Trending February 2024 # How To Run Chromium Os On Your Laptop With Chromx # Suggested March 2024 # Top 5 Popular

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To run Chromium OS on a regular laptop, you need to download its open-source build compiled by a developer. We saw earlier how CloudReady allows you to run Chromium OS in Windows. While it won’t give the full benefits of Google Chrome OS, you can still get a lot of functionality minus specific Google apps and features.

In this tutorial we show you how you can run Chromium OS on your laptop using a Chromium OS version compiled by ChromX of the Swedish Linux Distribution Society. Although we are running a USB installation on a Windows 10 laptop, you can also find relevant installation instructions for Linux at the given link. Currently, there is no ChromX option for Mac users.


First, go to this page and download the ChromX zip file (~700 MB). Unzip the image file and flash it on a Live USB utility tool such as balenaEtcher or Rufus. They can be easily downloaded and installed on a Windows system. Flashing the image will take just a few minutes.

To boot with an unknown USB device, you have to disable UEFI secure boot on a Windows 10 laptop. Follow the detailed steps shown here to successfully proceed with the Chromium OS booting.

As a first step, enable a Wi-Fi network to start your Chromium OS machine.

After connecting to the Internet, sign in to your Chromebook with your Google username and password.

Features of Chromium OS

In a while you will be greeted by a Chromium OS welcome screen. The entire operating system has a minimal interface comprising Chromium browser, a Web Store, files folder, and a Camera. All available options can be directly accessed from a “launcher” at the bottom left.

If you don’t want to log in with your Google password, Chromium OS lets you simply browse as a guest. You can continue to use the Chromium browser to access all data.


Any future builds of Chromium OS will automatically update on your bootable USB drive.

From your “Settings” menu, you can, however, connect your Chromium OS to an Android phone. There are a few more options in “Settings” compared to a regular Chrome browser. You can also easily enable Google search and Assistant.

What I didn’t like about Chromium OS is that it’s really a stripped-down version of Chrome OS. There is no Play Store, so you can’t install Android apps. I was mainly disappointed by the dull color schemes. However, there is nothing missing functionality wise.

Key Takeaways

Using Chromium OS by ChromX on Windows 10 is your best bet if you’re looking for a no-cost alternative to Chrome OS. This version is a good choice for those who are experimenting with Chromium OS for the first time.

Another build of Chromium OS is available with ArnoldTheBat, which runs on similar installation guidelines.

However, at the end of the day, Chromium OS isn’t a replacement of Chrome OS mainly because you can’t run Android apps on this device. Still, many of the core applications will run smoothly and give you a decent computing experience if you are exclusively using the Google ecosystem.

Sayak Boral

Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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How To Upgrade Cpu On Laptop

CPU is that one component in your system that performs entire operations. So, if you feel that your PC is getting older, upgrading its CPU will drastically improve the computer’s performance.

Upgrading the CPU on a desktop monitor is quite simple. You just need to remove the side panel and the CPU heat sink. And voila, you have access to the CPU.

The case is quite different for laptop users. Due to its portability, all the components inside a laptop are compact. So, accessing them can be quite a hassle.

This is why we have brought forth this article. Without further delay, let us get right into it.

Before we get into upgrading the CPU on a laptop, there are a few things you need to know. First one, not all laptops support a CPU upgrade. Some laptops have a CPU embedded in the motherboard itself. Therefore, always thoroughly research whether your PC has a replaceable CPU chip.

Secondly, if the laptop supports an upgradable CPU, ensure you get the correct CPU chip. Check the CPU socket detail and get the matching CPU chip for the socket. To check your motherboard’s CPU socket type, get your current CPU details or view your motherboard’s specification from the internet.

Here are the steps to check your CPU details.

To upgrade a laptop’s CPU, you must first remove some components. And for that, here are some things you might need.

A non-conductive surface

Magnetic Screwdriver

Antistatic band

Thermal Paste

Microfiber cloth (or dry paper towel)

99% isopropyl alcohol

Can of compressed air


Magnetic tray holder

Once you remove the screw, make sure to place the screws on the magnetic screw holder so that they won’t get misplaced.

Depending on the laptop, you might need to take out the entire keyboard to access the CPU chip or only the back panel. In both cases, you need to remove the rear panel. In most modern laptops, you can easily access all laptop internals just by removing the back panel. So, in this article, we have only discussed the disassembly of laptops whose motherboard you can access by removing the rear panel.

However, before we begin, you should know that changing the CPU on your laptop will void its warranty.

Make sure you take pictures of each component before removing them from the laptop. It will make your job a lot easier when you re-assemble these components.

If you want to upgrade an older laptop, it most probably has a laptop battery that is detachable. To remove a detachable battery, slide the lock that holds the battery and simply pop it out of the laptop.

However, if you have the battery inside your laptop, you need to remove the back panel first. Remove the cable that connects the battery to the motherboard. Slowly remove the battery from the PC. Some laptop battery is placed on the board, while some are connected through wire.

Please note that some cables have a lock that secures them onto the motherboard. To unlock this, pull on both sides of the lock and gently pull the wire.

Once you remove the wire, remove any screw that holds the battery. Remove these screws and slowly pull the battery out of the laptop.

Now, hold the power button for 15 seconds to remove any remaining charge from the capacitor.

Depending on your laptop, your back cover might be a single unit or the back cover may have compartments.

These compartments are there to access RAM and the hard drive without removing the entire rear panel. If it has two compartments, you need to remove this first before you can remove the back panel.

If the rear panel has a compartment, you need to remove them first by unfastening their respective screws. Once you remove them, you can now access the screws that hold the back panel.

To remove the back panel on your laptop, take a small screwdriver and remove all the screws that hold the panel.

Now, remove the rear panel using a flat screwdriver. If you do not have a flat screwdriver, anything hard with a flat edge will do the job.

After removing the back panel and the battery, you still need to remove the fan and the heat sink. First, remove all the screws that hold the CPU fan in place.

There should be a wire that connects the cooler to the motherboard. Gently remove this cable. Now, hold the fan and simply remove it from the board.

The heat sink is a long copper structure across your CPU and the GPU. Removing the heat sink is also fairly a straightforward method. Just remove all the screws that connect the heat sink to the board. When removing the screws, make sure that you remove them diagonally.

youtube/HP Support

Once you remove all the screws connecting the heat sink, remove the heat sink. The heat sink can get stuck due to dried-up thermal paste. Simply wedge the heat sink and remove it.

The heat sink will not have any cables that connect to the board. So, you can simply remove them once you unscrew it.

Some laptops will have both heat sink and fan attached as one unit. Removing one also removes the other component.

When you remove the heat sink, you can see dried-up thermal paste on its opposite end. Clean the dry paste using isopropyl alcohol.

After this, you must also clean the thermal paste on and around the CPU chip.

Depending on the laptop, it holds the CPU chip on the socket in two ways. The first one uses a lever that holds the CPU socket in place. And the second one uses a screw that holds the CPU chip.

If it uses a lever, press this lever and push it outwards. Now, this lever should fall back all the way, removing the small metal holder that holds the CPU chip in the CPU socket. Once you fully see the CPU chip, remove it from the socket.

If your motherboard holds the CPU chip using a screwdriver, remove this screw and gently remove the CPU from the motherboard.

Inserting the CPU is fairly simple. Align the mark from the CPU chip to the spot on the CPU socket. And simply let it sit. Do not force the chip into the socket.

Once the CPU rests on the socket, hold it in place using the lever or the screw, depending on the laptop

Apply the thermal paste to the chip. The thermal paste may leak from the sides when you insert the heat sink. Therefore, we recommend using a thermal paste spreader to apply thermal paste on every corner of the surface.

Now that you have upgraded your CPU, it is now time to re-assemble everything. If you face any issues reconnecting everything, use the picture you took previously.

Insert Heatsink

First, place the heat sink and screw it in place. When screwing the heat sink, make sure that you screw them diagonally.

Insert Cooler

Once the heat sink is in place, insert the cooler. As the cooler is out of the laptop, it is also a good time to clean the CPU fans in your cooler. First, gently place the cooler above the heat sink to insert the fans.

Now connect the cable to the motherboard from where you previously removed it. Now, insert all the screws and tighten them.

Insert Batteries

To insert the batteries, slide them in place. The batteries on the laptop will only fit one way. If it does not work, turn them and try again.

Insert Back Panel

Finally, once everything is in place, it is now time to reinsert the back panel. However, before inserting it, turn on the laptop to check if it turns on and the fans spin. If it does not, remove and reattach the fan cable.

In most laptops, graphics cards are embedded onto the motherboard during manufacture. If you have a GPU that’s soldered on the board, you cannot remove or upgrade its graphics card.

Most, if not all, laptops have RAM that you can easily remove from the motherboard. You can remove this RAM and insert a better-performing memory module with better memory speed to improve your system’s performance.

However, if you are adding a RAM stick, you must ensure that its speed matches the previous memory module.

How To Run Apps On Android In Floating Windows.

If you are someone who considers themself a pretty decent multitasker, then you’ll probably want to check out the concept of floating windows on Android devices. Floating windows allow you to get an extra level of quick access to apps running on your device as you’ll be able to have the open similar to the way you might on a Windows 10 PC. 

Related: How to turn on Enhanced Safe Browsing on Google Chrome Android.

In their default state apps running on Android devices serve their purpose well, running smoothly, efficiently and most of the time quickly. Depending on how and what you use your Android device for, either work or play will determine how important productivity and multitasking is to you. Which is why you may wish to consider spending a little time setting up and getting used to a floating app experience on your device. 

Floating apps allow you to have multiple apps open and in view on Android without the need to push or pull them to and from the background. Obviously screen size is going to play a little role in how useful you find floating windows for apps but you won’t know until you’ve tested them out. There are currently quite a few different apps available on the Google Play Store that grant floating windows, however, most of them have negative reviews for a range of different reasons. 

Floating Apps Free (multitasking) is currently the best option available on the Google Play Store for enabling floating windows for apps. It’s also reasonably easy to use, though does take a little bit of time to get used to. To begin, you’ll want to create a few blank screens on your device to allow you to experiment with apps in floating windows. 

Install Floating Apps Free (multitasking).

Follow the installation and basic setup screens.

Read through the settings screen.

Explore the landing page.

Read the detailed steps shown below.

Opening apps in floating windows on Android devices? 

The first thing you are going to realise about floating apps on Android is that they all run from a web-based browser style version, rather than a traditional app. This is what allows them to function in windows. I’m not going to lie, it will take a little bit to get used to at first. 

In the top left-hand corner of your screen, you’ll see a tiny floating icon which is where you can access all the pre-defined floating app options. 

The list of apps isn’t gigantic but it is enough to get you started on your floating windows journey. Opening an app from this menu will open it in a new floating window on your screen which you can drag to a location that suits your planned layout. It’s important to note that these icons will move across all screens you have set on your device, they don’t lock to a screen.

Double-tapping the bar across the top of the floating window will expand the app to full screen, tapping it again will restore it to its original size. The small icon to the left of the X will minimise the floating window to an icon which you can place wherever you like on your screen. You can also use the grab tab in the bottom right-hand corner to manually adjust the screen size for each window’s default size. 

With this information, you can now open and configure as many apps as you and your screen space can handle. For apps like Facebook and Instagram, you’ll need to sign into them as though you are using the browser version. 

Note: Accessing YouTube using a floating window will allow you to keep it running whilst not open in the foreground. Something that isn’t available by default on Android without purchasing a YouTube subscription. 

Seeing as using/working with apps in floating windows is a little more involved than you’re probably used to, you’ll want to give yourself a little time to explore the app and get used to the way it works. At first, it may feel very foreign. 

How To Spoof Your Mac Address In Mac Os X

A MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to your network card, and some networks implement MAC address filtering as a method of security. Spoofing a MAC address can be desired for multiple reasons, and it is very easy to spoof your MAC address in macOS Monterey 12, macOS Big Sur 11, macOS Catalina, macOS Mojave 10.14, macOS High Sierra, Sierra 10.12, El Capitan, Yosemite 10.10, Mac OS X 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, OS X 10.8, and OS X 10.9. For the purpose of this article, we are going to assume you want to spoof your Mac’s wireless MAC address, meaning your wi-fi card.

Without further ado, here’s a three step process on how you can spoof and change the MAC address in macOS and Mac OS X.

1: Get the Current Network Interface 2: Retrieving your current MAC address

You’re going to want your current wireless MAC address so you can set it back without rebooting. Launch the Terminal app and type the following command:

You’ll know see something like:

ether 00:12:cb:c6:24:e2

And the values after ‘ether’ makeup your current MAC address. Write this down somewhere so you don’t forget it. If you do, it’s not the end of the world, you’ll just have to reboot to reset it from a change.

Note, it’s possible that your Mac has the wi-fi card on en0 or en1, so you may need to adjust the string according to your network interface as detailed above.

Spoofing a MAC address in MacOS

To spoof your MAC address, you simply set that value returned from ifconfig to another hex value in the format of aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff. You can generate a random one if need be.

For this example, we will set our wireless MAC address to 00:e2:e3:e4:e5:e6 by issuing the following command:

sudo ifconfig en1 ether 00:e2:e3:e4:e5:e6

If the wi-fi interface is en0 the command would be like this instead:

sudo ifconfig en0 ether xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx

The sudo command will require that you enter your root password to make the change.

Again, you need to make sure your network interface is identified correctly, so if you run into any issues you can confirm that wi-fi is using en1 or en0.

Verifying the Spoofed MAC address worked

If you want to check that the spoof worked, type the same command as earlier:

Now you will see:

ether 00:e2:e3:e4:e5:e6

Meaning your MAC address is now the value you set it to. If you want to further verify the spoof, simply login to your wireless router and look at the ‘available devices’ (or attached devices) list, and your spoofed MAC address will be part of that list.

If you want to set your MAC address back to its real value, simply issue the above ifconfig commands with the MAC address that you retrieved in step 1. You can also reboot your Mac.


other readers point out that Dee Brown’s trick works in 10.5.7 and above too. Thanks Dee!

Update: If you’re still having problems with MAC address spoofing in Leopard or Snow Leopard, the above method still works but try disassociating with any wireless network BUT keep your wireless Airport on (as mentioned above) – an easy way to do this is to type the following in the command line:

airport -z

Note that you have to have the ‘airport’ command setup to work for users, you can do that by copy and pasting this command into the Mac Terminal:

sudo ln -s /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport /usr/sbin/airport

Once disassociated from the network you should be able to spoof your MAC address as usual

Updated 2/28/2012: For Mac OS X Lion, the Airport interface is now called “Wi-Fi” and thus the command to spoof a MAC address in OS X 10.7, OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, and OS X Mavericks, is:

sudo ifconfig en0 Wi-Fi aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff

For some computers Wi-Fi may be the interface but you spoof by specifying “ether” instead.

sudo ifconfig en0 ether aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff

Remember to disassociate from any network beforehand with “airport -z” while keeping the card active. If you continue to have problems or receive a “bad value” message, try turning the wireless NIC off and on again using the following:

sudo ifconfig en0 down

Now re-enable the NIC:

sudo ifconfig en0 up

Then proceed to spoof the MAC address:

sudo ifconfig en0 ether aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff

Reenabling the network card may cause it to join the last available wireless network.

The MAC address should stay spoofed until reboot, but you can always check what your MAC address is in the GUI or command line with networksetup -listallhardwareports if you’re curious about the current status.


How To Run Bash Script As Root During Startup On Linux

Have you ever wanted to run a script at startup with root privileges? If you have a home server, or maybe even just a Linux desktop, this might have crossed your mind. This sounds iffy, but if you understand the risks, the reward for doing this can be quite good.

The main reasons are that there would be no more starting up the server, logging in over ssh, entering a password, getting a root shell and then manually executing script after script. Instead, harness the power of cron, and set your system to automatically run these scripts at startup! Here’s how to do it.

Tip: Check out our regular expressions cheatsheet.

Setting up Cron

Most Linux distributions come with the ability to access cron by just entering crontab -e. However, if you’ve entered this command, and nothing at all has happened, you’re on a Linux distribution that has no way to interact with cron. This means that you’ll need to install a tool to continue. The most popular tool to use in this situation is a daemon known as “cronie.” It’s a very popular tool and resides in most popular Linux distribution repositories.

Open up a terminal and install cronie with your package manager. Alternatively, head over to this page and download a package for your distribution.

Setting up the script with Cron

Opening a crontab is very easy. To start, open up a terminal window and enter the following command:

Note: the sudo is important if you want to run script as root. You can omit the sudo if you just want to run the script as a normal user.

If the system hasn’t used crontab before, the user will need to specify an editor to work with. Though all the editors are good in their own way, choose “nano” as it’s the simplest text editor and doesn’t require a lot of fussing with. With the editor selected, cron will load up a default file with detailed instructions as to how everything works.

Inside the nano editor in the terminal scroll all the way down to the bottom and start off by writing “@reboot.” The reboot command is key here as it tells the cron on reboot this command to run every single time. Directly after reboot, add the full file path to the bash script.

Now that the command is set up, the crontab can be saved. Press “Ctrl + o” on the keyboard. This will prompt the user to “write out the file.” By default, cron names the crontab, so don’t change anything. Press the enter key to save the crontab.

Remove the script from startup

In the same way that the command was added to the crontab, it can be removed. To do this, open up a terminal and enter sudo crontab -e. This will load the crontab file. Just delete the command that was added, save it, and restart the computer (or server).

Troubleshooting Cron

Sometimes cron doesn’t execute commands, and that can be a problem. The easiest way to troubleshoot any issues with cron (should there be any) is to look at the system log. To do that, open the terminal window and enter this command:









The syslog shows all system events, and by using the grep command, it is possible to filter out what cron and crontag does. This should allow users to easily troubleshoot and fix anything that may go wrong.


Bash scripting is a wonderful thing, and its one of Linux’s great strengths. It makes administration of servers and even regular Linux computers easier because of the ability to take large amounts of commands and automate them. By adding cron to the picture, these scripts have the power to become even more useful. No more tinkering around after your Linux box boots. Just set it up and forget it!

What root scripts would you run at startup on your Linux box? Tell us below!

Derrik Diener

Derrik Diener is a freelance technology blogger.

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How Your Laptop Will Just Keep Getting Faster

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Since the invention of the transistor, silicon semiconductors have been king. But now silicon-based transistors are nearing the limit of their potential. Excess heat and manufacturing hurdles are impeding the development of ever-faster and -smaller processors. Advances in materials and chip design to resist extreme heat and move huge amounts of data, quickly, will be crucial. Experts are exploring three technologies to overcome these challenges: spintronics, graphene and memristors. They are what will someday make ultra-energy-efficient supercomputers small enough to fit anywhere—even in the palm of your hand.

Rebuilding RAM

Memristors will store large amounts of data and could make your computer boot instantly

Accessing data, whether stored in a spinning hard drive or in flash-based memory, is a time-suck and a power hog. The dynamic RAM that rapidly delivers data to the processor is almost maxed out. “Both technologies for the magnetic hard disk and D-RAM are within a few generations of hitting brick walls,” says R. Stanley Williams of HP Labs’s Information and Quantum Systems Lab. He believes that circuits called memristors could be the solution. Memristors recently joined the resistor, capacitor and inductor as the fourth fundamental circuit element. But unlike the others, a memristor has the unusual ability to remember the last resistance it held, even when the power is turned off. When the current starts up again, the resistance of the circuit will be the same as it was before, providing instant-on computers. After the memristor had spent some 30 years as a theory, Williams and his team designed the first one earlier this year. Five years from now, he says, the chips could sit in computers between D-RAM and hard disks to eliminate the boot-up process. Further down the road, memristors, which have higher storage densities than the best flash memory and faster write times than D-RAM, could supplant both technologies in one fell swoop.

Carbon Futures: Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms

Ditching silicon

Graphene sheets could trump silicon for small, fast devices

Heat is one major stumbling block to smaller, speedier processors; as heat increases, it becomes harder for electrons to move through most materials. But a novel twist on an age-old material might prove to be the key. Graphite is made of thin layers of interconnected carbon atoms. Four years ago, researchers at the University of Manchester in England tested the electronic properties of a single sheet of this carbon, known as graphene, sparking interest in what may be an entirely new branch of semiconductors. This past April, they built the world’s smallest transistor—one atom thick and 10 atoms wide—with the material. Unlike electrons in silicon, those in graphene can travel unimpeded for long distances. This efficiency, which is up to 100 times that of silicon, allows for ultrafast electronic devices that don’t overheat (collisions cause heat). In addition to transistors, researchers hope to develop graphene wires that would transport electrons from one area of a chip to another much faster than current materials can.

Detecting electron spin in silicon

Making electrons carry information

An electron’s spin could encode more data for heavy-duty, low-power processing

Most electronic devices read data—the 1s and 0s of binary code—by measuring the presence or absence of an electrical charge. In the past decade, however, scientists have suggested that individual electrons could be turned into single 1s or 0s. Every electron has a magnetic pole and corresponding “spin.” But instead of clockwise or counterclockwise, researchers distinguish electron spins by their orientation: up or down, 1 or 0.

Until recently, scientists had been able to control and detect electron spin (which allows the devices to operate at lower power) in semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, a material used in laser diodes, but not in silicon—a major hurdle because the entire infrastructure of computer manufacturing is still ruled by techniques used with silicon. Finally, last year Ian Appelbaum, now a physics professor at the University of Maryland, shot groups of electrons with aligned spins across 350 microns of silicon and determined the final angle of their spin. In another development, Igor Zutic and his colleagues at the State University of New York at Buffalo have shown that if you align the spins of electrons in a semiconductor laser, it operates at lower power. Such lasers could transfer up to 1,000 times as much data between different parts of a computer as the copper wires used today.

Right Stuff: Only electrons that have the proper “spin” get through to the end, where their charge is detected

The spin injector comprises two metals, one of which is magnetic, separated by an ultra-thin insulator. Apply a voltage between the two metals, and the electrons tunnel from the non-magnetic metal to the magnetic one.

The electron continues only if the spin matches the direction of the magnetic material. If the alignment doesn’t match, the electron will “scatter.”

Electrons travel 350 microns through silicon while maintaining aligned spins—crucial because electrons need to travel between intrachip devices.

shunted elsewhere (a “0”).

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