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Understanding RFCs

You’ve probably seen the term RFC thrown around in reference to protocols and other applications that you’ve been using. Many developers include references to RFCs in the change notes to new versions of applications that they release. Why is this? What is this mysterious RFC everyone keeps talking about? As with any other seemingly obscure term on the Internet, there are explanations, but they don’t necessarily speak in a language that everyone can understand. And this is why MTE is going to take the time to explain RFCs to you!

To fully understand what an RFC is, one must also understand what gave birth to them, and why they were necessary at the time in which they were first created.

An RFC is a published document by an organization called the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). RFCs hold the rules for every single protocol you use to communicate over the Web. You’ll find very familiar ones like RFC 2616 (HTTP) and RFC 3920 (XMPP, used in Facebook Messenger). All of these things are available for everyone to see on the IETF’s RFC database.

Put simply, many RFCs will provide the public with all the details they need to know in order to fully understand how Internet protocols work. However, not all RFCs are declarations of Internet protocols. Some of them are there to show developers what the best practices are for interacting with a protocol or even to provide information about some other general topics. Others are just jokes (like this April Fools’ RFC). Also, you won’t find every protocol on IETF’s database. A number of them (like the BitTorrent protocol) are kept in other databases.

Why RFCs Are Important

When I was first developing programs and plugins that used the HTTP protocol, I needed a point of reference to learn how it worked. It doesn’t matter how much you know how to code; if you can’t find out how a protocol works, you can’t use it properly. The RFC I linked to above (2616) was very helpful in understanding some details.

The point I’m getting at is that RFCs can be used as a reference guide to protocols that have not yet fully been explained in simpler terms. It helps pioneers easily find the resources they need to develop the applications you love. There you have it!

Any More Questions?

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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Mte Explains: What You Need To Know About Airprint For Ios

At first, AirPrint sounds like something that will help everyone using an iOS device who also has a WiFi printer. The problem is that it’s not always the case. There are only certain printers that are AirPrint-enabled, but that information isn’t always readily available. Listed below is that information, as well as some other necessary information about AirPrint.

What is AirPrint? Which Printer is AirPrint Enabled?

The list of printers that are AirPrint-enabled is continually growing. Apple updates the list every so often to stay up-to-date. These printers include the Hewlett-Packard, Epson, Brother, Canon, Lexmark, and Samsung brands. If the printer is not on the list, printing via WiFi can still be an option, provided you are using an app by the printer manufacturer allowing for it, or by using a third-party application such as Printopia 2. You will also want to read through the documentation to be sure the printer’s firmware is up-to-date for the use of the AirPrint feature.

How do I Use AirPrint?

A WiFi connection is necessary, even if the printer actively works through another means, such as Bluetooth, a USB connection, the AirPort Base Station, or Time Capsule. You maybe be able to print to a Mac when connected in this manner, but not to an iOS device. When installing the printer, follow the guidelines in the manufacturers’ documentation on how to get it properly set up for WiFi. It will need to be on the same WiFi that your iOS device is connected to.


The are currently over 200 printers that have the AirPrint capability. The necessity of using the print function will decide whether it’s worth scrapping your current printer out for an AirPrint-enabled one or not. Since other options exist, such as a printer manufacturer’s app or a third-party app, AirPrint isn’t a necessity, but it can make the process much easier.

Laura Tucker

Laura has spent nearly 20 years writing news, reviews, and op-eds, with more than 10 of those years as an editor as well. She has exclusively used Apple products for the past three decades. In addition to writing and editing at MTE, she also runs the site’s sponsored review program.

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Hdg Explains : What Is Sql, T

There are so many dynamic websites found on the web thanks primarily to the fact that content is handled through databases. Database management requires a structural system to rationalize such a process. One such system is SQL.

SQL stands for Structured Query Language and is a computing language used for accessing and managing data stored in Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMSs) developed by Microsoft. In 1986, the language became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and, in only a year, also of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

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In an SQL Server, you can store, organize, and retrieve data using SQL statements. SQL also has extensions which provide support for different functions within an SQL server.

What is SQL, T-SQL, MSSQL, and PL/SQL?

SQL is a computing language used in specific servers and responsible for querying and editing information stored in the databases on those servers.

SQL is also referred to as ANSI SQL, which is the standard version as of 1986. It’s also one of the best programming languages used today. However, there are many different databases that use variants of SQL in order to serve consumers with specific database needs.

A database is a structured collection of data that’s organized for easy use and retrieval. This could mean different things for different websites. It can be the text on blog posts or information gathered about a site’s registered users. Either way, it goes into and is organized within a database.

SQL is what aids these databases in organizing and locating data. But, not all databases will use the standard form of SQL. Microsoft’s SQL Servers, for example, has its own version of SQL in the form of T-SQL.

What Is T-SQL?

Microsoft’s proprietary extension, T-SQL is a variant of SQL developed to work explicitly on Microsoft’s SQL Servers. It stands for Transact – Structured Query Language and offers syntax and features that may only be used within either the Microsoft SQL Server or Azure Synapse environments.

The language itself still conforms to the ANSI SQL standard, which means that so long as you have a basic understanding of SQL, it shouldn’t be too hard to pick up. There are multiple characteristics that differ from ANSI SQL, such as the handling of exceptions, errors, operating regulations, procedures based, string & data functions, and a few minor upgrades.

The reason to prefer T-SQL over SQL is predominantly when an application involves the installation of Microsoft SQL Servers.

What Is MSSQL?

MSSQL is the shortened version of Microsoft SQL Servers. These servers are a suite of database software designed by Microsoft to compete against competitors Oracle Database and MySQL.

It’s widely used in enterprise deployments, which is a server configuration designed to support large-scale, mission-critical business software applications. MSSQL uses the SQL syntax, most specifically T-SQL.

MSSQL can store, organize, and process data with the use of databases, transform raw data into meaningful insights, process large volumes of data, run complex analytics and reports, and much more.

What Is PL/SQL?

Like Microsoft, an Oracle Database uses its own variant of SQL in the form of PL/SQL or, Procedural Language Structured Query Language. This incorporates the use of procedural language elements such as conditions and loops within an SQL environment.

PL/SQL allows the declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types, and triggers. PL/SQL procedures can do far more than manage basic business rules. In fact, PL/SQL procedures are able to access websites, send emails, among other things that basic SQL cannot.

This variant was first made public in 1995 and follows the ISO SQL standard. It’s a portable, high-performance transaction processing language that provides a built-in interpreter and an OSindependent programming environment.

It’s available, and crucial, to Oracle Database systems but is also available to TimesTen in-memory database and IBM DB2.

What Is MySQL?

MySQL is an open-source SQL RDBMS developed and supported by Oracle. Not to be confused with Oracle Database which uses PL/SQL, MySQL uses its own variant of SQL simply named MySQL. MySQL wasn’t always owned by Oracle, and even after the ownership change, remains open-source.

This particular database is one of the more popular systems used to store and manage data. This is especially true when handling database solutions for WordPress sites. It helps store all blog posts, user information, plugin information, and other things related to WordPress.

In conjunction with it being a relational database system, it also uses the client-server model. This means that the server is where the data sits and must be requested via SQL by the client, meaning you.

This particular SQL is really preferable to those using WordPress sites or any sites with huge volumes of both data and end-users.

Which SQL Should You Use?

To start, T-SQL and PL/SQL are used for completely different things most of the time. Not to mention on completely different databases. The answer to which one should be used falls squarely on which database you prefer.

As far as T-SQL versus SQL, it too is all up to the user. However, if you’re planning on dealing with Microsoft SQL Server installations, then T-SQL is the better choice. It was developed by Microsoft, so using both in tandem maximizes compatibility.

Hdg Explains : What Is A Computer Server?

“The server is down!”

“I can’t log into the server.”

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“The servers are at capacity.”

These are the sorts of phrases we hear on a daily basis when using the internet, but what exactly is a “server”. It’s one of those terms that everyone uses, but few people really know any details about. 

There’s a good chance you found this article by typing “What is a server?” into a search engine. It’s nothing to be ashamed of! It’s an essential piece of knowledge any internet user should know and you’re about to get all the essential info right here.

What the Internet ACTUALLY Is

The concept is actually pretty simple. The internet is simply a collection of computers connected together by communications hardware, such as routers and network cables.

Whenever you access a web page, watch a video or send an email, there’s another computer somewhere in the world that’s providing the content or acting as the go-between to help you communicate with someone else.

What Is a Server vs a Client

These computers, the ones providing the SERVices, are what we generally refer to as “servers”. The computers that receive those services are called “clients”. See? It’s a pretty simple concept. Servers serve content and services to clients. However, that doesn’t tell us much about the servers themselves. Just what are they exactly?

Servers are Just Computers

Any computer can be a server. Your home computer can be a server. Although your internet service provider probably prohibits the practice on home internet subscriptions. It’s not just traditional desktop computers either. Any network-connected computer can act as a server, client or both. 

Rather than being a description of a specific device, the concepts of “client” and “server” describe roles that computers have on a network. For example, if you have an IP security camera, those have server software installed on its tiny embedded computer. When you access the camera, you’re logging into a server that provides you with a video stream.

 That being said, not every computer is suitable to act as a server. So often when the word “server” is used, it refers to specialized computers that are built from the ground up to act specifically as servers. 

Server Hardware is Special

If you were to venture into the typical server room of a website hosting company, you’d see rows and rows of cabinets. Inside these cabinets, you’d see racks of servers stacked on top of each other. As seen in this picture.

Inside each of these racks, you’ll find a special server-grade motherboard, RAM, CPU and storage. In principle, these are the same components as the ones in your computer. Except, inside servers they’re far more powerful, reliable and energy efficient. After all, these computers are working 24/7, serving millions of requests from clients every day.

This is why server hardware is much more expensive than the stuff you find in a consumer PC. Every minute a server is down may cause thousands of dollars in losses. So it’s worth paying a premium to ensure that the internet services in question remain available.

We won’t go into deep details here, but server hardware stands out in the following main ways:

Server motherboards support large amounts of RAM. Terabytes worth in many cases!

Server motherboards often have multiple CPU sockets

Server CPUs tend to have many CPU cores and large amounts of cache

Server RAM is usually of a special error-correcting type to ensure stability

Server power supplies may be redundant, instantly switching over to a backup if the main unit fails

Rack servers also don’t have keyboards, mice, screens or speakers. Instead, they are accessed via the network through the command line or by using a remote desktop application. Although they usually do have the required ports to hook up these peripherals if needed.

Local Servers

A “local” server is one that runs on your local home network, rather than somewhere “out there” on the internet. 

There’s a good chance that you have some sort of server application running on one of your home computers and don’t even know it. The aforementioned IP camera embedded software is one example, but there are other applications that run on regular desktop and laptop systems that also fit the bill. 

For example, the popular Plex application runs a media server on your local machine. This is like Netflix running on your local network. Calibre acts as a local file server for ebooks and, of course, network-attached storage devices are also a sort of local network server. So, as you can see, servers are everywhere. Even in your home!

Common Server Types

While all servers have the same general job, there are clear subtypes of servers that specialize in different tasks.

Web servers are incredibly common. The website you are reading at this very moment was sent to you by a web server. Your web browser acts as the client and requests website data from the server. It then receives the HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) web page code and renders it to your screen. From there it enters your eyeballs and this information is now in your head. Neat, right?

File servers use the FTP or File Transfer Protocol standard rather than HTML and exist to move files from their own hard drives to yours.

Email servers handle the sending and receiving of email messages. Basically it’s an electronic post office.

The list goes on. There are servers that verify login details, servers that act as a proxy between company computers and the internet, media streaming servers at companies like Netflix and more. As more internet services are invented, we can expect new types of specialized server hardware and software to come along as time goes by.

“Mainframe” vs “Server”

One final point of confusion is the difference between a “mainframe” computer and a server. While a server is essentially a beefed-up desktop computer, mainframes are an entirely different beast.

These computers are much, much more powerful than server hardware. The emphasis on reliability and spare processing capacity is much higher and these computers are usually used for jobs that are mission critical.

Online banking is one example where mainframes may be a better choice. Especially since mainframe computers are built to zip through as many “transactions” as possible. These computers are usually about the size of a large fridge. Often, they’re as big as ten rack-mounted servers.

Are You Being Served?

What Is An Ogg File?

Have you ever looked at a file extension and wondered exactly what in the world you were looking at? With hundreds of different file extensions, it’s impossible to keep track of them all.

For example, what is an OGG file? Where did it come from, and what is it used for? Simply put, an OGG file is one of two file types: either an Ogg Vorbis Audio File or an Origin graph file.

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Ogg Vorbis Compressed Audio File

The .Ogg extension is a free, open container format originally created by the chúng tôi Foundation. This organization is a nonprofit group that creates and maintains various multimedia formats and software tools, giving creators and everyday users the ability to work with multimedia without paying exorbitant prices.

Vorbis is the most popular and common type of .ogg file, but there are numerous others. In addition to the .ogg extension, you may also see .ogv, .oga, .ogx, .ogm, .spx, and .opus.

If the name “Ogg” seems odd to you, it’s because it derives from an old gaming term called “ogging.” The 1988 game Netrek was one of the first online multiplayer games, and “ogging” referred to a kamikaze-style attack on an enemy ship or base. The .ogg extension is in homage to that history.

Like a kamikaze attack, the OGG Project was thought to be ambitious and not entirely possible due to the powers of computers at that time. The creators of the format sought to push the boundaries.

As an additional bit of interesting trivia, the “Vorbis” aspect of the name originates from a character in Terr Pratchett’s book Small Gods.

Opening An Ogg Vorbis File

OGG files are common. As a result, most major media players can open them, including VLC, Windows Media Player, and many more. You can even open an OGG file through Google Drive. However, Apple does not natively support OGG files. If you want to open one on an Apple device, you will need to download a compatible third-party application like VLC.

Opera and Mozilla Firefox also support OGG files without the need for a separate program. Simply drag or open the file in your browser and you can listen to its contents without opening another application.

OGG files can also be accepted by GPS devices. However, this is most commonly used whe audio mapping. It’s unlikely that you would ever use a GPS device to play music, but anything is possible. Maybe you want to hear your Tom Tom sing Bowie’s “Space Oddity.”

Converting Ogg Vorbis Files

If you need to switch an OGG file to something more universally acceptable, like an MP3 or WAV file, there are several easy options out there.

One of the easiest options is an online converter like FileZigZag. You don’t have to download anything and you can convert more than one file at once. The downside is you’re limited to 10 conversions per day.

Another option is something like Convertio. It works entirely in your browser, but there is also a Chrome extension available for easy conversions. There doesn’t seem to be a daily limit to the number of conversions, but the max file size is capped at 100 MB.

Origin Graph Files

A less common type of OGG file is an Origin Graph. What is an Origin Graph OGG file? This is a data analysis tool and graphing application created by OriginLab Corporation and used most often by scientiests and engineers. It creates graphs that display a variety of types of data.

The only way to open an Origin Graph file is through Origin and Origin Viewer. Origin is only available through Windows, but Origin Viewer is a free alternative that is available to both Windows and Mac users.

In more recent iterations of Origin, files are saved in the .oggu format. This offers a performance upgrade over the old file type, but it still allows users to open OGG files.

Fans of open-source software will appreciate the OGG format due to its broad range of compatibility. It provides an efficient way to access and store audio files that doesn’t hog memory.

As for Origin Graph files, unless you’re in a relevant field, you aren’t likely to encounter them.

What Is An Ip Flood?

IP Flood

An IP Flood is a type of malicious assault that can affect a single device or a whole network. This is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack that seeks to prevent a device from performing its usual functions, such as delivering requests or processing data. In an IP flood attack, the system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and denying access to genuine users.

Fortunately, IP flooding is a well-known form of assault and it is well-documented and hence it can be readily avoided. IP Flooding is a sort of attack in which the victim or system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and preventing legitimate users from accessing the system. In layman’s terms, it means that one device can use all available data, preventing other devices from connecting.

When IP Flood Detection is turned on, your router can detect and prevent malicious devices that are attempting to flood your network. IP Flooding is a sort of DoS attack in which the victim or system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and preventing legitimate users from accessing the system.

An IP Flood occurs when IP packets from one device overrun the IP packets from another device or devices. It’s usually a malicious occurrence, although it can also be the result of faulty programming in the transmitting device. A router or switch that performs basic packet/frame inspection may often assist reduce network impact. IP broadcast flood (also known as IP Storm) can be considerably more damaging to the network since it affects all devices in the broadcast domain.

This is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack that seeks to prevent a device from performing its usual functions, such as delivering requests or processing data. Fortunately, because this is one of the most well-known forms of assault, it is well-documented and readily avoided.

How an IP Flood Attack is Carried Out

An IP Flood attack is often carried out with the use of an executable application or a piece of code that makes the requests. The malware will first establish a connection with the victim, after which it will send a series of ping queries (also known as echo request packages). These ping requests will continue to be sent until the system of the receiver fails. You may believe that a machine or network can tolerate a few ping attempts, but an IP Flood attack can entail hundreds of requests per second.

IP Flooding is a sort of DoS attack in which the victim or system is flooded with data, using all available bandwidth and preventing legitimate users from accessing the system. In layman’s terms, it means that one device can use all available data, preventing other devices from connecting. When IP Flood Detection is turned on, your router can detect and prevent malicious devices that are attempting to flood your network.

Negative Impacts of an IP Flood

A device or a network can be effectively crippled by an IP Food attack. If the connection is open, the receiving device will immediately respond with the information when a ping request is received. The device or network will simply not be able to handle the ping queries since they are continual and in such a large volume. The system will eventually fail, and the network device or computer will crash, leaving you unable to complete any additional tasks.

What Can Be Done to Avoid an IP Flood Attack?

Most routers and networking equipment, fortunately, will have built-in protection against IP Flood assaults. There is no need for alarm among residential users; if your router is properly set up, you should never be vulnerable to an IP Flood assault. Many routers offer an “IP Flood prevention” option that can be manually engaged; however, this might have a negative impact on your router’s performance and significantly slow down your network. It is best to avoid turning this feature on and to double-check that your router’s security settings are accurate.

The ability to carry out a ping flood is contingent on the attackers knowing the target’s IP address. As a result, based on the target and how its IP address is resolved, attacks may be divided into three groups.

A single machine on a local network is attacked by a targeted local revealed ping flood. To discover a computer’s IP address, an attacker must have physical access to it. The target computer would be taken down if the assault was successful.

Ping flood is a type of attack that targets routers in order to disrupt connections between computers on a network, according to a router. It relies on the attacker knowing a local router’s internal IP address. If the assault is successful, all computers linked to the router will be shut down.

Before launching an assault, a blind ping flood requires utilizing external software to discover the IP address of the target computer or router.

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