old, reading a book about World War II from the perspective of a German girl in Dresden. I was a voracious reader, particularly when it came to books about the Holocaust. My mother’s family is Jewish and I yearned for an understanding of that time period. This book, the girl’s narration of the bombing of Dresden, opened me up to a realm of compassion that I’d never experienced — because it was compassion for those I had considered the enemy. Before reading this book, I’d have held that those Germans deserved it, that bombing. But after, I was shattered. “Us and Them,” the blurry lines around innocence and perpetrator. That I could feel such compassion for the girl in the story and her family made me feel uncomfortable, unstable. It had been so much easier to be in a black and white, good versus evil world.

When I scan through my history as a reader, my attention is drawn to the dozens of books that I’ve read that opened me up to raw feelings of deep compassion for someone who had been “other.” Who would I be without these stories? What would I be doing without those stories?

There’s all kinds of research on this if you want more compelling and scientific arguments. See this article to start with, “Reading Literary Fiction Improves Empathy, Study Finds,” or this research study.

Personally, I don’t need to read these articles to know that this is true or to know that it’s essential that children and adults read fiction from and about people who are different. How else will we develop compassion for African child soldiers? Or for the untouchables in India? Or for boys with Asperger syndrome? And the development of empathy, of the ability to feel someone else’s emotions or experience, can lead us to take action. If we don’t get the feelings in a visceral form, will we act to change the injustices in this world?

What Can Teachers Do?

One of the most challenging aspects of teaching is the number of decisions a teacher has to make. There are the 75,000 decisions we have to make in the classroom, as well as those we make outside of the classroom. The list is exhaustive and unless we develop a scaffold for decision-making, we can drown in these moments.

A scaffold for decision-making is this: a way of thinking through the decisions that allows us to sort, prioritize, sort, and arrive at a decision without being drained of mental and physical energy. For example, we might ask ourselves, what are the consequences if I don’t respond to this issue, right now? Can it wait? Another criteria by which I assess an instructional decision is this, how will this activity help my students master today’s learning objectives? Or, how will this lesson/activity help to build a kinder, more compassionate world? Will this action/statement/book contribute to cultivating empathy in another person?

As the Common Core rolls in, we’ll have to make strategic decisions about when and how to integrate literature. I know that time for fiction will be limited, so we’ll have to be even more strategic about incorporating a poem, short story, or novel here and there. We’ll need to differentiate even more so that children can select literature to read — and we might guide them towards literature that depicts the “other,” so that we’re intentionally cultivating their empathetic skills.

Reading fiction that helps us expand our empathy for others might just be as essential as learning to read manuals, or maybe even more so. I don’t think the architects of the Common Core used this as a decision-making framework; I’m not sure it was one of their core values. But there’s enough evidence in our world today that we need to intentionally cultivate empathy, and then there’s evidence that people are reading less than they ever have; and so I’d suggest that within our decision-making spheres, we intentionally and strategically incorporate fiction into the nooks and crannies of our days.

Why Are Investors Loving New Token(Crno) Over Binance (Bnb), Tron (Trx)

Crypto market prices are driven by the rule of demand and supply. The price of a crypto asset moves up when more investors get interested in buying it. But the opposite happens when more investors start selling their holdings. Based on this simple market principle, it is clear that a new token, rising around 690% during its sold-out presale phase in the bear season marred by multiple crypto crashes and controversies.  

Binance (BNB) bears the brunt of bear market

BNB cryptocurrency powers the Binance ecosystem. It ranks among the top five crypto assets, following Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), and USD Coin (USDC). Currently trading at around $294, the Binance cryptocurrency crashed to as low as $197 in June 2023, according to CoinMarketCap data at the time of writing. After touching an all-time high (ATH) of $686 on 10th May 2023, BNB has since struggled to reach anywhere near the ATH. The current price of BNB is down 57% from the ATH. Binance has also been in the news for several wrong reasons. The exchange has faced legal issues in the US and Europe. It has also been accused of allegedly keeping weak money-laundering checks. Recently, Binance was embroiled in a controversy over the ownership of the Indian crypto exchange, WazirX, which is facing a probe over money-laundering allegations. The Binance exchange is now in the news for booting out USDC in a bid to boost its own stablecoin Binance USD (BUSD).  

TRON (TRX) fails to rise

Launched by the Tron Foundation in 2023, Tron blockchain’s in-house token, TRX has failed to rise after touching its ATH at $0.3 on January 5, 2023. TRX is now trading 79% below the ATH. During the recent market crash, the Tron crypto token fell as low as $0.05. It is still trading at just around $0.06. The TRX token is highly dependent on the decentralized application market. If the dApps market fails to move up, Tron cryptocurrency will find it difficult to rise as well. The Tron blockchain has been developed to provide a platform for Digital entertainment. It aims to make a dent in the market dominated by digital content platforms like YouTube and iTunes. The currently dominant digital content platforms have significant control over developers and content creators. With the support of Blockchain technology, Tron network aims to provide a fast, secure, and censorship-free decentralized data distribution platform. Tron foundation created the TRX cryptocurrency to power the network and incentivize content creators. However, the network’s lofty ambition is still far from becoming true.  

Chronoly.io (CRNO) shines 690%

Luxury watch marketplace,

For more information about chúng tôi presale

Crypto market prices are driven by the rule of demand and supply. The price of a crypto asset moves up when more investors get interested in buying it. But the opposite happens when more investors start selling their holdings. Based on this simple market principle, it is clear that a new token, chúng tôi (CRNO), has found more love from investors in 2023 than popular cryptocurrencies like Binance (BNB) and Tron (TRX). The prices of Binance BNB and Tron TRX cryptocurrencies have fallen in the ongoing crypto winter while Chronoly’s CRNO token has bucked the trend,during its sold-out presale phase in the bear season marred by multiple crypto crashes and chúng tôi cryptocurrency powers the Binance ecosystem. It ranks among the top five crypto assets, following Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), and USD Coin (USDC). Currently trading at around $294, the Binance cryptocurrency crashed to as low as $197 in June 2023, according to CoinMarketCap data at the time of writing. After touching an all-time high (ATH) of $686 on 10th May 2023, BNB has since struggled to reach anywhere near the ATH. The current price of BNB is down 57% from the ATH. Binance has also been in the news for several wrong reasons. The exchange has faced legal issues in the US and Europe. It has also been accused of allegedly keeping weak money-laundering checks. Recently, Binance was embroiled in a controversy over the ownership of the Indian crypto exchange, WazirX, which is facing a probe over money-laundering allegations. The Binance exchange is now in the news for booting out USDC in a bid to boost its own stablecoin Binance USD (BUSD).Launched by the Tron Foundation in 2023, Tron blockchain’s in-house token, TRX has failed to rise after touching its ATH at $0.3 on January 5, 2023. TRX is now trading 79% below the ATH. During the recent market crash, the Tron crypto token fell as low as $0.05. It is still trading at just around $0.06. The TRX token is highly dependent on the decentralized application market. If the dApps market fails to move up, Tron cryptocurrency will find it difficult to rise as well. The Tron blockchain has been developed to provide a platform for Digital entertainment. It aims to make a dent in the market dominated by digital content platforms like YouTube and iTunes. The currently dominant digital content platforms have significant control over developers and content creators. With the support of Blockchain technology, Tron network aims to provide a fast, secure, and censorship-free decentralized data distribution platform. Tron foundation created the TRX cryptocurrency to power the network and incentivize content creators. However, the network’s lofty ambition is still far from becoming true.Luxury watch marketplace, chúng tôi , has quickly emerged as a game-changer in the blockchain and decentralized finance (DeFi) space. Unlike platforms like Binance and Tron, where no real-world asset is responsible for driving the value of cryptocurrencies BNB and TRX, respectively, chúng tôi (CRNO) is combining the best of both worlds. Owners of Chronoly’s fractional non-fungible tokens (NFTs) get real and verifiable shared ownership of rare and luxury watches of popular brands like Rolex and Patek Philippe. In the future, users will also be able to showcase their luxury watch ownership in a metaverse that Chronoly is planning to build. The real-asset factor of Chronoly ecosystem has fired up the price of its utility token, CRNO, in the last few months. Amid heavy demand from investors, the CRNO token price jumped from $0.01 to $0.079 during the sold-out presale phase. In the absence of any competitor, CRNO token is expected to soar higher when it gets listed on central exchanges soon.

Google On What’s Going On With Faq Rich Results

Google’s John Mueller was asked about the status of the FAQ structured data and if it still worked for producing rich results. Mueller answered yes and explained the process of fine tuning not just the rich results but also the search results themselves.

FAQ Structured Data

Structured data is markup, like HTML that provides the information on the web page in an organized manner that can then be used to show featured results known as Rich Results.

Rich results tend to be coveted because they are big and featured at the top of the search results.

FAQ rich results have the effect of dominating the search results and knocking out one or two competitors from page one of the top ten, resulting in perhaps only seven search results showing instead of ten.

Screenshot of Google’s Mueller Discussing FAQ Rich Results

Does FAQ Structured Data Still Work?

The question was simply worded:

“Does the FAQ still work?”

Mueller answered:

“I assume this means the FAQ structured data. …From what I know that continues to exist and continues to work.”

Mueller followed up by saying that Google makes adjustments to rich results, presumably to achieve specific benchmarks of user satisfaction with the search results.

Here’s how John explained it:

overloading the search results with all of these… bling and extra functionality that just confuses people in the end.

So what often happens is when we start a new type of rich results people will kind of reluctantly try it out and if it works well then everyone tries it out.

And then suddenly the search results page is totally overloaded with this type of structured data.”

This next part is really interesting because he refers to Google’s systems trying to refine the search results along with the engineers.

Mueller’s follow up:

“…Then our systems and our engineers work to kind of fine tune that a little bit so that we continue to use that structured data.

We just don’t show it for all sites all the time.

Which kind of makes sense, similar to how we tune the snippets that we show for websites and tune the rankings and tune the search results overall.

So that’s something where from at least as far as I know I don’t think we’ve turned off any of the FAQ rich results types.”

Fine Tuning the Search Results

Mueller’s response to those questions was to note that Google is constantly making changes (fine tuning?) to the search results and downplayed a cause and effect from the changes the people were asking about.

Google isn’t showing as many FAQ rich results as it had when they were first introduced.

What’s interesting about John Mueller’s explanation for the scarcity of FAQ rich results is that the answer was in the context of Google “fine tuning” the rich results.

When trying to understand some (not all) changes that Google makes to the search engine results pages (SERPs), it might be useful to frame the inquiry within the context of whether the change might be undergoing a fine tuning and if so, what is it that Google is fine tuning it for? The answer is probably a mix of things like user experience and Google’s desire to show as many answers as possible on a web page to satisfy those  users.

Citations

Watch John Mueller answer question at the 32:31 minute mark

How To Activate & Turn On Onedrive Files On

Folks who have been using OneDrive for years should remember when it had a neat placeholder feature. For some odd reason, Microsoft took it away, but decided to add it again later. Well, it can be used right now in Windows 11 as well as Windows 10. The official new name is OneDrive Files On-Demand, and it works well so far. You can turn on Files On-Demand on Windows 11/10 using Settings, Group Policy Editor or Registry Editor.

Turn on OneDrive Files On-Demand

If the Settings tab is not selected by default, simply switch to it. Now then, it’s time to locate the Files On-Demand feature. It sits below Notifications, so you’ll need to tick the box, then select OK and move on from there.

The change goes active right away, which means, Microsoft OneDrive will no longer download files if the service is currently transferring data to the computer. From here on, OneDrive will display files and folders from your account in a placeholder setting on the computer.

Basically, the folders and files are visible but are of no use since they are not on the computer.

OneDrive Icons you need to know about

There are three overlay icons that you need to know about.

The next icon is a green check mark, which means, the file is stored on the computer and can be accessed even without an Internet connection.

The final icon is a white check mark, which indicates the file is saved locally and is set to “always keep on this device.”

Additionally, these files can also be accessed without connecting to the web.

You can also turn on Files On-Demand on Windows 11/10 using the Local Group Policy Editor and Registry Editor. To use the GPEDIT method, you need to add OneDrive sync settings in Local Group Policy Editor first.

How to turn on OneDrive Files On-Demand using Group Policy

To turn on OneDrive Files On-Demand using Group Policy, follow these steps:

Press Win+R to open the Run prompt.

Type chúng tôi and hit the Enter button.

Go to OneDrive in Computer Configuration.

Choose the Enabled option.

To learn more about these steps, continue reading.

First, you need to open the Local Group Policy Editor. For that, press Win+R to display the Run prompt, type gpedit.msc, and press the Enter button.

Then, navigate to the following path:

How to activate OneDrive Files On-Demand using Registry

To activate OneDrive Files On-Demand using Registry, follow these steps:

Navigate to Microsoft in HKLM.

Set the name as FilesOnDemandEnabled.

Let’s check out these steps in detail.

Next, follow the following path:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoft

How do I enable OneDrive on-demand?

To enable OneDrive Files On-Demand, you have three options. You can use the OneDrive’s Settings panel, Local Group Policy Editor, and the Registry Editor. However, if you want to enable it for the current user only, you can use the first method. On the other hand, if you want to turn it on for all users, you can use the second or third method.

How does Files On-Demand work in OneDrive?

If you enable OneDrive Files On-Demand, you will not have to download all the files on your computer to use them. You can get the necessary files when they are needed. Once you choose the file to use, it will be downloaded to your computer automatically.

On The Road, On The Cheap: Get Around Without Going Under

You might think, reasonably enough, that being entrusted with the young minds that represent America’s future might bring teachers more of a thank-you than a paycheck with little left over for a well-deserved vacation. Alas, reality tends to have other plans for educators. However, all is not lost. A few financial perks exist in the teaching life, and at this time of year the best of these are travel discounts specifically for educators. Although the budget for satisfying wanderlust may be thin, these discounts can help travel prices slim down, too.

Current, former, or retired educators who join this extensive online network qualify for discounted stays at fellow members’ bed-and-breakfast establishments. Sign up by paying a $10 initiation fee and $36 in yearly dues, and you and your immediate family become eligible to stay in any of the 6,000 member homes in more than fifty countries for a per-night price of $36. Meanwhile, your home becomes eligible for hosting other members as well (with additional discounts for hosting). Not only can you find comfortable, inexpensive accommodation this way, you’ll also tap into a useful educational network, because your “innkeepers” are teachers, too.

Educational Tours

How do you use your teaching skills, continue your own education, and travel free at the same time? Sign on to lead an educational tour. Dozens of tour companies hand out free trips and cash bonuses to teachers willing to share their knowledge with other travelers. The biggest player in this field, EF Educational Tours, lets teachers travel free and even earn continuing education units. EF also offers language schools, cultural-exchange programs, and tours for adults as well as students. For free travel as a group coordinator with Go Ahead Tours, gather six people (including family and friends) who want to take a tour and you travel for free, with cash bonuses for you or discounts for your companions. With the tour company Explorica, you can travel free if you sign on at least six students.

The ISE Card

The initials stand for International Student Exchange, but ISE Cards — with their great discounts — are available to teachers, too. Take South Africa’s Baz Bus, dive off the coast of Western Australia, tour London, rent a car, or even enjoy a good meal abroad for far less than it costs those unhappy folks who forgot to become teachers. The card also provides up to $2,000 in medical benefits, a toll-free twenty-four-hour emergency-assistance hotline, and up to $2,000 in airline-bankruptcy protection (a handy benefit these days).

The ITIC Card

The International Teacher Identity Card also functions as a freebie magnet. Knock down the cost of flights, accommodations, museum admissions, sports-equipment rentals, cultural attractions, and more by flashing this card — discounts will quickly pay for the $25 annual cost. Not bad, considering that the ITIC, like the ISE, also provides basic accident insurance when you travel outside the United States. This coverage includes hospital stays, medical expenses, emergency evacuation, repatriation of remains (an unlikely need, let’s hope), and baggage-delay insurance (far more likely).

Sara Bernard is a former staff writer and multimedia producer for Edutopia.

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