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When you get a new USB drive and are about to format it before its first use, you may be wondering which of the available options, a.k.a. file systems, is the best.
While there isn’t a single best file system for USB drives in general, depending on what you use the USB drive for, one file system could be better than the rest. Here are some of the most important considerations before choosing a filesystem for a USB drive.1. What Is a File System?
First, before we go any further, let’s clarify what a file system is. A file system is a piece of software that controls how data on a media is stored and retrieved. A file system manages operations such as copying, moving, and deleting files on a drive.
A file system is different from an operating system – in a sense, a file system runs atop an operating system and depends on it for many operations with the underlying hardware. Each of the major operating systems (e.g. Windows, MacOS, Linux) can work with various file systems (natively or through third-party tools).2. How Do You Plan to Use Your USB Drive?
Basically, the most important considerations regarding your choice of a file system for your USB drive are which operating systems you plan to use it with and how large the files you will most likely transfer are.
If you will be using your USB media mostly on Windows devices, you can go with FAT32, exFAT, or NTFS. FAT32 and NTFS run with Linux, too, but exFAT requires additional tools. If you will be using the drive on Linux devices only, you can add its native EXT 2, 3, or 4 to the mix. As for MacOS, it can natively run FAT 32, works with exFAT, too, but you will need additional tools for NTFS, and its native file system is HFS+ (and the latest APFS), not EXT.
As you see, FAT 32 and to some extent NTFS, are present on all major OSes. They are not interchangeable and have their differences, as I will explain next – the main point here is the file size of the files you will be transferring because FAT 32 is limited to 4GB per file.3. FAT32 vs. exFAT vs. NTFS vs. HFS vs. EXT 2, 3, and 4
There are really many file systems out there, and if you are curious, you can try a few of them before you land on the familiar ones.
However, your choices for a USB file system basically boil down to these:
FAT32. FAT32, or File Allocation Table 32, is the file system that typically comes preinstalled on a USB drive. It was the Windows standard before NTFS. FAT32 is slower than NTFS, less secure, and has a 4GB limit per file, but it is widely recognized by all major operating systems. If you will be using the USB drive in a highly heterogeneous environment, and portability is your main concern, FAT32 is your option.
exFAT. exFAT, or extended File Allocation Table, is the newer version of FAT32. It’s lightweight but doesn’t have journaling. It’s compatible with Microsoft and MacOS but needs additional tools with Linux. It doesn’t have the 4GB limit per file restriction like FAT32.
HFS+. The Hierarchical File System (HFS+) is the default file system in the macOS world. If you are going to use your USB drive on Mac devices mainly, choose this file system. HFS+ can be used with Windows and Linux, but if you need a multi-OS file system, you definitely have better choices.
EXT 2, 3, and 4. The extended file system is the native for Linux. Similarly to HFS+, you can use it with the other operating systems but it’s not your best option. Use this file system if you are using the USB device on Linux computers mainly.
Most of these USB file systems run with multiple operating systems – e.g. Windows, macOS, Linux, etc., – so usually your choice isn’t limited to just one USB file system. If you don’t have large files to deal with, you have even more options. If speed of transfer isn’t a top priority either, there are even more choices. And if it turns out your first choice of a USB file system wasn’t the best, you can always reformat the drive, provided there is no valuable data on it, of course.
I am a fulltime freelancer who loves technology. Linux and Web technologies are my main interests and two of the topics I most frequently write about.
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You're reading How To Choose A Filesystem For Your Usb Drive
If you have an external hard drive or USB drive that you cannot format from File Explorer, you can check out this guide. It will help you to format the external hard drive or USB drive using Windows PowerShell. As you might already know that Windows PowerShell is an in-built tool, you do not need to install any third-party software.
Windows users can easily format an internal hard drive, external HDD or SSD, USB drive, etc. with the help of the in-built option. This option can be found in This PC or My Computer. Sometimes, this specific functionality can be a mess because of the corrupted hard drive or file, and you may not be able to format the drive. At such a moment, you have some other options. For example, you can use the Disk Management panel, Command Prompt, etc. to get the job done. Likewise, you can use Windows PowerShell to delete and create partitions, change the File system, etc. of your USB drive or hard drive.
Read: How to delete or format C drive using Command Prompt.What can you do using Windows PowerShell?
You can change the following things of an external hard drive or USB drive-
Format the hard drive
Change File system
Change drive letterFormat External Hard Drive using PowerShell
To format the external hard drive or USB drive using Windows PowerShell, follow these steps-
Plugin the USB or external hard drive to your computer
Open Windows PowerShell with admin privilege
Recognize the drive that you want to delete
Enter the command.
First, you need to plug in your external hard drive or pen drive so that your computer can do the job. After that, you need to open the Windows PowerShell with administrator privilege. For that, press Win+X, and select Windows PowerShell (Admin).
Now you need to identify the disk that you want to format. For that, enter the following command-Get-Disk
You should find the name of your external hard drive in the Friendly Name column. Also, you need to note down the number of the hard disk.
To initiate the process, enter this command-Clear-Disk -Number 2 -RemoveData
You need to replace the number 2 with the original number that is assigned to your drive. In this example, we want to format the Sony Storage Media (check the above screenshot), which is carrying the number 2. It might be different if your external hard drive is showing a different number.
Now you should get a confirmation message. Type Y and hit the Enter button.
It should take a couple of seconds to complete the process. Now, you need to enter the following command-New-Partition -DiskNumber 2 -UseMaximumSize -IsActive -DriveLetter Z
It will help you create a partition. Also, there are two things you should know about this command. First, the number 2 represents the drive that you formatted earlier. Second, the Z represents the drive letter that will be assigned to the external hard drive or USB drive.
After entering that command, a popup will appear to format your disk. You can use that popup window option, or you can use the following command-Format-Volume -DriveLetter Z -FileSystem FAT32 -NewFileSystemLabel USB
Here is one crucial thing that you should know. If you want to format the drive in the FAT32 file system, you need to choose that in the command. However, if you’re going to use the NTFS file system, the same command should look like this-Format-Volume -DriveLetter Z -FileSystem NTFS -NewFileSystemLabel USB
If you choose NTFS, it might take a couple of more seconds than FAT32.
After entering the last command, you will be able to use the external hard drive or USB drive regularly.
You can format USB Pen Drive using Command Prompt as well.
If you have received an email from YouTube saying that it is time to choose a YouTube handle, or if you have just heard about them in general and are wondering what they are and how they differ from your current channel names, then this article will help clear things up.
In this guide, we will talk about to choose one when it is rolled out to you.Are they different from YouTube channel names?
Yes. Handles are separate identifiers for a YouTube channel. Although many YouTube channels can share the same channel name, handles are meant to be unique for each YouTube channel.
So, your channel now has a name, an address (URL), and an identity. The new design of the handle is designed to make it easier for users to find and connect with creators.
Until recently, the only people who had individual URLs were those who had at least 100 subscribers. The rest of us were using URLs that went something like chúng tôi Now, YouTube is rolling out handles to all of its users — @ names that will identify you in channel pages, Shorts, and other YouTube areas.How can users pick their own handle?
YouTube officially announced the launch of its handles on October 10, and it said that users would be able to choose their own names for the site over “the next few weeks” as they rolled out this feature.
When YouTube is ready for you to choose a handle for your channel, you will be notified via email and YouTube Studio. So, then you will be allowed to choose one. A user has until November 14 to choose a handle. If you do not create a handle by then, YouTube will assign one “based on your channel’s name.”
YouTube will send you an email or, if you are already a creator, will notify you in YouTube Studio. Once that happens, pick your handle! If you have already created a custom URL for your channel, YouTube will automatically assign that as your default handle; but if you are tired of it, you can change it later.Guidelines for making a handle.
It must contain a combination of numbers and letters. They can be capital or lowercase. A handle may include hyphens, underscores, or periods.
It is forbidden to use the same handle for more than one channel. Remember, they must be unique.
It cannot violate the Guidelines for YouTube Creators.
It cannot include any URL or phone number.
The handle should be between three and 30 characters long.How do you choose a handle?
You will have to wait until YouTube notifies you (via email and YouTube Studio) that it is ready for you to choose a handle. When that happens, you can then go to chúng tôi to pick a handle for your channel.Create or Change Your Handle via Official Mail
I received my invitation yesterday. So, here is how you can use this process to choose your own handle. You can watch a video further down on the page that will explain this in more depth.
If you have created YouTube videos and already set up a personalized URL, according to YouTube, that is your handle. Otherwise, the system will assign you an arbitrary handle. If it chooses something that is either forgotten or absurd do not panic.
You can change your assigned handle in the lower field, labelled Handle. Type in a different name, and the system will let you know whether that identity has been used before. The handle, I selected is already been taken.
Your handle is confirmed by YouTube.
YouTube confirms the handle again. The handle is reserved and can be changed later again.From when the YouTube handles, be used? Wrapping up
So, create your unique identity and increase visibility by choosing YouTube handle as soon as you get an email. Pick the innovative handle before anyone claims it.
While you might have been limited to just a few brands years ago, choosing the best robot vacuum for your home means comparing dozens of brands and types. Today, robot vacuums handle vacuuming, mopping, and even empty themselves. You can also pick a vacuum based on your needs, such as just hardwood floors or pets. Whatever your needs, this guide will help you narrow your search.Types of Robot Vacuums
Despite the name, these cleaning assistants often do more than just vacuum. Before you start your search, think about the type of robot vacuum you need.
Image source: Unsplash
Vacuum only – if you’re looking for just a basic machine to get up dirt and debris, this is perfect. These are the cheapest options available to only vacuum. Some models may only work on hardwood floors, but most vacuum-only robots handle both carpets and hardwood floors.
Mop only – if vacuuming isn’t really a big deal for you, you may prefer a robot vacuum that just mops. These are usually reserved for more heavy-duty mopping and feature larger water tanks than dual vacuum + mop models.
Vacuum + mop – as the name implies, it does both. The only downside is that you’ll need to switch between modes and set zones to prevent these vacuums from trying to mop your carpets and rugs.
Self-emptying. – if you want a set-it-and-forget-it type of robot vacuum, you may want to splurge on a self-emptying model. These can clean your home multiple times before you have to empty the bin that’s connected to the charging base.
Hands-free – with standard vacuum + mop models, you have to connect the mop pad, manually switch modes when you just want to vacuum, and set up zones to ensure your carpets don’t get wet. A hands-free model like the iRobot Roomba Combo j7+ can do all that without any intervention from you. It can detect carpets, automatically lifts the mop pad out of the way, and only mops on hard floors. Plus, it empties itself.
While those are the main options, you’ll also need to think about all the other features you might need to have onboard.Common Robot Vacuum Features
Once you have the type picked out, it’s time to start looking at the various features. While some models are barebones and offer basic suction at a low price, others offer features you didn’t even know you might need.
The best robot vacuum includes all the features you could want and maybe a few extras:
A self-emptying bin – while not a necessity, if you have a larger home or pets, you may want a self-emptying model. The number of times the vacuum empties depends on the size of the dust bin. You could go from having to empty your vacuum daily to just weekly.
Intelligent mapping – if you want the most efficient vacuuming possible, opt for intelligent mapping. This feature scans your room to create the best map for your room. After an initial mapping period, the vacuum follows its chosen map. This can enlarge the size of an area that is cleaned before the battery gets low.
Object collision avoidance – for most homeowners, this is kind of a must. The last thing you want is scuff marks and scratches all over your furniture because the vacuum bangs into it. With this feature, the vacuum identifies an object in the way and moves around it. On pet-friendly models, this can also include pet accidents so that you’re not trying to scrub excrement out of the brush roll.
Navigates different floors with ease – this feature lets your robot vacuum go from carpets to hard floors, to rugs, and back again with ease. Some of the top models don’t even roll up rug edges. This is ideal for higher pile carpets and homes where there’s a slight dip or step up to move to the next room.
In-app options – the vacuum companion app is incredibly important. It should allow you to set zones and/or rooms, set schedules, manually navigate, switch between modes, adjust suction and water levels, and see the latest cleaning times. Most robot vacuums are compatible with both iOS and Android, so that’s not really a concern anymore.
Voice control – another handy feature to have is voice assistant control. While you can always use the app, being able to tell your voice assistant you want to clean up a mess is even easier. Most robot vacuums that support voice control support both Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa. However, some models, such as the Roborock S7 and Roborock S4, offer Siri support.
Camera – this is most often found on robot vacuums designed for pet homes. Think of it as a roving security camera. Easily check in on your home while the vacuum is docked or cleaning.
Tangle-free brushes – some robot vacuums come with multiple rollers: one with a brush and one without, also known as a tangle-free brush. These are popular in pet homes so that you don’t have to pick tangled pet hair out of the brush.
Tip: did you know that you can use Google Assistant even with your phone locked? We show you how.Other Things to Keep in Mind
Before we start recommending the best robot vacuum for different situations, there are a few more things to consider. First, you should think about battery life. Overall, this isn’t much of a concern for smaller homes, as the average robot vacuum can easily handle several rooms before needing to return to charge.
If you have a larger home, you’ll want to look for vacuums that can handle a larger square footage per charge. Otherwise, your vacuum might spend a lot of time going back and forth to the charger each time it cleans.
Image source: Ecovacs
The second thing you’ll want to keep in mind is suction power. A general average is 2,000Pa to 4,000Pa, though some are slightly more powerful. For instance, the Ecovacs Deebot X1 Omni offers 5,000Pa. But the higher the suction power, the less it can clean between charges. Usually, robot vacuums let you choose between different suction levels based on your needs.
A final consideration is integration with your smart home. While many robot vacuums do connect via Wi-Fi, some cheaper models and even a few higher-priced models don’t. If you want the vacuum to work with your smart home, ensure you get a Wi-Fi capable vacuum that also works with your chosen platform, such as Amazon, Google, or Apple.Robot Vacuum for Different Needs
While the top brands include Roomba, Roborock, Ecovacs, and Xiaomi, they’re not the only options. However, they do tend to break out the most innovative features first. In what follows, we take a look at some of the best options available on the market, based on specific needs.Best Robot Vacuums for Carpets
If you’re mainly interested in cleaning carpets and rugs, you might want to consider the following models:iRobot Roomba s9+
With two brushes, including one that’s tangle-free and powerful suction, the iRobot Roomba S9+ is perfect for carpets and pet homes. Featuring multi-stage cleaning and fast floor detection, it can easily change the suction power based on carpet or hardwood floors. It can also empty itself into the main bin for up to 60 days.Ecovacs Deebot N8 Pro+
Powerful suction and the ability to detect carpets to avoid mopping them make the Ecovacs Deebot N8 Pro+ a great choice. It doubles the suction when carpets are detected and empties itself. If you want a great two-in-one, this is a great mid- to high-range model.Shark RV1001AE IQ Robot Self-Empty XL
If you have longer hair or pets and hate constantly cleaning the brushroll, the Shark RV1001AE IQ Self-Empty XL could be your best choice. It empties itself for up to 45 days and has a self-cleaning brushroll. Of course, it also has powerful suction, capable of handling both small and large debris.
If you’re looking to get a security camera instead, check out our recommendations that will complement your smart home.Best Robot Vacuums for Mopping
If you mainly have hardwood or need more powerful mopping, you may want to consider:iRobot Braava Jet M6
The iRobt Braava Jet M6 is strictly for mopping. It can handle ultra-sticky messes, grease, and spills with ease. Its thin size lets it go under furniture to take care of spills that leak to your chairs, tables, and couches.Roborock S7
While the Roborock S7 handles both vacuuming and mopping, its sonic mopping technology uses the power of sound to better clean your floors. By scrubbing your floor up to 3,000 times per minute, even the toughest spills and dirt are mopped up.Bissell SpinWave Hard Floor Expert Robot Best Robot Vacuums for Pets
Most robot vacuums will pick up pet hair, but some do it better than others, such as:iRobot Roomba j7+
This is the vacuum-only model of the j7+ mentioned earlier. However, incredible suction and the ability to identify pet accidents make the iRobot Roomba j7+ ideal for pet homes. A three-stage clean offers up to 10 times the dirt-lifting power.Ecovacs Deebot X1 Omni
While it’s one of the more expensive models, the Evovacs Deebot X1 Omni has some of the most powerful suction around. It not only removes pet hair easily but also identifies obstacles and mops up muddy footprints.Eufy RobotVac G30
If you need a quieter robot vacuum, Eufy has you covered with the RobotVac G30. Not only does it provide a quiet clean, but it automatically adjusts the suction based on the surface. Plus, it’s a great budget-friendly model.Budget Considerations
Obviously, budget may be a major consideration when finding the best robot vacuum. The good news is that you can get a great vacuum starting at less than $200 if you look for deals, such as Black Friday or Prime Days.
Usually, lower-priced models don’t have quite as many features, but often they clean just as well as their higher-priced counterparts. You might have to forgo Wi-Fi connectivity and smart home integration, self-emptying bins, and less sophisticated navigation.
A few great budget-friendly robot vacuums include the Eufy RoboVac 11S for $230 and the Roborock E4 for $188. The Eufy doesn’t have Wi-Fi or an app. It’s remote control only. However, the cheaper Roborock E4 features an app and Wi-Fi connectivity. Both clean well, but the Roborock vacuums and mops.
If you’re okay spending a little more, most of the options previously mentioned retail for over $500. One of the most expensive ones we’ve listed is the Ecovacs Deebot X1 Omni for $1,550. The iRobot Roomba j7+ (vacuum-only model) comes in at $800.
Just remember, paying a little less doesn’t mean you’re getting a lower-quality robot vacuum. In conclusion, look for great deals and you can often score high-price robot vacuums for significantly less. Or, opt for a lower-priced model that offers most of the features you want.
Good to know: have a Google or Amazon display at home? Learn how to easily turn it into a digital photo frame.Get Inspired
At Make Tech Easier, we’ve put a variety of robot vacuums to the test so that you don’t have to. Check out some of our recent reviews to see if any of these great options are right for you:Frequently Asked Questions Can any robot vacuums handle stairs?
Not yet. However, most do have fall avoidance technology to prevent them from falling down stairs.How well do robot vacuums handle corners and edges?
Some robot vacuums handle edges and corners better than others. Look for models that specifically state “edge cleaning” for the best results.
Image credit: Unsplash
Crystal Crowder has spent over 15 years working in the tech industry, first as an IT technician and then as a writer. She works to help teach others how to get the most from their devices, systems, and apps. She stays on top of the latest trends and is always finding solutions to common tech problems.
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FIX: Your bootable USB drive could not be created
INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE
To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool
Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:
Download Fortect and install it on your PC.
Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem
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Boot Camp is an incredibly useful feature, but many users reported Your bootable USB drive could not be created or Your bootable USB drive could not be created. There is not enough space available on the disk error messages.
In today’s article, we’ll show you how to fix this problem once and for all.How can I fix the Bootable USB could not be created error in Boot Camp? 1. Make sure that you have enough space on your USB flash drive
If you’re getting Unable to create bootable USB not enough space in Boot Camp, it’s likely that you don’t have enough space on your drive.
In order to use Boot Camp, you’ll need a USB flash drive with 16GB capacity or more.
Open the Apple menu and go to System Preferences.
Now head over to the Software Update section.
Once your system is up to date, the issue should be resolved.3. Eject the ISO file
According to users, this error can occur because the ISO file is mounted on your system. To fix that, you just need to unmount the ISO file by doing the following:
On your desktop, you should see a drive with a mounted ISO file.
After ejecting the drive, you should be able to create a bootable USB drive.4. Create the Bootable USB using different Windows versions 5. Create your own USB installer
Sometimes in order to avoid Unable to create bootable USB not enough space error, you need to create the bootable drive manually. To do that, follow these steps:
Make sure you have Windows 10 ISO downloaded and mounted.
Connect your flash drive and format it as MBR/FAT32.
Download BC6 drivers from Apple and copy them to the flash drive.
Open the Windows 10 ISO and copy all the files to the flash drive.
Now create a FAT32 partition using the Disk Utility.
Boot from the USB and choose the FAT32 partition as the destination.
Few users reported GPT vs MBR error while using this method, but you can fix that using GPT Fdisk.
These are several quick and easy solutions that you can use to fix Bootable USB could not be created Boot Camp error.FAQ: Learn more about BootCamp on Mac
Is Bootcamp for Mac free?
Yes, BootCamp is free for Mac users, and in most cases, it comes pre-installed.
Is BootCamp safe to use on a Mac?
Yes, BootCamp is completely safe to use on a Mac.
Is installing Windows on Mac a good idea?
Installing Windows on a Mac should run without any issues, so it can be a good idea if you own a Mac and need to use Windows.
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How To Find The Serial Number For Your Hard Drive Get Serial Number Of Hard Drive Using WMIC Tool
If you have gathered system information previously in the past, like model number, manufacturer name and other hardware details then you may be well aware of WMIC tool. If not then we would like to tell you that WMIC that stands for Windows Management Interface Command, is an inbuilt Windows command tool that helps you to find the information of a system you are currently working on.
To find the serial number of hard drive using WMIC tool on your Windows 10 computer follow the steps below:
2. Now on the Command Prompt screen, type wmic diskdrive get serialnumber and hit Enter key of your keyboard.
As we stated earlier this tool helps you to get other hardware details. So, a slight change in the command will help you fetch the manufacturers name, model number etc. for your hard drive.
Note: Some users have also reported that running the above listed command does not display the information of the serial number for the hard drive. Then it means that the computer manufacturer has not saved the information to BIOS/UEFI Firmware.
But you need not to worry as there are other methods to find the serial number of the hard disk that we will discuss further.
Also Read: [Solved] External Hard Drive Is Not Showing Up On Windows 10?Find Serial Number of Hard Drive Using Windows PowerShell
PowerShell is another Windows tool that will help you to find the serial number of the hard drive attached to your computer.
3. Now press the Enter Key on your keyboard.
4. You will now be presented with the information about the serial number along with the Tag name for the hard drive of your computer.
You can also get the Tag number from Disk Management screen.Get Serial Number from the Label Attached on Hard Drive
If you do not find yourself comfortable with running the above listed commands then you have another option to get the serial number for the hard drive with a manual method.
However, to use this method you have to put in some physical work, i.e. open the back panel of your laptop or the cabinet in case you are using a PC.
Take a screwdriver to open the screws on the back panel of your laptop. Once done you will find the label that is attached to the hard drive. The serial number on the drive should be like
Note: The place where the serial number is mentioned will vary from the model of hard drive you are using. Like in some models it is mentioned at top left, in some models it is mentioned at middle right corner and so on. Also the additional information like manufacture name, size of the hard disk can also be found along with serial number. The amount of information will also vary from the model of the hard drive attached to your computer or laptop.Scan QR Code to Find the Serial Number of Hard Drive
It may be possible that the label attached on the hard drive is torn out or unreadable, then to get the serial number you can scan the QR code printed on the label.
The information you get by scanning the QR code is 100% authentic as each QR code is unique in itself and is connected with the serial number of the drive.
A user can easily scan this QR code to get the information about the genuineness and warranty of the product.
How to Find Computer Serial Number on Windows 10
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