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Introduction to Briefcase Technique

The briefcase technique is a job interview strategy that involves bringing a physical or digital “briefcase” filled with examples of your work, ideas, and solutions to the job interview. The approach aims to showcase your skills, expertise, and value to the employer by revealing how you can solve their problems and add value to their organization.

Clearing an interview is easy if you can go into the mind of the recruiter and can program their mind accordingly. No, you wouldn’t do it with tricks only, but also with your level of honesty and knowledge of the job position you have applied for. Yes, here we introduce you to a magnificent technique that will blow your mind. It’s called the Briefcase Technique, propounded by entrepreneur and one of the great career experts Ramit Sethi.

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To master this briefcase technique, you need to understand the foundations and why it works. In this article, we will first brief you about the briefcase technique, then discuss how it works; next, we will articulate why. And lastly, we will depict where this briefcase technique works.

What is Briefcase Technique Interview?

An interview is a discussion, not a battle. During this discussion, both parties negotiate to see if they are a good fit for each other. If yes, they go ahead and work together. If not, they both look for other opportunities. So, first of all, always think you are the stronger party in the deal. Even if the employer is a giant company, don’t treat yourself as among insignificant individuals; trust your abilities and skills.

The briefcase technique is only for you if you trust your capacity. In the briefcase technique, you need to pull out a document from your briefcase showing your employer how they can improve one or more things about the company.

Remember, the employer will not always take your interview; recruiters will do who are the faces of the company. So you need to know when to present your document. If you show it to the recruiters, they may need help understanding the value. But suppose you are sitting with the employers who run the business. In that case, they will appreciate the value of the document and give you more preference over other candidates having equal skills.

How Does the Technique Work?

First of all, there are a few things you need to consider before applying this technique.

To crack the interview, you must prepare separately for the briefcase technique. You will need more than knowing about the company to seal the deal. It would help if you did more.

Open the company’s virtual world and do a SWOT and PESTEL analysis. Do both studies by using statistics. You need to know what employer you will face in the interview. They may have a more logical mind or creative bent of thinking. Or else maybe both! Your job would be to ensure that you appeal to both parts of the brain with your analyses.

Once done with the analyses, it is time for you to give some suggestions based on the calculations. Your document would only be meaningful with it. Add your suggestions for the pressing problems the company has been facing. Also, add some strategies you would use to solve the issue. Be specific. Write down in the document how you will solve the problems. You should pose your solutions like this – if one works, you will keep the others in store; if one doesn’t, you will implement the other strategies within one month. If you write this in your document, it will blow the employer’s mind.

Next, consider ‘when’ you are presenting the document. If you give the paper initially, your briefcase technique will fail. Why would someone want to know something about the record until the discussion is relevant? So please wait until the recruiter or the employer asks why I should hire you. How can you add value to our business or similar questions? And then, you can pull out that document and show how you can help the company grow and which strategies will work. One word of caution – don’t go into why the previous process implemented by the employers didn’t work or that sort of stuff. This bent in the road may become costly for you.

While pulling out the document, you must also ensure that you provide it to the right person. Otherwise, it would not work as effectively as it should. If you are sitting in front of the recruiters, they may need help understanding the value of your document.

Another important thing about the briefcase technique is that it forces you to become selective about the companies you will give interviews with. You can’t go to any company and sit for an interview. To be able to get more compensation, check the turnover and average pay package in the company. Check the stats before going for an interview and before using the briefcase technique during the interview. If a company’s turnover is US $100,000, it can’t pay you US $50,000 per annum as pay.

Why Does the Briefcase Technique Work?

The briefcase technique works because it emphasizes employers’ dire need to find the right candidate for the job.

Employers have decided to hire a person or two for two reasons. The first reason is that employers must be more relaxed about doing the work themselves. The second reason may be that they want someone who specializes in solving a typical problem that the existing people in the company cannot. In that situation, imagine you present a document that directly speaks to the problem the employers are facing.

You are analyzing what the employers have been struggling with for quite some time. Wouldn’t they feel happier that when they are feeling bogged down with how to solve the company’s problem, someone sitting on the other side has already documented it and its solution on paper? Moreover, they are busy and like to tweak things instead of creating something from scratch.

Whenever you present the document using the briefcase technique, you leave the employers the opportunity to tweak the copy you have created from scratch. That saves time, and they feel that with little work, they can go somewhere, at least a place better than they are currently in. That instantly helps you win the interview. You immediately prove to the employers and the recruiters that you are the right bet, irrespective of how many qualifications other candidates show on paper.

The last but not least reason the briefcase technique works is that by using this technique, you are giving direction to the interview, not the recruiters and the employers! Before you presented the document, they were dictating the discussion. After using the briefcase technique, you will snatch the deal in your direction.

In Which Situations Does the Briefcase Technique Work?

You may wonder if that briefcase technique only works in the case of freelancing. But that’s not true at all. The briefcase technique works in every industry subject to your knowledge about the whole thing. It will work if you work on it.

Sit with your boss and present him with the document of how you can solve the problems the company has been facing for a long time. No matter what industry you want to give an interview for, you can use this technique and can ensure that you get a good hike on whatever you are currently receiving. That means the briefcase technique doesn’t only work in case of job interviews and freelancing; it also works if one day you want to increase your pay package.

A word of caution here – you need to think that your move should not make your boss insecure if he is not the employer. He will never allow you to work on your recommendations and forget about an increased pay package if he feels insecure. In “48 Laws of Power”, Robert Greene discussed a relevant law in this scenario – “Never outshine the master.” It would help if you remembered it before using the briefcase technique in case of promotion and while dealing with your boss about increasing your compensation.

Use this briefcase technique in business deals where things are not in your favor. Prepare beforehand and arrange the statistics properly in a document to showcase that you have done your homework. Nobody can put you on hold as the other party is more eloquent in speaking things out.

Conclusion

The briefcase technique is not so popular because the first thing needs to be in order. The interviewees still feel a lack of importance when sitting with the interviewer. They think the company and its decisions are more important than they think about themselves. This idea about you has to change. To implement this briefcase technique, you must believe equally in any interview or negotiation. First, empower yourself, and then assign your ability to get compensated. If you trust yourself enough and know that no matter what happens, you will make it to the top of your professional career, no one can stop you.

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How Does Authentication Work In Java

Introduction to Authentication Java

Authentication java is a term of the security to identity confirmation of web applications. It is a function to confirm user identification of the websites & web applications using a programming language. It confirms the users’ use and permits them to access the website, application, and software-related products using Java technology. It is a security method to identify the authorized user and give permission to use the application using the security terms of the Java language.

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It is a client and server-side function to use unique content and confirm with a security password and user identity. It is used the user id and password on the client side and accesses the server-side data with true identification using a Java programming language. It is a documentation process to keep a secure web application and use only accessible team members.

Syntax

In this syntax, the application uses a username and password for authentication.

public class AppSecurityConfig extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser(usersid.username("merry").password("[email protected]").roles("student")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/").hasRole("student") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } } How does Authentication work in Java?

Use web application with security and login form. This form redirects to the JSP page.

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser"

Use a web application for authentication of the login form. This form redirects to the JSP page.

Use Java authentication syntax using java spring frameworks. Java uses Spring security to authenticate the authority.

public class AppSecurityConfig extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("merry") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/") .hasRole("student") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } } Examples of Authentication Java

Given below are the examples:

Example #1

The basic example is shown below.

Code:

File: authenticationApp.java

public class authenticationApp extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("sunny") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/") .hasRole("student") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } }

File: main_login.jsp

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser" File: authentication.jsp

Output:

Output

Here, you see single-user authentication in a single user name.

The “Sunny” accesses only the student portal with Java authentication.

You get the single form for a single authentic user.

Example #2

Two authentications in the Java example and output are shown below.

Code:

File: authenticationApp.java

public class authenticationApp extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("merry") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) .withUser(users.username("sam") .password("[email protected]") .roles("student", "teacher")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/").hasRole("student") .antMatchers("/teachers/**").hasRole("teacher") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } }

File: main_login.jsp

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser" File: authentication.jsp

Output:

Output:

Explanation:

Here, you see two authentications in a single user name.

The “sam” accesses the teacher and student portal with Java authentication.

You get the single form for multiple authentic users.

Example #3

Code:

File: authenticationApp.java

public class authenticationApp extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("merry") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) .withUser(users.username("sam") .password("[email protected]") .roles("student", "teacher")) .withUser(users.username("Ram") .password("[email protected]") .roles("student", "teacher", "principle")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/") .hasRole("student") .antMatchers("/teachers/**").hasRole("teacher") .antMatchers("/principles/**").hasRole("principle") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } }

File: main_login.jsp

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser" File: authentication.jsp

Output:

Output:

Explanation:

Here, you see multiple authentications in a single user name.

The “Ram” accesses the teacher, student, and admin portal with Java authentication.

You get the single form for multiple authentic users.

Conclusion

Authentication in Java provides security, safety, and privacy of the data and authority. The authentication uses for accessing part of the database to respective users and authorities. It becomes easy, attractive, user-friendly, and elegant websites and web applications. This function sorts the documentation per the user’s identity and returns only the required data. It helps to get complicated information easily without disturbing others’ privacy.

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How Does Listview Work In Javafx?

Introduction to JavaFX ListView

JavaFX ListView is a class used to choose one or more choices from the list. ListViewclass is available within scene.control.ListView package. ListView allows us to add as many elements as we want. The user may additionally add elements to ListView either horizontally or vertically. ListView can be allowed to add images to the list values. ListView is used to select single or multiple values at a time.

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Real-Time Example: While installing any application into the Windows PC, many features are there to select. But we didn’t choose all the features because we are choosing the feature because we are allowing additional software to install in the background. So, we choose the required features from the list. In this case, we can use the ListView Multi-select option.

How does ListView work in JavaFX?

Accessing JavaFX features user-defined class must extend the Application class.

Step 1: In JavaFX, creating is the first step. ListView can instantiate by using the new keyword.

Syntax:

ListFView listViewRef=new ListView();

Step 2: Adding elements or items to thelistViewRef is the second step. Items can be added in 2 ways:

1. By using add() Method

Syntax:

listViewRef.getItems().add(“item-name”);

getItems(): Used for showing the list item to the user.

2. By using ObservableList Class

Syntax:

FXCollections.observableArrayList(): Takes the all possible Typed list of items.

Note: A recommended way to add the elements to the ListView is ObservableList. Because, This ObservableList, by default observed with the ListView, allows any changes that occur inside the Observable list and updates the ListView automatically.

Step 3: The third step is to create a horizontal or vertical box to add the items.

Syntax:

HBox hBox=new HBox(); VBox vBox=new VBox();//Gives vertical box

Step 4: Creating a scene means screen to display output is the fourth step.

Syntax:

Scene screen = new Scene(hBox or vBox, length, width);

Step 5: Adding a Scene reference screen to the Stage object reference is the fifth step. We are adding an output screen to Stage. We will get this stage object reference from the start predefined JavaFX method.

Syntax:

stage.setScene(screen);

Syntax:

stage.show(); Examples of JavaFX ListView

Following are the different examples of JavaFX Listview.

Example #1 – Adding Items Horizontally to the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.layout.HBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class AddingItemsListView extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ listViewReference.getItems().add("First Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Second Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Third Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fourth Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fifth Item"); /*making list view horizontal*/ listViewReference.setOrientation(Orientation.HORIZONTAL); /* creating horizontal box to add item objects */ HBox hbox = new HBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(hbox, 400, 200); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /*launch method calls internally start() method*/ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Explanation: As you can see from the output, items are added horizontally. You can scroll the scroll bar to see more items like in the output.

Example #2 – Adding Items Vertically to the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.layout.VBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class AddingItemsListView extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ listViewReference.getItems().add("First Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Second Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Third Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fourth Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fifth Item"); /* creating vertical box to add item objects */ VBox vBox = new VBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(vBox, 220, 270); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /*launch method calls internally start() method*/ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Explanation: As you can see from the output, items are added vertically. By default alignment of the list, the view is vertical.

Example #3 – Select Multiple Items from the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.control.SelectionMode; import javafx.scene.layout.VBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class SelectingMultipleItemsListView extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ listViewReference.getItems().add("First Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Second Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Third Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fourth Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fifth Item"); /*Make listview to select multiple values*/ listViewReference.getSelectionModel().setSelectionMode(SelectionMode.MULTIPLE); /* creating vertical box to add item objects */ VBox vBox = new VBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(vBox, 220, 270); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /*launch method calls internally start() method*/ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Example #4 – Adding Items to the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.collections.FXCollections; import javafx.collections.ObservableList; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListCell; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.image.Image; import javafx.scene.image.ImageView; import javafx.scene.layout.VBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class AddingImagesToItemsListView extends Application { /*loading images with their paths*/ private final Image cabinetImage  = new Image("Cab.png"); private final Image docIconImage  = new Image("documenticon.png"); private final Image homeCabImage  = new Image("HomCab.png"); private final Image searchIconImage = new Image("searchicon.png"); /*image array to load all images at a time*/ private Image[] imagesArray = {cabinetImage, docIconImage, homeCabImage, searchIconImage}; @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ "Fourth Image"); listViewReference.setItems(elements); /*setting each image to corresponding array index*/ /*view the image class to display the image*/ private ImageView displayImage = new ImageView(); @Override public void updateItem(String name, boolean empty) { super.updateItem(name, empty); if (empty) { setText(null); setGraphic(null); } else { if (name.equals("Fist Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[0]); /*setting array image to First Image*/ else if (name.equals("Second Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[1]);/*setting array image to Second Image*/ else if (name.equals("Third Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[2]);/*setting array image to Third Image*/ else if (name.equals("Fourth Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[3]);/*setting array image to Fourth Image*/ setText(name); setGraphic(displayImage); } } }); /* creating vertical box to add item objects */ VBox vBox = new VBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(vBox, 220, 270); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /* launch method calls internally start() method */ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Explanation:

First, paste all the images to the eclipse src folder, then give their names in the Image class.

Now you can see the output in the above image.

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How Does The Python Dump Function Work?

Definition of Python Dump

Python supports the json package, which allows for the execution of script files containing textual programming code. This package enables the transfer and storage of data by utilizing the functions provided by the json module. The dump function in json supports the code scripted in key-value pairs similar to the Python dictionary that is within curly brackets. The dumps function is mainly used when we want to store and transfer Python objects, and json package allows us to perform the operation efficiently.

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Syntax json.dump(object, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, indent=None, allow_nan=True, number_mode = None, datetime_mode = None, separators=None) pickle.dump(Object, Destination, pickle_protocol=None, )

json.dump represents the function that encodes and stores the Python object value into json value.

object is the filename of the input data or a value that we are passing through the dump function.

skipkeys is a parameter where we will declare Boolean values whether we want to skip the invalid dictionary keys.

ensure_ascii is a parameter where we will declare the Boolean values to ensure the output should contain ASCII values or not.

allow_nan is also a Boolean parameter that is used to allow null values.

number_mode & datetime_mode allow us to handle the type of behaviors we handle inside the function, and datetime mode allows us to handle to format of data and time instances.

The value we give first denotes the separation of a key-value pair from another key-value pair. 2nd value we give denotes the symbol which separates keys from their values.

For pickle package,

The object is the Python object we have created to be pickled

The destination is the file or data where the pickled python objected is written

Pickle_protocol refers to the version of the pickle protocol. By default, it assigns to the Python version.

How does Python Dump Function Work?

Let us discuss a basic example of how the json dump function works.

Example #1

Code:

import json # python dictionary dict_pets ={ "Dog": { "Species": "cocker spaniel", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Cat": { "Species": "British Shorthair", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Hamster": { "Species": "golden hamster ", "country": "Turkey" } } ## Converting output to json format pets_data = open("pet_data.json", "w") json.dump(dict_pets, pets_data)

Output:

In this example, we have created a Python dictionary with three key-value pairs, and we have converted the Python dictionary to json file format using the json package. Then, we pass the dictionary variable to the chúng tôi function, which serializes the Python object and writes the JSON output to the pets_data file. The chúng tôi function requires two positional arguments: dict_pets represents the Python object to be serialized, and pets_data is the file where the JSON output is stored or written.

Example #2

In this example, we’ll discuss the package called Pickle in Python, which helps us to serialize the Python object.

Code:

import pickle # python dictionary dict_pets ={ "Dog": { "Species": "cocker spaniel", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Cat": { "Species": "British Shorthair", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Hamster": { "Species": "golden hamster ", "country": "Turkey" } } ## Serializing output using pickle pets_data = open("pet_data.pickle", "wb") pickle.dump(dict_pets, pets_data)

Output:

Example #3

Let’s discuss another example where we use the json dumps() function, which is similar to the dump() function but the dumps() function allows us to convert the Python dictionary object to a string file in json format.

Code:

import json import json # python dictionary dict_pets ={ "Dog": { "Species": "cocker spaniel", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Cat": { "Species": "British Shorthair", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Hamster": { "Species": "golden hamster ", "country": "Turkey" } } ## Converting output to json format json_dict = json.dumps(dict_pets) print(json_dict)

Output:

Similar to the 1st example, we have created the Python dictionary with the same three key-value pairs. Here, we pass only one positional argument to the dumps() function, unlike json.dump(), which requires two positional arguments.

Since we are converting the Python object to json string format, we only require the object variable.

Example #4

In this example, we utilize the allow_nan parameter, which we discussed earlier, to handle NaN (Not a Number) values in a Python dictionary.

import json import json # python dictionary dict_pets ={ "Dog": { "Species": "cocker spaniel", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Cat": { "Species": "British Shorthair", "country": "United Kingdom" }, "Hamster": { "Species": "golden hamster ", "country": "Turkey" } } ## Converting output to json format json_dict = json.dumps(dict_pets) print(json_dict)

Output:

When we declare the allow_nan parameter as True

import json # python dictionary which should be dumped dict_pets ={ "Dog": { "Species": "cocker spaniel", "country": "United Kingdom", "life expectency": 20 }, "Hamster": { "Species": "golden hamster", "country": "Turkey", "life expectency": float("nan") } } ## Converting output to json format pets_data = open("pet_data.json", "w") json.dump(dict_pets, pets_data, allow_nan=True)

Output:

we can see from two codes that when we set the allow_nan parameter as True when our object has Nan values, we can dump the object to json output without any problem.

Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed the Python dump function in detail using various examples to get a clear understanding of the json dump function and its uses. We have also discussed the pickle package and dumps() function along with the examples, and we have discussed the usage of allow_nan parameters with an example. I hope this article helps.

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How Does Vectorize Function Work In Numpy?

Introduction to NumPy Vectorize

Python provides different functions to the users. To work with vectorizing, the python library provides a numpy function. The NumPy vectorize accepts the hierarchical order of the numpy array or different objects as an input to the system and generates a single numpy array or multiple numpy arrays. After successive multiple arrays of input, the NumPy vectorize evaluates pyfunc like a python map function, and it helps to define numpy rules. We use numpy vectorization instead of a loop to increase speed. Arrays play a major role in data science, where speed matters. Basically, numpy is an open-source project. In python, numpy is faster than the list. Therefore, processing and manipulating can be done efficiently.

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Syntax of NumPy Vectorize

The syntax for NumPy Vectorize is as follows:

vectorize_funcunction = np.vectorize (function, parameter 1, parameter 2….. parameter N)

In the above syntax, vectorize_function is a function name, np.vectorize is a numpy class, and function is a user-defined function with parameters. The parameters which we are using in the numpy vector as below.

Different Parameters of Numpy vectorize are as follows.

1. pyfunc: It is used to define the function of python as well as the method, and it must be required. Therefore, it is a callable parameter.

2. otypes: The otypes mean output data type, and it is optional. In otypes, it should be specified as either a list of data types specified or a string of type code characters. For each output, there must be one data specified.

3. doc: The doc is an optional parameter to the docstring. If there is none in doc, then docstring will be pyfunc_doc_str.

4. excluded: This is an optional parameter. This parameter consists of either a set of strings or integers representing the positional or keyword arguments for the functions that will not be vectorized. A set of strings or integers will be passed directly to pyfunc unmodified.

5. cache: The cache is an optional parameter. It will cache the first function call, which generally determines the number of outputs if True and otypes are not given.

How does the vectorize function work in NumPy?

We must install Python on your  system.

We must install numpy using the pip command.

We required basic knowledge about Python.

We required basic knowledge about arrays.

We can perform different operations using the numpy vectorize function.

Let’s see how we can implement a numpy vectorize function on an array. But, first, we see what is the difference between vectorizing and non-vectorize implementation.

1. Vectorize Implementation

It is mainly related to matrices. In vectorize implementation, we execute huge algorithms like machine learning algorithms and neural language algorithms.

Example

import numpy as np import time no = 100000 x = np.random.random(no) y = np.random.random(no) start = time.time() z = np.dot(x,y) end = time.time() print("Vectorize :" + str((end-start)*1000)+ 'ms')

Explanation

In the above example, we implemented the numpy vectorize function using an array. In this program, we used two arrays, x, and y, with random numbers, and then we used dot product means the multiplication of x and y arrays. Also, we have calculated the total execution time of the x and y array using vectorize. Thus, the vectorize function takes minimum time for execution. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

2. Non-Vectorize Implementation

In this implementation, we use a loop for implementation purposes non-vectorize implementation takes more time to execute as compared to vectorize implementation.

Example:

import numpy as np import time no= 100000 x=np.random.random(no) y=np.random.random(no) start = time.time() z=0 for i in range(no): z += x[i] + y[i] end=time.time() print("Loop :" + str((end-start)*1000)+ 'ms')

Explanation

In the above example, we implemented a non-vectorize numpy. In this example, we used a loop for implementation. Here we have used Loop instead of Vectorize. As a result, the non-vectorize takes more time. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

Example: numpy vectorize function

import numpy as np def func1(c, d): return c - d else: return c + d vfun = np.vectorize(func1) z=vfun([4, 3, 5, 2], 1) print(z)

Explanation:

In this example, we have implemented numpy vectorization. We have defined a vectorize function in which m and n are arguments. The Vectorize function used in the above example reduces the length of code. In this example, vfun directly performs the operation on arrays. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

import numpy as np def func1(p, q): vecfunc.__doc__ vecfunc = np.vectorize(func1, doc="welcome to python") a=vecfunc.__doc__ print(a)

Explanation:

For vectorization, the docstring is obtained from the input function unless the docstring is specified. Illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

Example: Excluded

import numpy as np def pval(x, y): _x = list(x) res = _x.pop(0) while _x: res = res*y + _x.pop(0) return res vect_pval = np.vectorize(pval, excluded=['x']) z=vect_pval(x=[2, 4, 5], y=[1, 2]) print(z)

Explanation:

The excluded is used to stop vectorizing over some arguments. In this example, we implement polynomials as in polyval. Finally, illustrate the end result of the above declaration by using the use of the following snapshot.

In a similar way, we can implement remaining parameters like otype and signature and perform different operations with the help of numpy vectorize.

Conclusion

We hope from this article you have understood about the numpy vectorize function. From the above article, we have learned the basic syntax numpy vectorize function. We have also learned how we can implement them in Python with different examples of each parameter. With the help of the vectorizing function, we reduce the execution time of the algorithm. From this article, we have learned how we can handle numpy vectorize in python.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to NumPy Vectorize. Here we discuss How does the vectorize function work in NumPy and Examples along with the Explanation. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

How Does Laravel Find Work?

Introduction to Laravel Find

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

What is Laravel Find?

With the help of the primary key that is present in Laravel, it helps in retrieving a single record of data from the database that is available for purpose of the functioning of the application to be processed. The key in the array is not used by the find option. It is also not intended to be a column name. The user needs to understand that eloquent is not the shortcut but find is.

When there is a need to retrieve any record with the help of the primary key use this code:

$user = User::find (1);

The find() method finds the Model by its $primaryKey property. If you have none set, it’s going to assume id. If you have something set up like protected $primaryKey = foo_id the find() function will go through foo_id instead of id. Laravel also expects the id to be an integer; if you are using something other than an integer (such as a string) you need to set the incrementing property on your model to false.

How does Laravel Find work?

Laravel find is capable of retrieving data from the database for the user when the user needs to obtain a concerned set of data from a larger database. With a load of too much data, it becomes difficult or even time-consuming to manually hunt for a specific set of records to work on. Most of the data in Laravel are auto-generated and they are self-coded as Laravel PHP helps in getting applications and websites ready faster with a lot of automated properties. Laravel Find is used to retrieve data with the help of primary keys that are available in Laravel. One thing that any user will have to note is that Laravel find is not a query builder as it may look to be. This misunderstanding needs to be clarified in priority.

The query builder that is available in Laravel provides a lot of conveniences. It also gives an interface to create and run the queries of the database. Most of the database operations can be performed in the application that is customized and prepared. It also works on all supported database systems.

The above example will help us to understand the working of Laravel Find better.

In the above image, id is ‘1’ and is having data records to be retrieved of the ‘kids’ section with the description as ‘items that are meant for kids’, The other details of time are represented as ‘null’ which means they are not available in the database with the help of Laravel Find.

Unlike ‘Where’ that helps you to get any valid database field, find is using only the primary key that is registered by default in the system to retrieve single data from the database. ‘Where’ uses the ‘get’ method in which you will get more than a single result as it does deep searching and responds with many similar kinds of data in response.

With the help of the ‘find’ method as seen in the above image when the user retrieves information, the user is bound to get an object if the record actually exists in the database. The object that will be received will be the instance of the ‘Model’ and all the database fields that are available will be made available as attributes as that of the class. In response to no data being found inside the database, the response is directly ‘null’ value.

The above image describes the use of ‘where’ model to retrieve data from the database. There can be a limit that the user can establish while using ‘where’ clause by limiting the results to a single row with the help of the ‘first’ method on the instance variable like this:

This first method responds as similar to the ‘find’ method in order to retrieve data from the database. Laravel find thereafter will search for the records from the database that will match the filter criteria that are presented by the user by using the given option but it will only return the first and primary record that will match the search criteria of the user.

Example to Implement Laravel Find

As we know, the find () method in Laravel can be used by any user along with an array of primary keys, and it will return a set of matching records from the database. For example,

$student = Students::all ();

With the help of the above data, we can get the details of all the students.

$student = Students::find (1);

The above code will help us to retrieve the data of one student recognized by ‘id’.

As we see, with a specific attribute we can find the details of a particular student.

Conclusion

As we come to understand, Laravel Find is used to get a single data from the data. Laravel find will look for specific data with the help of the primary keys. Unlike ‘Where’ through which similar data from the database is also retrieved for the user, ‘find’ looks for specific data. If the data is not available, it will present the ‘null’ value.

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