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Despite the soaring popularity of decentralized finance (DeFi), the crypto ecosystem is frequently criticized for its recurring liquidity shortfalls. Several competing realities underpin thin liquidity across the crypto universe.

First, liquid assets are those assets that can be traded easily for cash. This means that there must be enough buyers in any market willing to put up cash for the assets. Herein lies the conundrum of the crypto market.

Unlike their traditional counterparts (stocks, bonds, futures, and commodities), the marketability of digital assets doesn’t command wide acceptance – meaning only a limited number of people are investing in them. Contrast this with stocks, which represent productive assets or raw materials in the form of commodities vital for industrial inputs, and it’s easy to see why crypto doesn’t command the same liquidity.

Moreover, crypto trading volumes, except among a handful of exchanges (mostly CEXs), are low relative to traditional financial markets, notwithstanding the crypto market’s persistent volatility, which can make investing an unsettling experience at times. Many investors rush to dump holdings amid wild price swings, usually selling at significant discounts and sending prices to extreme lows. As demand drops, the market becomes less liquid, making price discovery a messier process.

On top of that, cryptocurrency investors are spread thinly across a broad market. Most blockchain networks, by design, operate individually. They aren’t interoperable despite ongoing efforts to improve cross-chain compatibility. While there are currently over 6,000 different cryptocurrencies across the broader market, most of them are confined to their own ecosystems and generally operate in standalone environments.

Besides the lack of interoperability and less mainstream acceptance, the available liquidity of the crypto market hasn’t increased much in recent years due to the uncertainty of regulations. In the absence of more stringent regulation, investors often visualize major price discrepancies between the value of the same asset across different exchanges simultaneously.

The regulatory absence has also paved the way for unchecked market manipulation. All of these have forced interested institutional investors onto the sidelines until greater clarity and guidelines are issued. Despite their commitment to cryptocurrencies, retail investors can only add a limited amount of liquidity compared to their institutional counterparts and hedge funds.

Automated market makers (AMM) and liquidity aggregators have addressed the crypto market’s liquidity hurdles to an extent. However, they come with their own set of problems. Most of these solutions are deployed on an individual chain, forming their own heterogeneous silos.

For instance, a liquidity aggregator deployed on Ethereum will only aggregate liquidity from exchanges and DeFi projects operating on the Ethereum network. It won’t aggregate liquidity for assets available on the Bitcoin blockchain. Accordingly, existing solutions aggregating the available liquidity from projects operating on the same chain only solve half of the problem.

Answering The Dilemma Via A Proprietary Hedging Pool

To successfully attract institutional capital and other highly capitalized vehicles to the market, the crypto ecosystem needs a definitive way to aggregate liquidity while addressing other concerns such as regulation, throughput, and fees, among others.

This is where FLUID comes into the picture. FLUID’s AI-based smart order routing protocol and cross-chain liquidity aggregator, enabled via its proprietary hedging pool, delivers high throughput at low costs and low latency with zero counterparty risk.

The platform not only aggregates liquidity across both CEXs (centralized exchanges) and DEXs (decentralized exchanges), but it also adheres to regulatory requirements and maintains liquidity without any custodial requirements over transferred funds or synthetically wrapped assets.

The FLUID LP (Liquidity Pool) facilitates synth-free, cross-chain stablecoin transfers. Most existing solutions rely on issuing synthetic versions of stablecoins to enable cross-chain transfers. On the contrary, FLUID LP uses the already existing assets. So, instead of wrapping Binance Chain’s stablecoin BUSD into its platform-native fBUSD synthetic asset, it uses the BUSD reserves on Binance Chain and Ethereum directly.

Simply put, the FLUID team focuses on securing deep liquidity by concentrating pooled assets in the most viable and high-volume trading directions. As a result, anyone (retail investors, institutional investors, CEXs, even DEXs) can easily pool their stable reserves as part of FLUID’s cross-chain solution and generate revenue (yield). On top of that, the FLUID LP order book is connected with staking, which means that investors can stake their assets in the platform’s vaults to generate additional returns.

With this additional liquidity from the FLUID LP, the platform can seamlessly facilitate large volume trades without delays or errors. Additionally, the liquidity pools responsible for processing cross-chain transfers are managed by FLUID itself, ensuring that investors won’t face sudden withdrawals of liquidity.

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Autonomous Vehicles And The Problem With Poorly Created Ai

Often the reasons include a lack of AI competence on the AI customer or vendor side, a lack of understanding by the individuals creating the solution for the problems that are to be solved. 

I was traveling recently in California visiting HPE’s Amplify Partner event. Some messaging I heard in the state concerned AI-based autonomous driving technology being poorly conceived and unsafe.

Let’s talk about the problem of releasing dangerous AI programs, because there’s no doubt in my mind that multiple vendors will likely release dangerous AIs when they make a common tech mistake of releasing software to meet a target release date, regardless of whether it is ready or not.  

I worry releasing AI technology long before the technology is ready for release will sour the market on autonomous cars.

Some autonomous vehicle companies have consistently over-promised what their AI technology could do, which can result in dangerous situations. 

AI, particularly those that are doing jobs that put lives at risk, need extensive testing, and the focus should be on getting the technology right, not rushing it out the door. But the history of companies, even major companies, releasing software that wasn’t ready is long and troubled. While these earlier mistakes resulted in lost work and a lot of aggravation, nobody was harmed. 

With AI, particularly those managing systems that interact with people, the risk of catastrophic damage is far greater, suggesting the need for a third-party quality assurance process that ensures the product isn’t released until it is safe.  

One of the biggest tech examples of releasing a product before it is ready was with Google Glass. 

Instead of waiting until the software was mature, Google released it to the world while it was in beta and even got customers to pay for the incomplete product. The result affected consumer augmented reality (AR) efforts for years, and some folks were using the product, which included a head-mounted camera, in inappropriate areas. 

This again highlighted that products that aren’t ready shouldn’t be introduced to the general public. 

Science fiction movies, like “Colossus: The Forbin Project,” “War Games,” and even “2001: A Space Odyssey,” have simulated what could happen if AI had too much power, couldn’t differentiate between reality and simulation, or was given conflicting directives that destabilized the AI and turned it against people. What is more likely is that AI is released into production before it is fully tested and vetted.  

The cause of this problem is that decision makers are unable to fully consider the level of risk they are taking and appear to be unable to carefully consider the devastating risk potential and how likely it is that risk could have catastrophic consequences. 

As we begin to move AI into areas that affect human safety, there needs to be a stronger third-party review process to assure steps haven’t been skipped, and, until the AI is designated as ready, it shouldn’t be available to anyone but professional testers who operate under highly controlled circumstances.

Skipping this due diligence could damage autonomous vehicle companies irreparably and set back autonomous driving efforts by decades as drivers move to actively avoid it and regulators to ban it.  

Leaders at autonomous vehicle makers like to take risks, which is refreshing in a way. The inability to take risks has significantly slowed development and innovation in a number of industries. 

However, this same behavior, when applied to technology that has the potential to become human-like is exceedingly dangerous and could not only destroy companies, but set back by years the adoption of a technology that, done right, could save thousands of lives. 

Given the potential for harm, AI will increasingly need third-party oversight during their release process to ensure people who take risks are offset by a control structure that forces them to assure the quality of the AI before it is released on a vulnerable public.

Stop Browser Autofill Features From Leaking Your Personal Data

If you’re like most people, you rely on browser autofill to complete annoying web forms. Browser “autofill” automatically fills your information into fields in web forms based on information you’d previously entered into these fields.

The bad news is that malicious third parties and black-hat hackers can use this autofill feature in browsers to trick you into giving away your sensitive information. A white-hat hacker from Finland, Viljami Kuosmanen, who is also a web developer, showed in his GitHub demo that attackers could hijack the autofill feature in plugins, password managers (and such tools), and browsers.

Long before Kuosmanen, ElevenPaths security analyst, Ricardo Martin Rodriguez, had discovered this browser autofill vulnerability in 2013. So far, Google hasn’t found a solution to this vulnerability.

Spilling your sensitive information unknowingly

On Kuosmanen’s proof-of-concept demo website you’ll see a simple web form consisting of only two fields – name and email address. However, the form has many hidden (i.e. out of sight) fields on there; these hidden fields include address, organization, phone number, city, postal code, and country.

To test your browser and extension autofill features, you can use the proof-of-concept site Kuosmanen had set up. On submitting the form I noticed that it’d grabbed more information than I gave. I used the latest Mozilla Firefox for this test and was amazed at how much information I spilled out.

In Chrome auto-filling financial data triggers a warning for websites without HTTPS. In my experience Kuosmanen’s form attempted to collect the date I filled the form, my address, my credit card number, CVV, credit card expiration date, my city, country, email, name, organization, phone, and postal code.

The form even tried to collect some metadata on my browser type, my current IP address and more. See my screenshot below.

Apple Safari, Google Chrome, and Opera were all vulnerable during a Kuosmanen attack test.

In January 2023 Daniel Veditz, Mozilla’s principal security engineer, said that Firefox browsers cannot be deceived into programmatically filling out text boxes. Firefox users are safe from browser autofill attacks (at least for now), as the browser doesn’t have a multi-box autofill system. Mozilla’s Firefox browser makes it mandatory for users to manually select pre-filled data for each text box in a web form.

Conclusion: turn off your browser autofill feature

The easiest precaution to take against phishing attacks is to turn the form autofill feature off in your browser, extension settings or password manager. Your browser autofill feature, by default, is turned on.

To turn autofill off in Chrome:

1. Go to the browser’s “Settings.”

2. Find “Advanced Settings” at the bottom of the page.

3. In the “Passwords and Forms” area uncheck “Enable Autofill.”

To turn autofill off in Opera:

1. Head to Settings.

2. Go to “Autofill” and turn it off.

To turn autofill off in Safari:

1. Go to “Preferences.”

Nicholas Godwin

Nicholas Godwin is a technology researcher who helps businesses tell profitable brand stories that their audiences love. He’s worked on projects for Fortune 500 companies, global tech corporations and top consulting firms, from Bloomberg Beta, Accenture, PwC, and Deloitte to HP, Shell, and AT&T. You may follow his work on Twitter or simply say hello. His website is Tech Write Researcher.

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Bluetooth L2Cap Interface Has A Driver Problem

Bluetooth L2CAP interface has a driver problem [Solved]




Getting the There is a problem with the driver for Bluetooth L2CAP Interface could cause performance issues on your device.

In this article, we will show you a few easy steps to help you solve this issue, so keep on reading.

Visit this

Windows 10 Devices section

as well for more interesting recommendations on the subject.

Make sure to check out our Errors Hub for more guides and articles that will help you solve any issue.



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Launch it on your PC to find all the problematic drivers.

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readers this month.

Users are getting the error message Reinstall device driver:  There is a problem with the driver for Bluetooth L2CAP Interface. Reinstalling the driver might fix this problem.

Unfortunately, if the L2CAP driver has become faulty then certainly the entire system trustworthiness is also jeopardized which makes fixing the issue a priority.

In this article, we will take a closer look at how you can solve this error and we recommend that you follow our recommendation in the same order as we have listed them.

How can I fix the L2CAP interface driver problem? 1. Use a third party software

If you get a Bluetooth L2CAP Interface driver error, then checking and installing the correct drivers is essential.

Using a dedicated software that will do this automatically would be recommended, as it will avoid installing the wrong ones.

There are many tools out there from which you can choose and after our team tested most of them, we recommend that you use Outbyte Driver Updater.

There are many versions of Bluetooth Interface drivers out there, and it’s important to make sure the appropriate one is being downloaded.

With Outbyte Driver Updater you will download the correct driver which will avoid any permanent damage to your device by downloading and installing the wrong driver version.

Using this tool is really simple. Once you download and install it on your PC, you can start the scan and wait until it finishes downloading and installing the latest drivers on your device.

In the case of missing or faulty drivers on your device, Outbyte Driver Updater will identify and update/fix those as well.

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Go to Device Manager and select the Bluetooth driver.

Next, go to View and select Check for hardware changes to install the latest Bluetooth driver.

3. Run the Bluetooth troubleshooter

Go to Start and select Settings.

Next, select the Troubleshoot option.

In the Fix and find other problems section select Bluetooth.

Go to Start and select Settings.

Next, select the Troubleshoot option.

In the Get up and running section select Windows Update.

Note: If everything is working with your Bluetooth device and you have updated it, you can run an Update Troubleshooter.

Microsoft delivers new drivers through Update almost every day, and if your Update service doesn’t work properly, you’ll be unable to receive a driver update for your Bluetooth device.

There you have it. We hope that one of the solutions listed above helped you solve the Bluetooth L2CAP Interface problem.

As you could see, the issue can be solved very easily by updating either the Bluetooth driver or updating your Windows.

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The World Health Organization Knows ‘Burnout’ Is A Problem—But Is It A Disease?

Unless you work in health insurance, you probably don’t know much about the International Classification of Diseases. But you’re probably hearing a lot about the ICD lately: it was just up for review for the first time since 1990, and that means a whole slew of changes to reflect how physicians of the world now think about diseases.

You may have already heard about burnout being included as a medical condition for the first time, which isn’t actually true at all. Not only is it not classified as a medical condition—it’s an occupational phenomenon, alongside dust exposure and problems with interpersonal relationships—but it was actually already in the last iteration of the ICD. The new ICD-11 simply updated the definition with more detail.

But there are other, more significant changes in ICD-11 that you might want to know about (if you’re curious about the specific definitions, you can browse the codebook online). Here are just a few.

“Gender incongruence” is no longer a mental disorder Gaming disorders are now a kind of addiction

There’s a lot of controversy about video games and mental health, most of which is overblown in the media, but ICD-11 does recognize that some people can be addicted to gaming. This isn’t at all implying that video games are themselves problematic. It’s recognizing that, as is the case with gambling, people can become addicted to an activity that doesn’t involve drugs. Some researchers have raised concern that calling gaming disorder an addiction is too extreme, and that this classification will lead parents to panic over perfectly normal gaming behavior. They argue there isn’t enough evidence to show that so-called “problematic gaming” isn’t actually a coping mechanism for some other mental health issue, and that there’s no scientific consensus on this problem. Still, other experts argue this designation will help folks with legitimate gaming problems to seek and get the help they need.

Traditional medicine now gets its own classification system

Though it doesn’t get quite as much attention in America, traditional medicine is very much alive and well in many countries that are part of WHO, so for the first time the ICD is going to classify those methods. Qi goiter disorder, repressed fire disorder, and chest bind disorder now have their own ICD codes. The Director-General of the WHO noted in her report on ICD-11 that this isn’t looking at traditional medicine treatments, nor is it endorsing any of them. These are all optional extra codes, not intended to diagnose or treat anyone per se, but rather to identify instances of traditional medicine disorders and patterns. Essentially, this is an effort is to actually quantify and study the methods that people have been using for thousands of years. Only by enabling this kind of quantification can you start to measure the effectiveness of traditional medicine and can begin to compare it to mainstream medicine.

We have many new ways to track antimicrobial resistance

It might not be the coolest or most interesting addition to the ICD-11 codebook, but as an editorial in The Lancet points out, enabling hospitals to add codes for specific forms of antimicrobial resistance could provide an enormous amount of valuable data. There’s not much surveillance of the current state of drug-resistant microbes, and that’s been a problem for the researchers trying to study it. If you can’t track it, it’s hard to fight it. Hopefully, the nearly 100 codes just for antimicrobial resistance will provide us with more useful data.

Hoarding, binge eating, and other issues we’re finally understanding on their own

Mental health hasn’t historically been a strong point for medicine, but as researchers have been producing increasingly large bodies of work we’ve had to update our references to match the current understanding of what causes these problems. A bunch of new additions to the ICD-11 reflect changes that the DSM-5 (the reference book for American mental health professionals) has already recognized. These include body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, excoriation disorder, binge eating disorder, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Several of these are the result of an evolving understanding of other disorders. Binge eating disorder, for instance, would have previously been called bulimia nervosa, but people with binge eating disorder aren’t following their episodes with efforts to prevent weight gain (the classic methods would be self-induced vomiting or intense exercise). Similarly, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder may look a lot like anorexia nervosa, except that those with ARFID aren’t following an abnormal eating pattern because they’re concerned about their weight. Hoarding also used to be lumped in with any number of other behavioral disorders, from OCD to depression to schizophrenia, but years of research have now shown it’s a distinct, unique disorder in and of itself.

How To Fix Hyper Scape Driver Problem (Including Vulkan Error)

If you are into gaming then you probably know about Ubisoft’s Hyper Scape. It is a new Battle Royale FPS shooter that is creating a lot of buzz lately. Many YouTubers have been given exclusive access to the game. Hyper Scape includes a new form of functionality where you can be awarded in-game items via your Twitch stream. Your viewers can also help you out by awarding you with in-game items.

Ubisoft has an invite system in place that allows you to easily get access to the early beta of Hyper Scape on your system. If you have an invite but are unable to play the game due to driver issues, then try the fix listed below. This is a known issue and the below workaround seems to be working for all users.

Related: How Hyper Scape could beat Fortnite, PUBG, and Apex Legends

What’s the problem?

Hyper Scape requires new APIs and the latest graphics drivers on your system to work properly. If you haven’t updated your drivers in a while then this is likely the reason for your issue.

Nvidia and AMD both release regular updates to their drivers that not only introduce support for upcoming peripherals but also games and other utilities that require graphics power. While AMD drivers get updated automatically, Nvidia users have to download a separate utility to get support for the latest games and peripherals.

How to Fix the Driver Problem on Hyper Scape

Let’s take a look at how Nvidia users can fix this issue on their systems.

In short, you just need to update the Nvidia driver on your PC to make your graphic card compatible with Hyper Scape. To run properly on an Nvidia system, Hyper Scape requires Vulcan 1.2. So, make sure you have a look before proceeding.

If you already know that, you’re good. Else, follow the guide below to download and install the latest Geforce Experience software that will also install the latest drivers specific to your graphic card.

This will initiate the download for the latest GeForce gaming experience. Save the file on your desired location and wait till the download finishes.

Once the application is installed, restart your system if the setup hasn’t already prompted you to do so. Wait for your system to restart and once it has powered on, launch the GeForce Experience application.

Note: Ensure that you are connected to the internet so that GeForce Experience can check for driver updates.

Once the application launches, it should prompt you to update your drivers to the latest version.

Follow the on-screen instructions to update your drivers. Restart your system after the driver update.

Now simply launch the Hyper Scape game on your PC after the restart and the game should start working without any issues.

How to fix “No compatible driver/hardware found [Vulcan]” error?

This error has been the most common since the dawn of Hyper Scape. And while installing the latest driver should be your first troubleshooting step, it may not always work as intended. If you’re one of the unfortunate users who haven’t had any luck with the driver installation alone, this solution should do the trick.

To solve this “No compatible driver/hardware found [Vulcan]” issue, you’ll need to update your integrated graphics driver. Yes, even if you do have a beefy and compatible graphics card, it won’t help you with this peculiar compatibility issue.

So, irrespective of the manufacturer, all you need to do is go to their support page, as linked, and download the integrated graphics driver.

Intel processors

AMD Processors

If you are an AMD chipset user, go to AMD’s support page, pick ‘Processors with Graphics’, or ‘Processors,’ select your processor model, and download.

After it installs and you’ve restarted your PC, try running Hyper Scape again. The issue should now be fixed.

For AMD users

While updating integrated graphics driver seems to solve this issue for many users, some AMD users have reported issues otherwise as well. A quick fix is available for you if you face this issue but it involves removing Vega graphics drivers altogether. You should keep in mind that this will force your PC/laptop to use the dedicated graphics card which will solve the issue. If you are on a desktop, then this will not cause much of an issue for you as integrated graphics are only used to render youtube videos and web applications nowadays. But if you are on a laptop then this will increase your battery consumption as your laptop will be using the dedicated graphics card for every need. Be sure to install the integrated graphics driver again once AMD updates them if you plan on applying this fix. Let’s take a look at how you can remove your integrated graphics drivers to get Hyper Scape working on your system.

Select the ‘Driver‘ tab at the top.

Restart your PC and try running Hyperscape again. Your issue should now be solved.

How to fix the chúng tôi error?

As mentioned, Hyper Scape requires Vulcan 1.2 to run smoothly on your system. So, unless it comes bundled in with the video driver, you’ll have to download it separately.

For Nvidia GPUs, the latest drives alone should come with Vulcan support. If you are not sure, you could always go to the official site and download Vulcan 1.2-supported drivers specifically.

Nvidia has had Vulkan 1.2 support in its beta releases for a long time. While support has been introduced in the latest stable releases, many extensions and Async support are missing from these releases which is why many users have issues with Vulkan on Nvidia when compared to OpenGL. If the latest drivers still do not provide you with the necessary extensions, then you might have to downgrade to the latest beta drivers. Use this link to navigate to Nvidia’s website and download the latest beta Vulkan drivers on your system and install them. This should help solve the issue with Vulkan on your system.

I still get the Vulkan error despite updating to the latest beta drivers

These are in fact beta drivers and come with bugs that plague particular graphics cards. Some graphics cards that are known to not get fixed by the latest release include GTX 1060, GTX 1070, GTX 1660, and other variants from this lineup of Nvidia GPUs. While support should be available in the coming updates, you can install beta drivers version 443.41 as a last resort. This is the most used driver version by gamers with Nvidia and Vulkan errors around the world and has support for most Vulkan extensions and Async as well. If nothing seems to help your case then installing Nvidia beta drivers v443.41 might help your case. Use this link to download the drivers to your system which should help finally solve the Vulkan error on your system.

Note: You will need to enter the model of your graphics card and scroll down to older releases to access this version. A quick Google search might also help if you are unable to find v443.41.   


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