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Introduction to TypeScript Module

TypeScript Modules is a file that contains functions, variables, or classes. These typescript modules are executed within their own scope and not in the global space. Starting with ECMAScript 2023, TypeScript has shared this concept of modules from JavaScript. Variables, classes, functions, etc. are declared in a modular way and are not visible outside the module unless and until these are explicitly exported using one of the available export forms. In the same way, consume any variable, class, function, or interface, etc. are exported from another module, hence these are to be imported using one of the available import forms.

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Modules are decorative and relationships among modules are specified based on imports and exports at the file level. The module loader is responsible for locating the dependencies and executing dependencies of a module before executing at runtime. Some of the modern loaders used in JavaScript are NodeJS loaders for RequireJS loader and CommonJS modules for AM modules in web applications.

Modules are designed in such a manner so that code is organized, and these are divided into 2 modules,

Internal Module

External Module


Here is the Syntax for TypeScript Module, which are of two types; Import-Module and Export Module

Internal Module Statement:

Importing an exported declaration is done using one of the below import statements.

import { sample_file } from "./sample_file";

Import statements can also be renamed as below,

import { sample_file as sf } from "./sample_file";

This import module can also be used to import the entire module into a single variable as below,

import * as sample_file from "./sample_file";

External Module Statement:

Any particular declaration such as variables, functions, class, interfaces, or type aliases can be exported using the export keyword.

export interface sample_file { }

For NodeJS applications, Modules are default and developers recommend modules over namespaces.

Examples of TypeScript module

Let us see how TypeScript Module work with few examples

Example #1 – Simple TypeScript Module example

In script.ts

export function multiple(x: number, y: number): number { log(`${x} * ${y}`); return x + y; } function log(message: string): void { console.log("Numbers", message); }

In index.ts

import { multiple } from "./script"; console.log('Value of x*y is:', multiple(4, 2));


We need to run the chúng tôi module as chúng tôi is imported into the index file.

Example #2 – TypeScript Module Employee program

In Employee.ts

export interface Employee { total(); }

In Company.ts

import employee = require("./Employee"); import employer = require("./Employer"); function drawAllShapes(shapeToDraw: employee.Employee) {; } drawAllShapes(new employer.Employer())

In Employer.ts

import employee = require("./Employee"); export class Employer implements employee.Employee { public total() { console.log("There are total of 500 employees in our Company"); } }

Compilation Output:

On compiling the below commands,

tsc Employee.ts tsc Employer.ts tsc Company.ts

With these commands, .js files are created with the same names.

Employee.js, chúng tôi and chúng tôi files are created, as below

chúng tôi

"use strict"; exports.__esModule = true;

chúng tôi

"use strict"; exports.__esModule = true; exports.Employer = void 0; var Employer = /** @class */ (function () { function Employer() { } = function () { console.log("There are total of 500 employees in our Company"); }; return Employer; }()); exports.Employer = Employer;

chúng tôi

"use strict"; exports.__esModule = true; var employer = require("./Employer"); function drawAllShapes(shapeToDraw) {; } drawAllShapes(new employer.Employer());


In TypeScript, as import and exports are available in Modules, re-exports also serve an important role i.e. exports other modules and expose the properties. Re-export is not importing locally or introducing a local variable. In such cases, re-exporting such cases either use original or rename it.

Example #3 – Student Details using TypeScript Module

In Student.ts

export class Student { stuCode: number; stuName: string; constructor(name: string, code: number) { this.stuName = name; this.stuCode = code; } displayStudent() { console.log ("Student Code: " + this.stuCode + ", Student Name: " + this.stuName ); } }

In StudentDetails.ts

import { Student } from "./Student"; let empObj = new Student("Karthik", 101); empObj.displayStudent();

Compilation Output:

On Compiling .ts files, JavaScript files are created as below

In Student.js

"use strict"; exports.__esModule = true; exports.Student = void 0; var Student = /** @class */ (function () { function Student(name, code) { this.stuName = name; this.stuCode = code; } Student.prototype.displayStudent = function () { console.log("Student Code: " + this.stuCode + ", Student Name: " + this.stuName); }; return Student; }()); exports.Student = Student;

In StudentDetails.js

"use strict"; exports.__esModule = true; var Student_1 = require("./Student"); var empObj = new Student_1.Student("Karthik", 101); empObj.displayStudent();



With this, we conclude our topic ‘TypeScript Module’. We have seen what the TypeScript module is and how it works. Syntactically checked both the various version of Modules, be it Internal or import syntax; External or export syntax. It is a very simple way to use modules in TypeScript; be it in understanding the dependencies between the components. While these native modules are not supported, users can simply use modules with SystemJS or RequireJS and migrate to Native form. As modules import one another using a module loader, at runtime, the module loader is responsible for locating and executing all the dependencies of modules before execution.

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What Are Parameterized Typescript Functions?

Introduction to TypeScript Functions

Any programming language has its own set of predefined functions. And some functions are going to be defined by us. Functions are the main building blocks of any programming paradigm. If you know JavaScript functions then it is a lot easier to know about typescript functions. Typescript is a superset of JavaScript and for typescript, you need to be familiar with its ES6 syntax.

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How to Define TypeScript Functions?


function add(a,b) { return a*b; }

We will also see the same example for anonymous functions.


function add(a: number ,b: number): number { return a*b; } How to Call TypeScript Functions?

If you are writing any function, then it has to be called to execute it. Writing function is known as a function definition in programming. We are calling the function with the function name and a pair of parenthesis.

For example, let’s take the above add function. We will call that function as below.

add(5,10); How to Return TypeScript Functions?

In this example you can see there are many situations where we have used return keyword is just to return value from it. We can return any type of value. If you want to return something from a function at that time you must use return statement with the semicolon. We can only return one and only one value from a single function. While returning the value we must check that returning value and type function should be the same so that the caller get the return value.


function cake():string { return "Welcome to the world of cakes" } function bake() { var bakery = cake(); console.log(bakery); } bake()

Look at the above example carefully, here we have two functions one is bake and the other is cake. We are calling function cake inside the function bake. And function cake returning the string value. In the bake function, we are assigning our functional call to the variable bakery. Then we log that variable to the console. Upon executing this we will get “Welcome to the world of cakes ” as an output. It is easy to understand with little practice.

What is Parameterized TypeScript Functions?

The parameter is the case where a user has to give some value to work on. The parameter has to be considered important if mentioned. We must have to give respective values to each parameter in typescript. In programming, while working with parameterized functions no arguments should be matched with no of arguments.


function student(fName: string, lName: string) { return fName + " " + lName; } let student1= student ("John", "roy");

We will look at the example. Take the same function student and we will try to make some parameters optional.


function student(fName: string, lName?: string) { return fName + " " + lName; } let student1= student ("John");

In above example we just gave value for first name parameter. And it will work without the second parameter. Now it will not show any error.

Now, other than this if we wanted to give some default value to the parameter then we can do that.


function student(fName: string, lName: string = "rey") { return fName + " " + lName; } let student1= student ("John");

Now, the above program will work correctly without any errors. It is fine to give a default value to the parameter.

Examples of TypeScript Functions

Following are the examples as given below:

Example #1

Here in the above example, we used an arrow function. Note that here we are not using the return statement because as per the convention if we have only one statement and i.e return statement then we don’t need to write it explicitly. This is shorthand syntax and is most commonly used in typescript.

Example #2

We can call one function as many times as we want, look at the below example to know more.

function student(fName: string, lName?:string) { return fName + " " + lName; } student ("John"); student ("sam"); student ("ken"); student ("bren");

And simultaneously we made last name parameter optional. So that we don’t need to give the second parameter.

Example #3

Another example we are going to look for rest parameters. Till now we have seen parameters like optional, default and required. But there is one more case to this. What if we don’t know how much parameters the function will exactly take.

We will make use of the ellipsis (…) operator here. Again we will take the above example of a student.

function student(fName: string, …remainigStudents: string [] ) { return fName + " " + remainigStudents.join(" "); } let allStudents = student("john", "sam", "reema", "kerry", "jem");

If you look closely we have given n no of arguments. But in a function definition, we just gave two parameters. But look at that three dots(…0) before the second parameter. It is called ellipsis. Which helps us do so.

Writing functions and work on them needs some debugging skills. For working with functions you need to understand the ES6 features of JavaScript.


Working with functions is the most important thing because by combining these functions we are designing the functionality. Functions in typescript are referred to as ES6 syntax. This is mostly seen with the arrow functions. ES6 is an ECMASript standard for JavaScript. We also have ES7 now and more releases will come in the future with some new features.

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What Internet Marketers Can Learn From Nelson Mandela

Though Nelson Mandela has left the mortal world, his life – a true legend – has many immortal messages to teach us. You don’t have to be a politician or a world leader, even entrepreneurs and internet marketers have a lot to learn from this legendary statesman.

Below are some of the lessons that every internet marketer can learn from Nelson Mandela.

Keep Learning. Be an Ardent Learner.

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”

Mandela always put an emphasis on learning and continued to learn throughout his entire life. This is equally true in the ever-changing world of Internet marketing. What worked a few years back are now useless (or black hat) tactics. The market and its trends are constantly changing, thus every marketer must keep learning to stay up to date on the latest tactics.

Always Dream Big.

“There is no passion to be found playing small – in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living.”

Though he spoke these words in terms of living your life, it can also be taken in the context of business growth and success. Mandela always dreamed big. He never ever settled for less. When he first dreamed of freedom and prosperity for South Africa, it was unthinkable to many of this countrymen. But his passionate belief turned his dream into his nation’s reality.

As a marketer, you shouldn’t settle for less either. Suppose you  have high sales in the local market and your campaigns are doing really well for certain audiences – why wouldn’t it work nationally, even globally? Dream bigger and work hard to create your own reality. Start by researching how audiences from the other parts of the world react to marketing. Learn about their culture, what keeps them moving, and how you can really reach their hearts to convince them to buy your product. Don’t settle for less just because it is easier!

Don’t Be Satisfied with Just One Success.

“After climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb.”

So, your internet marketing campaign turned out to be successful?  It worked out marvelously well? That’s great, but you shouldn’t let your success turn into complacency. Just one batch of visitors won’t help your business succeed in the long run. For long-term online success, you need a never-ending stream of target audiences visiting your sites and more and more of them converting into customers.

So, whether it was a certain marketing tactics, a specific target audience, or a particular product that really took off, don’t stop! Be ready for newer tactics, newer audience types, different products, and so on.

Remember with every new success you are more enlightened. You’ve learned more and turned into a better marketer.

Never Give Up. Be an Optimist.

“I am fundamentally an optimist. Whether that comes from nature or nurture, I cannot say. Part of being optimistic is keeping one’s head pointed toward the sun, one’s feet moving forward… I would not and could not give myself up to despair…”

Final Thoughts

There is a lot we can learn from Nelson Mandela, a remarkably immortal soul. Discussing every aspect of his life and the lessons he could teach is quite beyond the scope of this article. However, the lessons we discussed above really do apply to our world and will surely turn a few internet marketers into die-hard seekers of success!

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As Bu Prepares New Survey, Learn What Came Out Of The Last One

As BU Prepares New Survey, Learn What Came Out of the Last One Strong response rate in 2023 Korn Ferry survey has led to many changes, especially with hiring and onboarding new employees, HR head says

A new survey will give the BU community an opportunity to share their experiences and help improve all aspects of campus life. Photo by Cydney Scott

University News

As BU Prepares New Survey, Learn What Came Out of the Last One Strong response rate in 2023 Korn Ferry survey has led to many changes, especially with hiring and onboarding new employees, HR head says

A new survey is on its way next week across the Boston University Campus—the 2023 Belonging & Culture Survey will give faculty, staff, and students an opportunity to share their experiences and help improve all aspects of campus life.

But whatever came of BU’s last major survey, in 2023, when staff were asked questions about diversity, equity, and inclusion on campus by consulting firm Korn Ferry. It turns out, that survey, which had an overall response rate of 75 percent (4,647 staff answered), has quietly sparked a lot of movement and change. 

Amanda Bailey, BU vice president for human resources. Photo by Jackie Ricciardi

“That response was excellent, and this time we’re hoping to hear from even more of you,” says Amanda Bailey, BU’s vice president for human resources. 

Making sure students understand why it’s vital that they take the new survey is a point of emphasis for BU’s Human Resources department.

“The core of what we do, BU’s mission, is to create an excellent academic experience so students can go out and do lifelong service,” Bailey says. “For us, that requires seeking their opinions on things that matter to their experience. At our core, we exist to create an experience for students. If we don’t learn from them where we can improve, then we will always miss the mark.

“HR is working to deliver human resources that impact positively the experiences for everyone on campus, through the lens of these initiatives,” she adds. “Without their additional feedback, we are not able to continue to enhance these services.”

Jason Campbell-Foster, interim associate provost and dean of students, emphasizes how important it is for students to realize their story matters. “How you feel connected, or disconnected from us, matters,” he says. “This is an opportunity for you to tell that story and have it reach the highest levels of the institution. The more we learn about your experiences, hopes, and expectations for our community, the more precise we can be in creating meaningful change.”

Among the findings from 2023—a staff-only survey—17 percent of respondents identified as “asexual, bisexual or pansexual, gay, lesbian, queer, questioning, or something else.” Of the respondents, 42 percent were below age 40, 39 percent said they have caregiver responsibilities, and 10 percent said they are most comfortable speaking a language other than English.

The Korn Ferry survey revealed areas where staff believe BU is performing favorably when compared to its peers, as well as places where they believe it’s lagging.

One example of how the survey led to concrete change was in how the University hires and on-boards new employees.

“All of that came from feedback that people told Korn Ferry—it was a real pain point,” Bailey says. “We were losing people to go elsewhere because once they got hired, they didn’t have a lot of interaction to know where to go for multiple services, beyond just benefits documents to complete. Employees were not navigated by any office to the multiple features BU has to offer.

“New hires were feeling lost. It’s a big community. What we took away is they needed more guidance because we are a large, complex institution, and they needed help to know where to go and become a part of the BU community.”

She says that the new onboarding experience will take longer, but now includes “a suite of activities we will invite them to complete. None of that would have been possible without this feedback.”

Among other positive factors revealed in the survey were having managers and supervisors who are flexible in allowing employees to handle personal or family matters; being treated respectfully by coworkers; having a solid understanding of what it means to be “antiracist”; and feeling valued and appreciated for making contributions.

A total of 32 initiatives were developed from the Korn Ferry survey and are now in various stages of implementation, with some still in progress, others completed, and several not yet underway. A partial list of ideas and initiatives that came from staff sharing their experiences through the Korn Ferry survey follows. (Find a complete list and status report here.)

Partner with diverse member associations to connect with underrepresented professional and veterans groups.

Virtual and in-person job fairs, including with the National Urban League, Boston While Black 2023 Summit, and other affinity group associations.

Expand partnership with LinkedIn to include sourcing diverse applicants passively; continue to promote key jobs and increase our social media presence on LinkedIn.

Expand candidate qualifications by standardizing all jobs to offer education and/or experience, including gender-neutral language.

Reinforce respectful workplace programs through organizational structure, programs, and feedback channels.

Deploy inclusion learning programs for staff leaders and individual contributors.

Design a mentorship program.

Establish a more clearly defined process for onboarding new employees.

Review and redesign HR structure and processes: talent acquisition.

Define a DEI strategy aligned to talent strategy.

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Typescript Remove Item From Array

Introduction to TypeScript remove item from an array.

In typescript, deleting or removing an element is defined as extracting an element of the specified index of an array and replacing that element with a new element or completely deleting that item from the array is known as removing an item in the array. Therefore, removing an element in the array is a process of removing or deleting any item from the given array with the help of methods provided by typescript arrays such as pop(), shift(), and splice() functions & delete operator are used for removing the item in array but delete() function is only used when we want to remove the property from array object with its hole left in the array which cannot be shifted as index or keys don’t shift id delete() function is used. So it is recommended not to use the delete operator.

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In typescript, to remove an element in the array, we use different functions, and each has a different syntax.


This is the array function used for updating the array by adding or removing elements using the splice() function with the given arguments whether to remove or add the elements t the array according to the arguments passed to this function.

arr1.splice( index_num, no_of_ele, [ele_to_add1],[….., n]);


index_num: This parameter specifies the index number from where to start altering or updating an array.

num_of_ele: This parameter specifies the number in integer format of how many numbers of elements after the particular index specified must be removed.

Ele_to_add: This parameter specifies the set of elements to be added to the array after removing the old elements from the array.

This splice() function returns the updated array after removing and adding the elements to the array according to the arguments specified.


Syntax: arr2.shift()

This array function is used to remove an element in the array where this function has no parameter as it always removes the first element of the given array. It also returns the same removed element, which is a single element returned.


Syntax: arr3.pop()

This is also an array function used for removing the element in the array and works exactly opposite to the shift() function. This function also has no parameters as it always removes the last element from the given array, where this element itself is returned as the return value of this function.

How to remove an element or item from the array in typescript?


In the below example, we will demonstrate the splice() function for removing the element in the array.

console.log(" Demonstration of removing element in the array using splice() function") var course_arr1 = ["Perl", "Java", "Python", "Fortan", "Ruby", "Unix"]; console.log(" The given array is as follows: ") console.log(course_arr1) var ele_rem1 = course_arr1.splice(4, 1); console.log(" The removed element from the given array is: " + ele_rem1); console.log(" The updated array after removing one element is:") console.log(course_arr1)


In the above program, we first declare an array with elements and its value as “course_arr1”, which consists of 6 elements, and indexing starts from 0. Therefore, when the splice() function is applied to this array having passed the parameters as (4,1), which indicates to remove the element from index 4 and remove only 1 element. Thus this results in the updated array where the element at the 4th index is removed, and the new array consists of only 5 elements, and the output of the above code can be seen in the above screenshot.


Now let us demonstrate the pop() function for removing an element from the end of the array.

console.log(" Demonstration of removing element in the array using pop() function") var course_arr1: number[] = [10, 20, 30, 40 ,50]; console.log(" The given array is as follows: ") console.log(course_arr1) var ele_rem1 = course_arr1.pop(); console.log(" The removed element from the given array is: " + ele_rem1); console.log(" The updated array after removing last element is:") console.log(course_arr1)

In the above program, we have declared an array of number type, which consists of 5 elements in the array. Then after applying the pop() function to the given array, it removes the last element by default as it will not take any arguments. Therefore, this function returns the removed element instead of an updated array, and therefore we are displaying the updated array after removing the element, which now consists of only 4 elements using console.log().


console.log(" Demonstration of removing element in the array using shift() function") var course_arr1: string[] = ["Google", "Educba", "Institute", "Delhi"]; console.log(" The given array is as follows: ") console.log(course_arr1) var ele_rem1 = course_arr1.shift(); console.log(" The removed element from the given array is: " + ele_rem1); console.log(" The updated array after removing first element is:") console.log(course_arr1)


In the above program, we declare an array that consists of 4 elements, and then we have applied the shift() function, which works exactly opposite to the pop() function as it removes the first element of the given array always as we do not pass any argument to this function where it results in the updated array with 3 elements which removes the first element. The output can be seen in the above screenshot.


In this article, we conclude that in typescript, we can remove an item in the array using 3 different array functions where; it is important to note that we use these functions according to their descriptions as given in the above article. In this, we also have recommended not to use the delete operator for removing, which doesn’t mean we cannot remove the element using this operator. Therefore we conclude that we use the functions and operators as per the requirements.

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Learn The Working Of The Jmeter Tool

Introduction to JMeter Tool

Performance testing is important in the application and software development life cycle. For example, if many users use websites, APIs, or applications, they should plan how to manage peak traffic over extended periods. There are many tools available in the market to perform load testing. The popular tool is Apache JMeter, which performs a load test on software and web services like REST and SOAP. This article can briefly examine JMeter, its working, configuration, and other features.

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JMeter Tool

JMeter is a popular tool available as open-source and based on Java. It is a performance testing tool that executes protocol-oriented load tests again different software and web services, API, web applications, SOAP, REST, and other web services. Despite being introduced earlier, JMeter remains a powerful tool among other load testing and performance solution tools due to its reliable features.

In simple, JMeter operates by aping visitors to the service or application, enabling the user to create and transfer HTTP requests to the server. Then the statistical data is displayed by collecting the server response data in tables, charts, and reports. From the generated reports, the user can analyze the application’s behavior, perform bottlenecks, and tweak the website to enhance its efficacy or performance; sometimes, the application improves by offering a few productive insights.

It is mandatory to see that JMeter is not a web browser; it functions at a protocol level and can’t support all the changes performed by the user, like rendering JavaScript. Apart from this, JMeter offers temporary solutions for these issues by providing configuration elements like cookie manager, header manager, and cache manager, which support JMeter’s behavior and function as an actual browser.

JMeter is a desktop application based on Java, so to begin this, there are a few perquisites where it should be configured to initiate the performance test. Consider if the user has the latest Java version installed, which should support the minimum system requirements to use JMeter. Compared to other software as a service load testing tool, it consumes additional resources and time.

JMeter is the most common tool by developers in software development, where their team is comfortable executing the load performance tests. JMeter has gained endurance in the market due to its strong community support, extensive documentation, and wide range of best practices available. In addition, it is cost-effective and can be implemented in an enterprise requiring no or minimal resources to get started.

JMeter is free to use and enables the developers to use the source code for development, testing, and training purposes.

JMeter has a friendly graphical user interface that beginners find easy to use and doesn’t require extra time to understand the tool. It has a simple and direct interface.

JMeter is platform-dependent, based on Java, and can be executed on multiple platforms.

The complete multithreading framework allows the JMeter to simultaneously sample varied functions by a distinct thread group. As a result, it increases the concurrency even in multiple thread groups.

It helps to visualize the output result. The test result can be viewed in tables, trees, charts, and log files.

JMeter installation is easy; the user can copy and execute the *bat file into the host machine.

JMeter is highly extensible as it enables the user to compose his test. In addition, it supports plugins to make effective visualization to extend the testing.

JMeter supports multiple protocols, which support testing on web applications and compute performance tests on database servers. JMeter supports all the basic protocols like JDBC, HTTP, JMS, SOAP, LDAP, FTP, and REST.

The record and playback option is one of the remarkable features of JMeter, where the user can record the activities on the browser and produce them on the website using JMeter. Additionally, JMeter allows for seamless integration of testing and scripting capabilities with Selenium and Beanshell, enabling automated testing functionalities.

Working on JMeter Tool

The working of JMeter is simple, and it follows only a few steps to execute the load testing on applications. First, the JMeter makes multiple users send requests to the target server, extracting the performance result from the target server.

JMeter creates multiple requests to the target server and waits for feedback.

Once the server responds to JMeter, it stores and processes all the responses.

The system computes and collects the responses and generates statistical information or a report.

Then the generated report is fed again as a request to the target server.

You can obtain the analytical report in charts, graphs, tables, or trees.


As the rise of software as a service-based tool becomes predominant and rapid technological changes are consistent, the use of JMeter has never faded. JMeter provides the best tool for load testing solutions, and it comes as a package with all the cloud-based solutions with all the support, benefits, and features and is used as a monthly scheme.

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