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VPN or Virtual Private Network allows you to bypass the Internet Service Provider and access the internet through different network. You can use VPN to unblock the sites in your area and anonymously browse internet without revealing your IP address. If you are planning to use VPN on your MacBook or iMac, here is how you can setup VPN in macOS old and new versions.Before Setting Up VPN in Mac
Whether you want to use a free app or plan to purchase a premium subscription, make sure to understand the followings:
When connected, all your network activities will go through the VPN app. This includes browsing in browser and other ways you connect to internet through apps.
Though most of the VPN companies claim zero-log service, in general they do log the browsing activities. They are liable for any legal implications like proving access details for police investigation.
Your country may block VPN protocols thus not allowing the VPN app to connect or resulting in unstable connection.
Internet speed will be slow through VPN compared to accessing through your ISP.
VPN servers IP addresses are heavily blocked by Google. You will be prompted to confirm you are not a robot when trying to use Google Search and other services through VPN connection.
In summary, make sure to check the VPN company do not log your activities and purchase a premium subscription like ExpressVPN instead of using free apps. The stability of VPN connection has no relation with the setup on your Mac. It depends on the speed of VPN server and your internet connection.
You can setup VPN in Mac by different methods. When you do the manual setup, though the connection process remains same in old and new macOS versions, the screen interface may look different macOS Ventura (or later) and macOS Monterey (or earlier).
1. Installing VPN Apps
This is the easiest way to setup VPN in Mac.
Go to App Store and install the VPN app that you want to use.
If the app is not available in App Store, then you can download the installer package from VPN company’s website and install the app.
Download VPN App from Developer Website
Install VPN Profile in macOS
After installing the profile, you can start using the VPN app like any other app in Mac.2. Manually Setup VPN in macOS Ventura or Later Versions
The manual setup involves adding the configuration profile manually in Mac.
VPN Settings in macOS Ventura or Later
Select VPN Protocol for Setting Up in Mac
Let us select “L2TP over IPSec…” option and the pop-up will open to fill up the details. Enter the display name for your VPN, add server IP / account, your VPN account username/password, server’s certificate for authentication and secret key details.
Enter VPN Server and User Account Details in Mac
TCP/IP, DNS and Proxies sections are used to configure the respective items if you have from the VPN company. In generally, you do not need to change these details and go to “Options” section. Here, you can allow VPN to disconnect when switching user accounts or logging out in Mac.3. Manually Setup VPN in macOS Monterey or Earlier Versions
As mentioned, macOS Monterey or earlier versions have different user interface.
Go to Apple menu and select “System Preferences…” option.
Mac Network Preferences in Monterey or Earlier Versions
Unlock and Add VPN Configuration in macOS Monterey
Select VPN and Interface Type
Fill VPN Server IP and Configuration in macOS
Enter User Authentication Details for VPN
Advanced VPN Settings in macOS Monterey
4. Using Apple iCloud Private Relay
Apple offers in-built protection service called iCloud Private Relay. Though this is not a VPN, it helps to hide your IP address when browsing the internet using Safari. If you only want to hide your IP and browse anonymously, then you can use iCloud Private Relay instead of using third-party VPN apps. The feature is disabled by default and follow the below instructions to enable it on your Mac.
iCloud Private Relay Setting in Mac
Turn on Private Relay in macOSFinal Words
Using Private Relay is the best option if you want to hide your IP and strict to Safari browser for browsing. However, VPN apps can do better job for routing all your network connection and access blocked sites. You can find the premium app that works for you and install it from App Store or from the developer’s website. If you have the server and your account details, then it is also possible to manually setup VPN in Mac as explained above.
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Unlike most common symbols that you can easily find on your Mac’s keyboard, the ° symbol doesn’t have a dedicated key for it. That means, whenever you want to type the degree symbol on your Mac, you probably search for it on Google and copy-paste it into the document you’re working on. However, there’s a much easier way to type the degree (°) symbol in macOS, and that’s exactly what we’re going to learn about in this article.How to Insert a Degree Symbol on Mac
There are multiple ways to type the degree ° symbol in Mac. We will discuss all these methods in this article, and you can use any one of these for typing the degree symbol easily. As always, you can use the table of contents below to check out whichever method suits your needs best.1. Use the Degree (°) Keyboard Shortcut on Mac
By far, the easiest way to type the degree symbol in macOS is by using the dedicated keyboard shortcuts. Here’s what these shortcuts are.
Option+Shift+8: This is the actual keyboard shortcut for typing the degree symbol on Mac (°)
Option+K: This is the keyboard shortcut to type the diacritic mark (˚), which looks similar to the degree symbol, but is smaller, and the usage is different. Though you can use it to imply degrees in your documents, we would recommend sticking with the option + shift + K shortcut.
Option + 0 (zero): This is another mark, which, while similar in appearance to the degree symbol, is actually very different in usage. This is the masculine ordinal indicator (º) You can read more about it over here.
These shortcuts work across macOS, regardless of the app you’re typing in. So whether you’re writing an online article (as I am), or editing a document in Word, Libre Office, or any other text editor for Mac, you can use these shortcuts to type degree (°), diacritic (˚) or the masculine ordinal indicator (º).2. Type Degree Symbol on Mac Using Emoji Keyboard
Press ‘control + command + space‘ when editing text in any software on your Mac. This will open up the emoji keyboard.
Here, search for ‘degree’ in the search box, and choose the degree icon. You can also choose °F and °C directly from here if needed.3. Type Degree Symbol on New MacBooks with Globe Key
New MacBooks, as well as new Apple keyboards have a Globe key along with the Fn (function) key. You can use this to quickly open up the Emoji & Symbols keyboard and type the degree symbol.
When typing, just press the globe key on your keyboard and the emoji keyboard will pop-up. Now, you can search for ‘degree’ and type the degree symbol (°) easily.4. Use Text Replacement to Type Degree Symbol on macOS
Even though the keyboard shortcut shift + option + 8 is quite an easy way to type the degree symbol on a Mac, if you’re looking for an even more seamless method to do the same, you can use text replacement to achieve this. Here’s how to use text replacement to type degree symbol on Mac.
Open System Preferences and go to ‘Keyboard’.
Type the custom text you want to use. For example, I want to use “:deg” to type the ° symbol, so I’m typing “:deg” in the ‘Replace’ column.
In the ‘With’ column, type the degree symbol using the shift + command + 8 keyboard shortcut.
That’s it, now whenever you type “:deg” and hit the space bar, macOS will replace it with the degree (°) symbol automatically.Type Degree Sign With Ease on Your macOS Device
There are many reasons why you need to connect to a VPN. Maybe you need to connect to your office network so you can access some confidential files from your Home PC, or that you need an American IP to watch Hulu and listen to Pandora. Whatever the reason is, you can easily configure a VPN connection in Ubuntu and no extra installation is required.
5. Give this VPN connection a name and enter the connection detail.
Damien Oh started writing tech articles since 2007 and has over 10 years of experience in the tech industry. He is proficient in Windows, Linux, Mac, Android and iOS, and worked as a part time WordPress Developer. He is currently the owner and Editor-in-Chief of Make Tech Easier.
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What does the term “filling out a form” mean to you? That’s right! That’s the very same meaning it has in HTML. In our previous tutorials, all this while we saw at how you could play with the layout. If you need to fill some details then how is this possible? Form comes to your rescue in such a situation. It is similar to you filling your details in an application form which will have boxes for entering your name, address, selecting your gender etc. In this article, we will explain how to create forms in HTML along with various form control options.Structure of HTML Form
Let us create a simple HTML form to understand the structure:
(Here goes all your form elements!!!)
Name – this is the name of the form which is optional. It is used in the script to get the data referenced from the form name. Since, name is not supported in HTML5, you can use ID attribute instead.
Action – It is nothing but the URL on the server side. The mentioned URL page will receive the form data when submitted.
Method – It is the way the form data is submitted to the server. Data in a form submitted with a GET method is sent as part of the URL. This will be the part after the question mark, called query string. On the other hand, form data submitted with POST method is sent in the HTTP header for the request of the new page.How Does HTML Form Work?
Let us take a practical example of a search form available on Google website. User enters a query and hits the search button. Here the query is a form input and the search button is like a submit button. The content of the query along with the form controls are sent to Google server. The server then process the query using scripting languages like PHP and send the output page to the browser. And finally the user sees the search results page.
NAME – this is control name of the element which can be used in the script processing
TYPE – text / password / textarea / checkbox / radio/ submit / reset / button / hidden / file
VALUE – can be used to fill a default value in the textbox
MAXLENGTH – refers to the total number of characters that can be entered
SIZE – indicates the physical size of the textbox
In addition to the above types, you can also add a listbox to a form.HTML Form Elements 1. Textbox
First we will put a textbox on it. The way to do that is to code:
This is what it looks – try entering 11 characters in it and see what happens.
Enter Your Name:
The size attribute is used to restrict the form width to accommodate only 50 characters. Remember it is not the actual characters of the input text, this is merely the size of the input box. Also size attribute is not supported in HTML, hence you should use CSS to adjust the size of the input boxes.
Type=”text” attribute is used to create single line text input.
Name – Used in the server script to identify which form element send the data to process it further.
Maxlength – maximum number of characters that an input box allows. In the above example, you can’t manually input more than 10 characters.2. Password
Next we will put a password box by typing:
See what kind of characters appear when you type in it!
Enter Your Password:
Remember the password you enter will be showing as dots to make it hidden from eyes. But this does not mean it is safe and secure. You should ensure the form data when submitted is sent over HTTPS connection using secure socket layer (SSL) in order to protect the information.3. Textarea
When the amount of data to be entered is more, use something called a textarea. This is coded in this fashion:
And it is displayed like this…
Now let’s add some mechanisms for selection. The first is a checkbox.
To start the checkbox in a checked state during the form load, add the keyword CHECKED to the tag like this:5. Radio buttons
The second mechanism for selection is a set of radio buttons. Only one out of a set of buttons can be selected at a time – to do this all the buttons should be given the same value for the NAME attribute. For example:
You will find that you can select only one of the two radio buttons! Both these buttons start off in the unselected mode.
And one of these buttons starts off in the selected mode. And guess what makes the difference? Yes, it is the CHECKED keyword again!
Remember the value attribute in radio buttons and check boxes should have unique value for each radio button so that the server can identify the source.6. Listbox
And the third is a listbox (not a combo) that is included in the form by coding the following:
The SIZE attribute gives the number of elements that the listbox shows at one time.
The VALUE attribute indicates what will be sent to the server when the form is submitted.
The text in between the two OPTION tags will be used for display purposes.
You’ll find that some browsers forgive you even if you don’t use the VALUE attribute – however it is suggested that you play by the book and do all the coding :-). Here’s what it looks like…
Here’s a listbox with no initial selections made.
And in this listbox, “America” is selected by default. How? No, the keyword is not CHECKED this time, it is SELECTED:-)!7. File Upload
You can allow users to upload file through the HTML form using the below code:<FORM ACTION="script-URL"
Though it is possible to use MAXLENGTH and SIZE attributes, it is not recommended since the length of the file path may exceed the specified size. The output on the browser will look like below:
8. The Buttons
There are three types of buttons can be added in a HTML form.
Submit button – The HTML code to include a submit button is as below:
Another one is the Reset button
The third type is a General Button
You can add hidden control to the button element using type=”hidden” attribute. This will not be visible on the page and used for form control or validation. Though the hidden inputs are not visible on the browser, users can view the code by viewing the source.9. Form Labels
Each form inputs can have a label attached to it. Labels are used by screen readers and useful for visually challenged users.10. Hidden Text Field
You can use the hidden text fields to send the hidden text data to the server.
Hidden text is not visible in the browser, hence cannot be modified by the user. It should have a VALUE attribute set and the VALUE data will be sent to the server along with other form data.11. Image Control in a Form
Images can be used in a form to show the submit button in a graphical manner.Grouping Form Elements
It will look in the browser like below:
Address:Entering Date, Email and URL in Form
HTML5 allows many additional inputs like date, email and URL through the form. Below is how you should add date filed in the form:<FORM ACTION="action-script"
Below is the result:
Similar to date, you can add email and URL elements using the below code:Adding Search Box in Form
You can add search to form with the below code:<FORM ACTION="action-script"
It will look like below on the browser:Sample HTML Forms
Here is a sample form created using some of the above explained elements. Try out yourself and create simple HTML forms.
Your Name (required)
Your Email (required)
FeedbackAdvertising QuerySubmit ArticleSeek AssistanceOthers
Your Message (required)
Points to Note When Creating HTML Forms
To display the form elements in a visually appealing way, put them into table cells.
If you plan to use client-side scripting, use the BUTTON rather than SUBMIT.
If you want to use a listbox that allows the user to select more than one element, add the keyword MULTIPLE to the SELECT tag.
For radio buttons and checkboxes, if you want to have a particular element selected by default, add the keyword CHECKED.
For listboxes, put the attribute SELECTED for the option that you want selected by default.
You can use the VALUE attribute in textboxes, textareas and password boxes to make the form load with those predefined values.
How to Enable VPN Split Tunneling in Windows 10 Split tunneling lets you use VPN and local traffic at the same time
VPN split tunneling is a practical feature that allows you to access two networks at the same time. You can easily enable it through the Windows 10 built-in settings.
Split-tunneling mode is great for remotely connecting to the workplace, saving your network bandwidth, or optimizing your Internet connection speed.
It’s possible to edit the VPN connection details of the Windows 10 built-in VPN provider, use PowerShell, or configure router firmware options.
However, the easiest way to control split tunneling is by using a commercial VPN service.
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VPN split tunneling on Windows 10 allows you to access two networks at the same time: yours and the remote computer.
As opposed to redirecting all network data through VPN, this technique isolates VPN traffic from Internet connections.
For instance, you can remotely connect to your workplace through VPN to access the company’s internal resources, such as file servers or printers.
At the same time, it’s possible to stay connected to your home network and access the Internet.
VPN split tunneling is useful for managing the network bandwidth and excluding unnecessary applications from the VPN tunnel, particularly if the VPN bandwidth is limited or if the VPN hampers the Internet speed.
For example, if you use a VPN to watch Netflix, you can enable split tunneling on Windows 10 to route a web browser’s traffic through VPN while using another browser to stay directly connected to the Internet.
Check out our step-by-step instructions below to learn how to enable split tunneling using the Windows 10 built-in settings and a premium VPN client.
Make sure to create a VPN connection before trying method 1 or 2.What is split tunneling Windows 10?
As mentioned, the split tunneling feature lets you use both VPN and local traffic at the same time.
There are multiple scenarios when this can be useful. For instance, if you use a VPN for gaming, the split tunneling feature may improve overall speed.
This happens because you have the option to allocate all of your VPN’s traffic to your game and all the other processes will connect through your home network’s server.
Windows 10 users can enable the split tunneling feature for the native Windows VPN app, or use a third-party VPN client that includes this feature.1. Edit the VPN connection properties
To disable split tunneling, go to the same place and enable Use default gateway on remote network.
This method can be used to remotely connect to another PC, in order to access files through VPN and use the remote LAN resources while also staying connected to your home network.2. Use PowerShell
This method uses the L2tp split tunnel and is identical to the first one but faster for Windows 10 users familiar with PowerShell.
Furthermore, it’s possible to create and run PowerShell scripts that automatically execute commands like enabling or disabling split tunneling.
Join our PowerShell Troubleshooting Hub if you’re experiencing any issues with this utility.3. Get a VPN client with split tunneling
There are few VPN clients with split-tunneling support, and Private Internet Access is the best of them. It grants you more possibilities than Windows 10.
Specifically, you can create a whitelist or blacklist of applications and IP addresses to always use VPN or to always bypass it and remain connected to the Internet directly.
Furthermore, PIA is the best VPN for Paypal to help you make secure transactions over public, unencrypted Wi-Fi hotspots.
More about PIA:
No logs or leaks
24/7 live chat support
30-day money-back guarantee (no free trial)
Pay with a credit card, PayPal, or crypto
Private Internet Access
Easily enable VPN split tunneling on Windows 10 with the help of PIA.
Check price Visit website
Is split tunneling safe?
Split tunneling is perfectly safe to set up and use. You don’t have to worry about any security vulnerabilities when setting up a VPN between two networks.
Does OpenVPN support split tunneling?
Yes, OpenVPN supports split tunneling. You can exclude IP addresses using route IPaddress netmask net_gateway. For example, route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 net_gateway
How do I know if my VPN is split tunneling?
Launch PowerShell, paste Get-VPNconnection and check the SplitTunneling status.Conclusion
To sum up, you can set up split tunneling by editing the Windows 10 VPN connection properties or by using PowerShell.
However, we believe the easiest way is by turning to a VPN service with split tunneling support, such as Private Internet Access.
PIA makes it easier to toggle split tunneling and features many other awesome features.
A fourth alternative is to set up split tunneling mode at the router level if your router firmware supports this feature. It will divert network traffic for all devices connected to your home Wi-Fi.
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it is common to work on multiple tabs on a browser. Most of the hyperlinks on webpages will also open in a new tab page on a browser. So when moving the mouse around you may accidentally close the tab which you need it. Also instead of closing the intended tabs, you might wrongly closed other tabs. in any case, mistakenly closing a browser tab is normal. In this article, we will explain you how to reopen closed tabs in browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari and Edge.Reopen Closed Tabs in Browsers
There are many ways to reopen closed tabs in browsers:
Using keyboard shortcut
Accessing through menu
Opening closed tabs from history
Reopening closed tabs on mobile browser versions.
We will explain all the above methods on Chrome, Firefox, Safari and Edge on desktop and mobile version wherever applicable.1. Reopen Closed Tabs in Chrome
Press “Control + Shift + T” on Windows and “Command + Shift + T” on Mac using your keyboard to open the previously closed tab. You can press these shortcuts keys continuously to open the closed tabs in reverse chronological order.
On Chrome mobile browser, tap on the settings and then “Recent Tabs” to view the list of previously visited websites.2. Reopen Closed Tabs in Firefox
Similar to Chrome, the process remains same in Firefox.
Press “Control+ Shift + T” in Windows and “Command + Shift + T” in Mac to open previously closed tabs.
On Firefox mobile, tap on the history icon shown when the browser is opened and then tap on the “Recently Closed” option.3. Reopen Closed Tabs in Safari
Safari is only used on Apple devices in macOS and iOS. On Mac do the followings to reopen the closed tab:
Press “Command + Shift + T”.
On iOS devices like iPhone:
Open Safari and tap on the “Tabs” icon to open new tab.
Tap and hold on the “+” icon for long time.
You will see the “Recently Closed Tabs” with the list of previously opened sites.4. Reopen Closed Tabs in Edge
Edge is used on Microsoft Windows and does not have any mobile version. On Windows, use the same “Control + Shift + T” shortcut to reopen closed tabs in Edge.When You Can’t Reopen Closed Tabs?
Browsers will open the closed tabs from the recorded history. So, even you closed the browser, just reopen and follow one of the above explained methods to reopen the previously visited tabs. But you can’t recover the closed tabs in following cases:
You deleted the browser’s cache and browsing history. Since no history is available, reopen closed tab feature will not work.
You have instructed browser not to remember and delete all the history when closing. For example, Edge offers an option “Always clear this when i close the browser”. You can clear the browsing history, cookies, cache and tabs you have recently closed when closing the browser. Ensure to switch off this option to reopen the closed tabs, otherwise there will be no way to do that once you have closed the browser.
Logged in sites like banking sites record the session id for that particular tab session. Those sites will not allow you to reopen the closed tab for security reasons since the session will get closed when you close the tab. You will see session expired message and need to login again.
When you are filling a form and closed the tab then you may not be able to get the form back with filled details. On Chrome, you will see error like “err_cache_miss” indicating the form data is not cached and you need to refill the data again.
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