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When it comes to problems caused by ticks, Lyme disease hogs a lot of the limelight. But various tick species carry and transmit a collection of other pathogens, some of which cause serious, even fatal, conditions.

In fact, the number of tick-borne disease cases is on the rise in the United States. The range where various species of ticks live in North America may be expanding due to climate change. Researchers continue to discover new pathogens that live in ticks. And new, invasive tick species keep turning up.

In my career as a public health entomologist, I’ve been amazed at the ability of ticks to bounce back from all the ways people try to control them, including with pesticides. Ticks excel at finding new ecological niches for survival. So people and ticks frequently cross paths, exposing us to their bites and the diseases they carry.

Here are some of the lesser-known, but growing, threats from ticks:

Ticks can spread bacterial diseases

Certain very small species of bacteria that can cause human diseases, such as rickettsia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma, live in ticks. Ticks ingest these bacteria when they drink animals’ blood. Then when the ticks take a subsequent blood meal, they pass the bacteria along to the next animal or person they feed on.

Probably the most well known of these bacterial diseases is Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most frequently reported rickettsial disease in the U.S., with about 6,000 cases each year. The number of diagnoses seems to be increasing nationwide, especially among Native Americans, probably due to exposure on reservations to free-roaming dogs that can carry ticks.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever usually comes with a rash, as on this child. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), CC BY

When people get sick with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, they usually come to a clinic with three things: fever, rash, and history of tick bite. They may also report severe headache, chills and muscle pains, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. A skin rash is usually present after a few days, but not always. Mental confusion, coma, and death can occur in severe cases. Untreated, the mortality rate is about 20%; and even with treatment, 4% of those infected die.

Not all tick species are effective transmitters of the rickettsia bacteria. Even within the vector species, often only 1% to 5% of ticks in an area are infected. So getting bitten by a tick that passes rickettsia bacteria on to you is like getting stuck with a needle in a haystack. The primary carriers are the American dog tick in the eastern U.S. and Rocky Mountain wood tick in the West. The brown dog tick has also recently been shown to be a vector.

In most tick-borne diseases, the tick needs to feed for some amount of time before any pathogens it’s carrying are transmitted to the animal whose blood it’s eating. Rocky Mountain spotted fever organisms generally take between one and three hours for transmission to occur, so attached ticks need to be removed quickly. Doctors usually prescribe the antibiotic doxycycline to treat Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which works quite well if the disease is recognized early.

Ehrlichiosis is another bacterial disease transmitted from ticks to people. In the U.S. it’s most commonly caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis bacteria, carried by lone star ticks which are common in the eastern U.S. Ehrlichia bacteria infect a type of blood cell called leukocytes. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis occurs mostly in the southern and south-central U.S.; 1,642 cases were reported to the CDC in 2023.

Ehrlichiosis patients usually have fever, headache, muscle aches ,and a progressive low white blood cell count. As opposed to Rocky Mountain spotted fever, people get a rash only about 20% to 40% of the time. Doctors usually treat ehrlichiosis with doxycycline.

Another tick-borne bacterial disease to worry about is human granulocytic anaplasmosis. In human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacteria infects a type of white blood cell called granulocytes. It mostly occurs in the upper midwestern and northeastern U.S., and the incidence is increasing, with 5,762 cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis reported to the CDC in 2023.

A female Ixodes scapularis tick. Dr. Blake Layton, MSU, CC BY-ND

Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches and progressive low white blood cell count. It’s the deer tick Ixodes scapularis—famously also responsible for Lyme disease—that transmits the Anaplasma bacteria to humans. There’s the unlucky chance that a bite from a deer tick could infect you with both diseases. Again, recommended therapy is doxycycline.

Ticks can carry viruses, too

People usually think of mosquitoes when they think of insect-transmitted viruses—dengue, Zika, and West Nile garner a lot of headlines. But ticks can transmit viruses, too.

Scientists have historically grouped tick-borne viral diseases into two categories. One is diseases similar to dengue fever. The main dengue-like viral disease transmitted by ticks in the U.S. is Colorado tick fever, which occurs in mountainous areas of the West.

The other group of tick-borne diseases resemble mosquito-borne encephalitis. Most of these illnesses, characterized by brain inflammation, are not found in the U.S. Powassan encephalitis is the one that is, occurring in the northeastern U.S. and adjacent regions of Canada.

Powassan is a relatively rare but serious human disease, characterized by sudden onset of fever with temperature up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit, along with convulsions. Brain inflammation is usually severe, with vomiting, respiratory distress, and prolonged fever.

Fewer than 100 cases of Powassan have been reported in North America, with about half of them fatal. Its incidence seems to be increasing; there were 34 cases of Powassan reported during 2023. POW is maintained in a natural cycle when ticks—primarily Ixodes cookei—infect animals with the virus via their bites. Then these infected animals may serve as what scientists call disease reservoirs, infecting new ticks when they feed on their blood.

Tiny larval lone star ticks next to a penny. Jerome Goddard

In the last decade, researchers have found additional new tick-borne viruses in the U.S. About 30 cases of Heartland virus have thus far been identified. It’s associated with the lone star tick and has been recognized in Missouri, Oklahoma, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

A few cases of a new Thogotovirus called Bourbon virus have been identified in the Midwest and southern U.S. The lone star tick may be the vector of Bourbon virus as well.

A food allergy triggered by a tick bite

Maybe the most bizarre threat from ticks is the “red meat allergy” scientists have recently traced back to tick bites. People can become allergic to eating meat when a tick’s saliva passes on the carbohydrate galactose-α-1.3-galactose it had previously picked up in a blood meal from an animal. If prone to allergies, the person can get sensitized to that alpha-gal molecule that’s found in animal blood and other tissues.

Then days or weeks later, he or she may develop hives, swollen skin and lips, or even life-threatening anaphylactic shock three to six hours after eating red meat. Meats containing alpha-gal include beef, pork, lamb, squirrel, rabbit, horse, goat, deer, kangaroo, seal, and whale. People who become sensitized to alpha-gal may still eat chicken, turkey, and fish.

Overall, people should be aware of what tick-borne diseases are present in their area and use personal protection techniques whenever outdoors in tick-infested areas. Remember that ticks often come into close contact with people via pet dogs or cats. It’s a good idea to inspect yourself for ticks after being outdoors in tick-infested areas. Reducing the number of tick bites and the amount of time ticks remain attached can go a long way to protecting you from tick-borne diseases.

Jerome Goddard is an Extension Professor of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University. This article was originally featured on The Conversation.

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Discord Keeps Logging Out? Here Are The Fixes!

Are you getting logged out of Discord randomly? Here is a full guide on how to resolve the problem of rand logout on the Discord app on Windows 11/10 PC. Discord is a popular free voice chat and instant messaging service which has millions of users across the globe. The app is especially popular amongst gamers for real-time communication. While the app is great and works without any hassle, some users have complained of facing various errors and problems. One such problem is that the users keep getting logged out of the Discord app every now and then. This is quite a frustrating glitch that keeps you from using the Discord app.

The reason for this problem is still not clear. However, after analyzing user reports, we can assume it could be due to server problems, account problems, corrupted Discord cache, or bugs in the Discord app. Now, if you are also facing the same issue on Discord, we got you covered. Here, we will be discussing various solutions that will enable you to resolve the problem. Let us get straight to the fixes now.

Discord keeps logging out

Before trying out these methods, we recommend you perform a simple restart. Just restart your PC, launch Discord, and check if the problem is fixed or not. Also, make sure your Windows and GPU drivers are up-to-date. If you still experience the same problem, here are the fixes you should try:

Check Discord’s server status.

Reset your login credentials.

Enable Two-Factor Authentication.

Flush DNS cache.

Delete Discord’s cache.

Try Logging in from a web browser.

Update or Reinstall the Discord app.

Contact Discord’s support team.

1] Check Discord’s server status

The first thing you should do when you keep getting out of Discord randomly is to check the current server status of Discord. There might be a service outage from the end of Discord that is causing login glitches. And if indeed that is the problem, you can’t do anything about it. So, before trying any other fix, make sure Discord servers are not down at the moment. For that, you can use a free service down detector website that lets you check the current status of a service. If Discord’s service is down, you will have to wait for some time for the issue to be resolved.

In case there server status of Discord is well and running, there might be some other problem that requires additional troubleshooting methods to fix. So, move on to the next solution to resolve the problem.

2] Reset your login credentials

You can also try resetting your login credentials to fix the issue. Discord bans users if they violate its terms and services. There are chances that your account might have gotten wrongly flagged for some suspicious activities, but it didn’t disable your account. However, that keeps logging you out from your account. In that case, you can try this workaround which is to change your Discord password and then see if the problem is resolved.

Here are the steps to change Discord’s password:

Firstly, go to the User Settings (gear icon) option and then select the My Account option.

Now, enter your old and then new passwords and press the Done button.

Finally, login back to Discord with the new password and see if the issue is fixed now.

Do note that you will be automatically logged out of Discord on all other devices once you change your password.

See: Fix You are being rate limited Discord error on Windows PC.

3] Enable Two-Factor Authentication

This is a kind of workaround and might help you fix the problem. You can try enabling two-factor authentication in Discord to improve your credibility in case your account is mistakenly flagged as explained in method (2). It is also a good feature to add an extra layer of security to your account. So, there is no harm in using this handy feature.

To enable two-factor authentication, here are the steps to follow:

Provide the current password.

You then need to follow the prompted instructions which are download authenticator app, scan the QR code, and then login with generated code.

When Two-factor Authentication is activated, log out and then login again to your account.

See if this fixes the problem for you. If not, try the next potential fix.

Read: Fix Discord Console Log errors on Windows computer.

4] Flush DNS cache

The random log-outs from Discord might be a result of the corrupted DNS cache or some other DNS issues. In that case, you can try clearing the DNS cache using a simple command in CMD. Simply launch Command Prompt as an administrator and then enter ipconfig /flushdns in it. Let the command execute fully and after that, check whether the problem is resolved now.

5] Delete Discord’s cache

Another fix that you can try to resolve is deleting Discord’s cache from your device. This is effective in case you are dealing with bad and corrupted cache data that is causing a random log-out glitch on Discord. So, clear Discord’s cached data and then see if the problem is resolved. Here are the steps to do that:

Firstly, press the Windows + R hotkey to evoke the Run dialog box.

Now, type %appdata%discord in it and press the Enter button.

Next, locate the following folders including Cache, Code Cache, and GPUCache, and select them.

After that, press the Delete button to clear these folders.

Finally, restart Discord and then see if the problem is resolved now.

See: Discord won’t open or Stuck on Connecting screen in Windows PC.

6] Try Logging in from a web browser

If you still keep getting logged out of Discord while using the app on Windows 11/10, you can try switching the platform. Discord is available for all major platforms, so you can try it on android, iOS, etc. However, if you want to use it on a Windows PC, you can use its web app. Simply open Discord in a web browser like Chrome, Edge, Firefox, or whichever one you prefer, and then log in to your account. See if the issue is now fixed.

7] Update or Reinstall the Discord app

If you are not using the latest version of Discord, consider updating it. Outdated versions tend to cause different issues, and the random logout problem might be one of those problems. So, update Discord to the latest build.

In case updating the app doesn’t help you, the problem might be caused due to corrupted or faulty installation of Discord on your PC. If the scenario applies, you should be able to fix it up by reinstalling the Discord app. For that, you will first have to uninstall the app from your PC and then reinstall it. Here is a sorted step by step procedure to do that:

Firstly, open Task Manager and end all tasks related to Discord.

Next, reboot your PC and then go to Discord’s website and download the latest version of the app.

After that, run the installer and complete the installation of the Discord app.

Finally, launch Discord and see if the problem is resolved now.

Read: Fix Discord Connection issues on Windows PC

8] Contact Discord’s support team

If none of the above solutions works for you, the last resort is to contact the official support team of Discord. Go to Discord’s official support page and submit a ticket explaining your problem. They will revert back and might help you fix the problem. In case there are some problems related to your account that keep getting you logged out of your account randomly, they will tell you about that. You can also try contacting Discord’s support team on social media like Twitter, Facebook, etc.

See: Fix Discord Notification Sound not working on Windows PC.

Why does Discord keep popping up?

When you install Discord on your Windows PC, it is set as a startup application by default. So, whenever you start Windows, Discord will automatically pop up. Now, if you want to stop Discord from launching on Windows startup, here are the steps you can follow:

Firstly, open Task Manager using Ctrl + Shift + Esc hotkey.

Now, move to the Startup tab.

Next, locate the Discord app here and select it.

How do I fix Discord keeps logging out?

In order to fix this problem, you need to check the Discord’s server status first. Following that, you can reset the login credentials if there was some attack in the recent past. Next, you can turn on the two-step verification and flush the DNS cache. It is also suggested to verify your internet connection and switch it if needed.

Why does Discord glitch out?

The main reason why Discord is having such issues is because there are some problems with the Discord server. The same problem might occur due to the invalid internet connection on your computer. In that case, you need to switch to a different internet connection first. Next, you need to verify whether your Discord doesn’t have nay corrupt system file or not.

That’s it! Hope this helps.

Now read: Fix Discord RTC Connecting No Route error.

Here Are The Best Entertainment Apps For Pc

Here are the best entertainment apps for PC

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After a hard day of work, we all want to relax a bit and forget about the hassle and bustle of the day that is coming to an end. One of the simplest ways to do that is by launching an entertainment app.

Watching your favorite music or listening to your favorite songs is a great way to end your day. If you don’t know which entertainment apps to install on your PC, this article may help you. Here, you’ll find the best entertainment apps for Windows 10 PCs.

The best entertainment apps for PC Netflix

Netflix is an excellent app that you can use to watch your favorite TV shows. You can get the app for free as a part of your Netflix membership. If you are not a Netflix member, you can sign up for a one-month free trial.

With a Netflix membership, you get access to unlimited TV shows and movies for a very low price. You can watch as many TV episodes and movies as you want, anytime. Another interesting feature is that you can start watching on one device, and resume watching on another.

You can download the Netflix app for free from the Windows Store.

Spotify

Spotify lets you play your favorite songs for free on your Windows 10 PC. You can also browse the charts or listen to readymade playlists for every genre and mood.

The app can learn what music you love, and stream your favorite tracks on the radio. Spotify also helps you discover new music, offering your a series of playlists built just for you. If you’re an avid podcast or audiobook listener, you can use this app to listen to your favorite content.

You can download Spotify from the Windows Store.

Pandora

Pandora is an interesting entertainment app that plays the music you love. Its content evolves with your taste. You can browse hundreds of genre stations to find the perfect match for your mood.

You can download Pandora from the Windows Store.

iHeartRadio

iHeartRadio brings your favorite music and radio station to a single place. The app features thousands of live radio stations, as well as custom stations that you can control.

You can select the radio stations that you want to listen to depending on the music genre they stream. You can also create your station from a library of 20 million songs and 800,000 artists.

You can download iHeartRadio for free from the Windows Store.

Groove Music

Microsoft’s own entertainment app, Groove Music lets your enjoy all your music on your Windows PC. You can add your favorite tracks and create a playlist that suits your mood, or enjoy Groove’s ready-made playlists.

Groove Music is also available on Windows Holographics, Xbox One and Windows phones. You can try the app for free for 30 days, and you can cancel it any time.

You can download Groove Music from the Windows Store.

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Rarbg Is Down: Here Are The Top 5 Alternatives

If you are a fan of torrenting, you might have heard of RARBG, one of the most popular torrent sites around. However, you might also have noticed that RARBG is no longer accessible in many regions, or that it has shut down completely.

What happened to RARBG and where can you find similar torrent sites to replace it? In this article, we will answer these questions and provide you with a list of the top 5 alternatives to RARBG that you can use right now.

What is RARBG and why is it down?

RARBG was a website that provided torrent files and magnet links to facilitate peer-to-peer file sharing using the BitTorrent protocol. It was founded in 2008 and quickly gained popularity for its high-quality torrents and active community forum. It offered a variety of content, such as movies, TV shows, music, software, games, and more.

Despite its popularity and quality, RARBG also faced many legal challenges and controversies over the years. As a torrent site that hosted copyrighted content without permission, RARBG was constantly targeted by copyright holders, law enforcement agencies, internet service providers, and governments. It was blocked or banned in many countries, such as the UK, Australia, India, Saudi Arabia, Denmark, Portugal, and more.

RARBG tried to evade these blocks by changing its domain name or using proxy and mirror sites. However, these methods were not always effective or reliable. Moreover, RARBG also faced internal problems that affected its operation and performance. According to some sources, some of the reasons why RARBG shut down in 2023 were:

The death of some team members

The high cost of maintaining the database.

The involvement of some members in the Ukraine-Russian conflict

How to access torrent sites safely and legally

Before we introduce you to the top 5 alternatives to RARBG, we want to remind you of some important tips and precautions that you should follow when using torrent sites. Torrenting can be a risky and illegal activity if you are not careful and aware of the potential dangers and consequences. Here are some of the things you should do to access torrent sites safely and legally:

Use a VPN to hide your IP address and encrypt your traffic

A VPN, or a virtual private network, is a service that creates a secure and encrypted connection between your device and a remote server. By using a VPN, you can hide your real IP address and location from anyone who might be monitoring your online activity, such as your ISP, hackers, or authorities. A VPN also encrypts your traffic, which means that no one can see what you are doing online or what files you are downloading or uploading.

Using a VPN is essential when torrenting, as it can protect you from being tracked, traced, or exposed by anyone who might want to harm you or sue you for copyright infringement. However, not all VPNs are suitable for torrenting, as some of them may have slow speeds, weak encryption, or leaky connections. You should look for a VPN that has the following features:

Fast and reliable speeds

Strong and secure encryption

A strict no-logs policy

A kill switch feature

P2P support

A large and diverse server network

One of the best VPNs for torrenting that meets all these criteria is NordVPN. It has over 5,000 servers in 60 countries, which means that you can access any torrent site from anywhere in the world. It also has dedicated P2P servers that are optimized for fast and smooth torrenting. Moreover, it has a military-grade encryption, a no-logs policy, a kill switch feature, and a malware blocker that can keep you safe from any online threats.

Use an antivirus and an ad blocker to protect your device from malware Check the legality and copyright of the torrents you download

Finally, you should also be aware of the legal implications of torrenting. Torrenting itself is not illegal, as it is just a method of file sharing. However, what makes it illegal is the content that you download or upload using torrents. If the content is copyrighted and you don’t have permission from the owner to use it, then you are breaking the law and risking legal action.

You should also respect the rights and wishes of the content creators and support them by paying for their work if possible. Torrenting should only be used as a last resort when there is no other way to access the content legally or affordably.

The top 5 alternatives to RARBG

Now that we have covered some of the basics of torrenting safely and legally, let’s move on to the main topic of this article: the top 5 alternatives to RARBG. These are some of the best torrent sites that offer similar content and features as RARBG did. We will briefly describe each site’s pros and cons, as well as provide some links to access them.

The Pirate Bay

The Pirate Bay is arguably the most famous and popular torrent site in the world. It has been around since 2003 and has survived numerous legal battles and shutdowns. It features an extensive library of torrents in various categories, such as movies, music, software, eBooks, games, and more. It also has international content. such as Bollywood films, anime, and foreign languages. It also has a blog section that posts news and updates about the torrenting scene.

1337x

1337x is another popular torrent site that offers a wide range of content, such as movies, music, software, games, ebooks, and more. It has a sleek and modern interface that allows users to browse, search, and download torrents easily. It also has a community section where users can chat, request torrents, or report issues.

YTS

YTS is a torrent site that specializes in movies. It offers a huge collection of movies in various genres, languages, and resolutions. It is known for its high-quality torrents that have small file sizes, which means that they can be downloaded faster and use less bandwidth. It also has a simple and elegant interface that displays movie posters, ratings, summaries, and trailers.

Nyaa.si

Nyaa.si is a torrent site that specializes in anime. It offers a huge collection of anime in various genres, languages, and resolutions. It also has other content related to anime, such as manga, games, music, and live-action adaptations. It has a simple and minimalist interface that allows users to browse, search, and download torrents easily.

EZTV

EZTV is a torrent site that specializes in TV shows. It offers a huge collection of TV shows in various genres, languages, and resolutions. It also has other content related to TV shows, such as documentaries, talk shows, sports, and news. It has a simple and user-friendly interface that displays TV show posters, ratings, summaries, and schedules.

Frequently Asked Questions What is RARBG?

RARBG was a website that provided torrent files and magnet links to facilitate peer-to-peer file sharing using the BitTorrent protocol. It was founded in 2008 and shut down in 2023.

Why did RARBG shut down?

RARBG shut down due to various reasons, such as legal issues, technical problems, high database costs, and team members’ deaths.

What are some of the best alternatives to RARBG? How can I access torrent sites safely and legally?

You can access torrent sites safely and legally by using a VPN to hide your IP address and encrypt your traffic, an antivirus and an ad blocker to protect your device from malware, and checking the legality and copyright of the torrents you download.

What are some of the features of a good VPN for torrenting?

Some of the features of a good VPN for torrenting are fast and reliable speeds, strong and secure encryption, a strict no-logs policy, a kill switch feature, P2P support, a large and diverse server network. One of the best VPNs for torrenting is NordVPN.

Conclusion

RARBG was one of the best torrent sites in the world, but it is no longer available due to various reasons. However, there are many other torrent sites that can replace it and offer similar content and features. In this article, we have listed the top 5 alternatives to RARBG that you can use right now. However, remember to always use a VPN, an antivirus, and an ad blocker when accessing torrent sites, and to check the legality and copyright of the torrents you download.

This Wild Grassland In The Amazon Isn’t As Untouched As It Seems

In the southern edge of the Amazon basin lies a huge grassland, the Llano de Mojos. It’s something in between dry land and water, carved up by rivers and swamps, the entire landscape floods every year during the wet season. But in spite of the power of those waters, new research suggests that the key features of the landscape, from its plants to its floods, were shaped more by humans than the geography, or even the climate.

“What is the Amazon?” says John Walker, an archaeologist at the University of Central Florida. “It’s not just one thing.”

It’s long been clear that the landscape was made by humans, says Walker, who has worked in the region for decades and was an author on the recent study, published in the journal PNAS.

There are three key human structures in the Mojos: long, narrow fields that stick out of the floodplain just a handful of centimeters, fish traps that cut across waterways, and “forest islands” that loom over the flat horizon. Three quarters of those forest islands—which were likely built out of the flat plain by humans—contain unambiguous signs of human habitation, from the remains of fires to ditches and ceramics.

The researchers set out to understand how that landscape had transformed over time.

They took soil cores from two sites in the swamp about 13 miles apart. In each of them, the soil showed the same story: thousands of years ago, the region was relatively dry. Then, traces of wetland plants and aquatic microorganisms showed that regular floods had occurred on the landscape, as they do today. At the same time as the floods, charcoal fragments began to appear. When the fire was most intense, the soil contained traces of crops like corn, squash, and sweet potato.

But that progression happened at different times at the two sites. At one, fire and floods began 6,000 years ago. At the other, those became dominant 1,500 years later. And that suggests to the researchers that the landscape was transformed into a swamp not because of increased rainfall, but because of human management.

Forest islands in the Llano de Mojos. Thomas Lee

“This is really weird,” says Walker. “It’s very difficult to imagine a climate explanation or some kind of geographic explanation. To me, the obvious suspect is all these artificial earthworks that are everywhere.”

The research is the latest in a body of work that suggests that even the “wildest” ecosystems on the planet, like the Australian outback and the Amazon basin, are not the product of untouched nature, but of human cultivation. And often that cultivation has gone on for thousands of years longer than scientists have recognized.

In the case of the Mojos, the researchers believe that the high ground of the forest islands may have been inhabited since at least 8,900 BCE. That’s in line with other research that argues the region was a hub of early agriculture, and may have even been a domestication hotspot on par with the Ganges, Mediterranean, and Papua New Guinea.

When most people think “what is the Amazon,” Walker says, “It’s Nature with a capital N. It’s something that has to exist in the universe because it’s a contrast to culture or the city, or something like that… I think that idea is sometimes more influential than what we really know about the Amazon.”

The Mojos region is now mostly cattle ranches. And the study suggests that those cattle have also shaped the landscape: before they were introduced in the 1600s, the plains were full of shrubs and trees, a bit like Africa’s Serengeti.

Still, Walker cautions, it’s not easy to know how to interpret the earthworks. The first European accounts of the region describe people fishing in the area’s shallow waters, but the existing indigenous society was quickly destroyed by colonization and disease, and many of the landscapes were abandoned or converted to ranchland. Pollen from the soil cores show that the forest islands grew back over with heavy tree cover at that time. (The entire Amazon basin experienced such a catastrophic population collapse that the regrowth of the continent’s forests led to a dramatic dip in global carbon.) The forest islands show clear signs of human use, while the fields look like agricultural land, but without firsthand accounts it would be a step too far to think of them as villages and farms.

[Related: Humans are pushing into animals’ homes, but nature is as rebellious as ever]

“I’m scared of the European-farming-style bucket,” Walker says. “I’m less interested in saying, ‘okay, [the inhabitants] were on this island and nowhere else.’ Those islands might have been useful even when people weren’t living on them.”

For one thing, the islands support plants and animals in surprising ways. While excavating, the team found a burrowing fish living in the mud at the bottom of a ditch on the island. “That’s just to hammer home the point that the things people did are affecting plants and animals today. Those forest islands are great places for all kinds of animals.”

Walker makes the point that pre colonization societies may have farmed, hunted, and fished in ways that wouldn’t be obvious to Europeans. And even if people don’t actively inhabit the forest islands anymore, Walker says that his local research partners who grew up in the area “have all kinds of knowledge of plants and animals and historical changes” at the sites. On one cattle ranch, he remembers, one partner knew that there was a howler monkey living on a forest island alongside several dozen workers.

“The interplay between what we think of as nature, and the people living there, is complicated. And it’s probably been complicated for thousands of years.”

Windows 11 Black Screen After Update? Here Are The Fixes!

Microsoft has done a stellar job at releasing Windows 11 with a fresh design language and a myriad of amazing new features. However, some underlying Windows issues are still present in Windows 11. For example, we recently wrote a tutorial to fix the ‘Undoing changes made your computer’ error on Windows 11 as updates were not getting installed. And now, we are noticing that users are getting a black screen after updating to Windows 11. Some users report that the black screen on Windows 11 appears with the cursor after login, and in some cases, before login. So to fix the persisting issue, we have compiled 9 solutions that will fix Windows 11 black screen issue after an update. On that note, let’s jump to the guide.

Seeing Black Screen After Updating to Windows 11? Find Fix Right Here (2024)

In this tutorial, we have included 9 different ways to fix the black screen issue arising after a recent Windows 11 update. We have also added solutions in case you are getting a black screen with a cursor on Windows 11 after or before login. Expand the table below and check out the desired solution.

1. Restart Your PC

If Windows 11 is showing a black screen after an update or after login, worry not. Sometimes, after a heavy feature update, Windows takes time to load all the system components. In that case, you should restart your Windows 11 PC and wait for at least half an hour before going for any fix. If you are still facing a black screen issue after the restart, move to the next step.

2. Restart Windows Explorer

This solution is especially helpful to users getting a black screen with a cursor on Windows 11 after login. It means that your PC is working fine, it’s just that due to some Explorer or graphics issue, Windows 11 is unable to show you the desktop shell. Here is what to do in such a scenario.

3. Next, type chúng tôi in the textbox and hit Enter. This will reload the Explorer shell, and the black screen will be gone. If it does not work as intended, move to the next method.

3. Restart Graphics Driver

Windows 11 has a hidden keyboard shortcut that lets you restart the graphics driver without accessing any settings. If your PC is facing any graphics driver-related issues, this will fix the black screen on Windows 11 instantly.

1. Just press “Windows + Ctrl + Shift + B” keys simultaneously and Windows 11 will restart the graphics driver. Give your PC a minute, and the black screen should be gone on your Windows 11 PC.

4. Edit Explorer Shell Registry

1. For users getting a black screen with a cursor after login on Windows 11, press “Ctrl + Alt + Delete” and open “Task Manager”.

3. Here, type regedit in the textbox and enable the “Create this task with administrator privileges” chechbox. Now, hit Enter.

6. Now, restart your PC, and the black screen issue on Windows 11 will be fixed.

5. Startup Repair

Some users get a black screen even before the login screen on Windows 11. It means that Windows is not properly loading, and there might be some internal system issues. In such cases, you can’t access the Task Manager or restart Explorer. So you need to kickstart Windows 11’s troubleshooter to fix the problem. Here is how to go about it.

1. First, shut down your PC. Now, turn it on, and as the Windows loading sign appears, shut down again. Now, turn on your PC and shut it down again. Do this 2-3 times, and Windows will be forced to load its recovery screen. On some computers, pressing F2, F8, or F12 during boot also opens the Startup recovery screen so try these keys as well.

5. Your PC will now restart, and Windows will try to fix the black screen issue by itself. If that does not work, move to the next method.

6. Boot Into Safe Mode

If the above method didn’t work, and you are still getting a black screen before login into your Windows 11 PC, booting into the safe mode might fix the issue. Here are the steps to follow:

3. Once you are into Safe mode, I suggest you simply restart the PC. Sometimes, just booting into Safe mode fixes the black screen issue on Windows 11. Check if you are able to log into your computer and if everything works fine. If not, move to the next step.

4. Boot back to Safe mode and uninstall suspicious programs on Windows 11. At times, some malicious programs stop Windows 11 from loading its components properly, so remove the pesky apps that you have no idea about.

6. Finally, if you are still facing the black screen issue, boot back to the Safe mode screen and press the “5” or “F5” key to boot to Safe mode with the internet option. You will need a wired Ethernet connection to use the Internet in Safe mode. If you don’t have Ethernet, connect your smartphone via a USB cable and use USB tethering.

8. Once the graphics driver is updated, restart your PC, and this time, you should not face any black screen error.

If Windows 11 is showing a black screen after a recent update, perhaps, it has to do with the latest update that may have broken some system components. In that case, it’s best to uninstall the last update. Follow the steps below for detailed instructions.

1. To uninstall the last update on Windows 11, we need to force-open the recovery menu just like we did above in method #5. Restart your PC and shut it down the moment the Windows logo appears. Repeat this process 2-3 times, and the Recovery screen will appear.

8. System Restore

If you feel that you are encountering a black screen after installing an unknown program or making major changes, you can move back to a working state through System Restore. Note that it will also undo all the changes you have made on your PC, including the changes to files and folders. Basically, you are going back in time with System Restore. Here is how to go about it.

2. Follow the on-screen instructions and choose the restore point. Your computer will now restart, and the black screen issue should be fixed. Note that, this process will take considerable time, so keep patience.

9. Reset the PC

2. After that, choose “Keep my files“. Now, it will reinstall Windows 11 on your PC, and the black screen issue will be gone.

Black Screen on Windows 11 After or Before Login? Find a Solution Here

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