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Introduction to Java Microservices

Microservices are nothing but a set of applications written in Java language, or we can say that they are typically Java tools and frameworks. Developers usually design microservices for a specified scope and interact with each other with high availability. Each microservice has limited capabilities while we are creating the architecture. The microservice architecture is analogous, so we must assemble it for the desired result.

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Key Takeaways

It is a small Java application, so each microservice is independent.

It collaborates with the agile process, so we can do a fast sprint iteration and try to fix the bugs.

It also helps us to reduce the cost due to the agile process.

It provides scalability architectures to the developer.

What are Java Microservices?

Java microservices are a group of programming applications written in the Java programming language (and regularly influence the huge useful system of different Java tools and frameworks), intended for a restricted scope that works with one another to shape a greater arrangement. As the name infers, every microservice has negligible capacities for modularity, generally creating modules or architecture. A microservices design resembles an assembling sequential construction system, where every microservice resembles a station in the mechanical production system.

How do Java Microservices Work?

Before going on to the execution, we must know what microservices is. We have already discussed the above point. We understand that each microservice performs a specific task with a limited scope, contributing to effectively achieving the desired results.

Java Microservices Frameworks

Different Java-based frameworks are available for creating Java microservices, so let’s see them one by one as follows.

Spring Boot: It is the most popular framework used to create microservices, or we can say that Java application due to simplification, easy configuration, and security application. With this framework, we can create microservices easily and iterate fast; this is one of the reasons for spring boot.

Jersey: This is another Java-based framework that is used for creating microservices. It is used for the REST web services, and this is one of the communication layers between the microservices.

Swagger: This is used to create APIs; it is also a Java base, one of the communication layers between the microservices.

The Architecture of Java Microservices

Microservices provide independent space to the developer and administration to build microservices design as per our requirement. A variation of primary style design orchestrates applications as an inexactly coupled help assortment. Microservice Engineering contains fine-grained administrations and lightweight conventions. Developers design microservices to address specific application requirements individually, and they communicate with each other to collectively generate the final result sets.

Let’s see an e-commerce application:

Benefits of Java Microservices

We know that microservices is nothing but a small-scale Java application, and it is based on the problem domain, which we need to implement as well. It also helps us follow the agile process, so they can do fast iteration and determine the new features within the specified schedule.

It helps the developer resolve bugs immediately, minimizing costs and fewer bugs.

Microservices are small applications, so they communicate with each other. That means microservices are independent, and the most important benefit is that developers can use any programming language to develop microservice.

Example of Java Microservices

In the above point, we can see how to use microservices with different frameworks, so here, let’s see an example with spring boot as follows.

Code:

import org.springframework.boot.*; import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.*; import org.springframework.stereotype.*; import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*; @RestController @EnableAutoConfiguration public class sampledemo { @RequestMapping("/") String index() { return "Sample demo project will be done"; } public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(sampledemo.class, args); } }

Output:

In the above code, we try to implement the microservice in spring boot; the result is shown in the below screenshot.

FAQ

Given below are the FAQs:

Q1. Is Java suitable for microservices?

Answer: The answer is yes because Java is the most popular programming language, and we can easily develop microservices in Java. Java provides the annotation syntax to the developer.

Q2. How and what types of microservices are present in Java?

Answer: There are 3 different types of microservices, such as discovery server, authentication service, and consumer microservice, used for the client.

Q3. Which is the best framework for microservices implementation?

Answer: There are different types of frameworks available to implement microservices, such as spring boot, quarks, eclipse, and Ballerina.

Conclusion

In this article, we saw what Java microservices are, as well as we also saw some basic key ideas of Java microservices with configuration. We also saw the uses and features and how we can use them.

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How Does Authentication Work In Java

Introduction to Authentication Java

Authentication java is a term of the security to identity confirmation of web applications. It is a function to confirm user identification of the websites & web applications using a programming language. It confirms the users’ use and permits them to access the website, application, and software-related products using Java technology. It is a security method to identify the authorized user and give permission to use the application using the security terms of the Java language.

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It is a client and server-side function to use unique content and confirm with a security password and user identity. It is used the user id and password on the client side and accesses the server-side data with true identification using a Java programming language. It is a documentation process to keep a secure web application and use only accessible team members.

Syntax

In this syntax, the application uses a username and password for authentication.

public class AppSecurityConfig extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser(usersid.username("merry").password("[email protected]").roles("student")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/").hasRole("student") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } } How does Authentication work in Java?

Use web application with security and login form. This form redirects to the JSP page.

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser"

Use a web application for authentication of the login form. This form redirects to the JSP page.

Use Java authentication syntax using java spring frameworks. Java uses Spring security to authenticate the authority.

public class AppSecurityConfig extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("merry") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/") .hasRole("student") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } } Examples of Authentication Java

Given below are the examples:

Example #1

The basic example is shown below.

Code:

File: authenticationApp.java

public class authenticationApp extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("sunny") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/") .hasRole("student") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } }

File: main_login.jsp

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser" File: authentication.jsp

Output:

Output

Here, you see single-user authentication in a single user name.

The “Sunny” accesses only the student portal with Java authentication.

You get the single form for a single authentic user.

Example #2

Two authentications in the Java example and output are shown below.

Code:

File: authenticationApp.java

public class authenticationApp extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("merry") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) .withUser(users.username("sam") .password("[email protected]") .roles("student", "teacher")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/").hasRole("student") .antMatchers("/teachers/**").hasRole("teacher") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } }

File: main_login.jsp

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser" File: authentication.jsp

Output:

Output:

Explanation:

Here, you see two authentications in a single user name.

The “sam” accesses the teacher and student portal with Java authentication.

You get the single form for multiple authentic users.

Example #3

Code:

File: authenticationApp.java

public class authenticationApp extends AppSecurityConfigurerAdapter { @Override protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authentic) throws Exception { UserBuilder userid = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder(); authentic.inMemoryAuthentication() .withUser (usersid.username ("merry") .password ("[email protected]") .roles ("student")) .withUser(users.username("sam") .password("[email protected]") .roles("student", "teacher")) .withUser(users.username("Ram") .password("[email protected]") .roles("student", "teacher", "principle")) } @Override http.authorizeRequests() .antMatchers("/") .hasRole("student") .antMatchers("/teachers/**").hasRole("teacher") .antMatchers("/principles/**").hasRole("principle") .and() .formLogin() .loginPage("/useLoginPage") .loginProcessingUrl("/authenticatationUser") .permitAll() .and() .logout().permitAll(); } }

File: main_login.jsp

<form:form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/authenticateUser" File: authentication.jsp

Output:

Output:

Explanation:

Here, you see multiple authentications in a single user name.

The “Ram” accesses the teacher, student, and admin portal with Java authentication.

You get the single form for multiple authentic users.

Conclusion

Authentication in Java provides security, safety, and privacy of the data and authority. The authentication uses for accessing part of the database to respective users and authorities. It becomes easy, attractive, user-friendly, and elegant websites and web applications. This function sorts the documentation per the user’s identity and returns only the required data. It helps to get complicated information easily without disturbing others’ privacy.

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How Does Laravel Find Work?

Introduction to Laravel Find

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

What is Laravel Find?

With the help of the primary key that is present in Laravel, it helps in retrieving a single record of data from the database that is available for purpose of the functioning of the application to be processed. The key in the array is not used by the find option. It is also not intended to be a column name. The user needs to understand that eloquent is not the shortcut but find is.

When there is a need to retrieve any record with the help of the primary key use this code:

$user = User::find (1);

The find() method finds the Model by its $primaryKey property. If you have none set, it’s going to assume id. If you have something set up like protected $primaryKey = foo_id the find() function will go through foo_id instead of id. Laravel also expects the id to be an integer; if you are using something other than an integer (such as a string) you need to set the incrementing property on your model to false.

How does Laravel Find work?

Laravel find is capable of retrieving data from the database for the user when the user needs to obtain a concerned set of data from a larger database. With a load of too much data, it becomes difficult or even time-consuming to manually hunt for a specific set of records to work on. Most of the data in Laravel are auto-generated and they are self-coded as Laravel PHP helps in getting applications and websites ready faster with a lot of automated properties. Laravel Find is used to retrieve data with the help of primary keys that are available in Laravel. One thing that any user will have to note is that Laravel find is not a query builder as it may look to be. This misunderstanding needs to be clarified in priority.

The query builder that is available in Laravel provides a lot of conveniences. It also gives an interface to create and run the queries of the database. Most of the database operations can be performed in the application that is customized and prepared. It also works on all supported database systems.

The above example will help us to understand the working of Laravel Find better.

In the above image, id is ‘1’ and is having data records to be retrieved of the ‘kids’ section with the description as ‘items that are meant for kids’, The other details of time are represented as ‘null’ which means they are not available in the database with the help of Laravel Find.

Unlike ‘Where’ that helps you to get any valid database field, find is using only the primary key that is registered by default in the system to retrieve single data from the database. ‘Where’ uses the ‘get’ method in which you will get more than a single result as it does deep searching and responds with many similar kinds of data in response.

With the help of the ‘find’ method as seen in the above image when the user retrieves information, the user is bound to get an object if the record actually exists in the database. The object that will be received will be the instance of the ‘Model’ and all the database fields that are available will be made available as attributes as that of the class. In response to no data being found inside the database, the response is directly ‘null’ value.

The above image describes the use of ‘where’ model to retrieve data from the database. There can be a limit that the user can establish while using ‘where’ clause by limiting the results to a single row with the help of the ‘first’ method on the instance variable like this:

This first method responds as similar to the ‘find’ method in order to retrieve data from the database. Laravel find thereafter will search for the records from the database that will match the filter criteria that are presented by the user by using the given option but it will only return the first and primary record that will match the search criteria of the user.

Example to Implement Laravel Find

As we know, the find () method in Laravel can be used by any user along with an array of primary keys, and it will return a set of matching records from the database. For example,

$student = Students::all ();

With the help of the above data, we can get the details of all the students.

$student = Students::find (1);

The above code will help us to retrieve the data of one student recognized by ‘id’.

As we see, with a specific attribute we can find the details of a particular student.

Conclusion

As we come to understand, Laravel Find is used to get a single data from the data. Laravel find will look for specific data with the help of the primary keys. Unlike ‘Where’ through which similar data from the database is also retrieved for the user, ‘find’ looks for specific data. If the data is not available, it will present the ‘null’ value.

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How Does Angelscript Work With Example

Introduction of AngelScript

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Why do we Need AngelScript?

AngelScript is needful because it is a powerful object-oriented scripting language like c/c++. It has an extremely flexible cross-platform scripting library; hence the scripts or a computer program written can work on any platform, and the scripting library is designed to improve the functionality of the script; by using it, users can extend the functionality with the help of external scripts.

It also has a feature that we can call the c and c++ functions within the angel-script environment; due to that, it is helpful to the developers to work with it, and the syntax of the angel-script class was closely followed by the syntax in c++ classes. So that it is needful for developers who are worked with c++ and they have to work on angel-script, then they can work easily.

Angelscript can be used in robotics that means the behavior rules of robotic are followed by angel-script. Also, it is useful for video game development, which increases the life of a game. So by using angle-script, get the project up, and that will run faster. And by using an external script, we can improve the functionality of the application.

How does AngelScript Work?

First, we need the application of angel-script and then have to register the interface so that script can interact with the application; the interface contains functions, variables, and classes also.

Secondly, we have to set message call back to receive information about errors, errors in human-readable form, because if the registration is not done correctly, then attention message will get as a callback message about the incorrect registration or a script has an error that fails to compile. If we need to verify the return code, there is no need to take much effort to know it because the call-back message can give information in the human-readable form so that we can correct it. These two steps are about engine configuration.

After engine configuration next step is to compile the script that should be executed. Also, need to write a function to call the registered print function and will give the output that function is stored in files.

In this step, has to write code for loading script files and to compile it, there is a CSriptbuilder define it, which help to load the file, it will perform some necessary process, and it will tell the engine to build a script module, also need to construct builder code for processing. If the code fails after this, then it will not have the memory to allocate the module. If the filename has been removed or the wrong name was given, or there is some unnecessary code has been written, then the builder was not able to load the file.

The last step is to identify the function which was defined that is to be called and have to set up the context for execution in code format. If that function could not be found, then need to write a print function to show a message of the function expecting.

Then has to create context, prepare it, and then execute it; if the execution didn’t work as expected, there is a need to write an exception code to handle the exception.

Example of AngelScript

Below is a very simple example that will give a brief overview of Handle:

}

Advantages

It has features like c/c++ that is static-typing, that uses the same static type as we use in c/c++ to make typing dynamic, and only additional type that we need to register here in angel-script.

It has an object handle feature that provides pointers, but pointers are not safe in scripting; hence it uses object handles instead of pointers; object handles in scripting control the lifetime of the object.

It has mod support in-game logic where it increases the life of the game.

Angelscript supports native calling conventions on major platforms, but there are some platforms that only work with generic calling conventions; generic calling is pure C++ that works everywhere.

The CScriptString used in angel-script cannot return the object value in native mode, which is not compatible.

There may be a memory leak issue.

Conclusion

In this article, we conclude that it is a scripting language and that has information about the application to accurately communicate with the c/c++ code; it has an inbuilt library hence making scripting language in our project is easy; in this article, we have seen some reasons to develop our program in more than one language.

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How Does Listview Work In Javafx?

Introduction to JavaFX ListView

JavaFX ListView is a class used to choose one or more choices from the list. ListViewclass is available within scene.control.ListView package. ListView allows us to add as many elements as we want. The user may additionally add elements to ListView either horizontally or vertically. ListView can be allowed to add images to the list values. ListView is used to select single or multiple values at a time.

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Real-Time Example: While installing any application into the Windows PC, many features are there to select. But we didn’t choose all the features because we are choosing the feature because we are allowing additional software to install in the background. So, we choose the required features from the list. In this case, we can use the ListView Multi-select option.

How does ListView work in JavaFX?

Accessing JavaFX features user-defined class must extend the Application class.

Step 1: In JavaFX, creating is the first step. ListView can instantiate by using the new keyword.

Syntax:

ListFView listViewRef=new ListView();

Step 2: Adding elements or items to thelistViewRef is the second step. Items can be added in 2 ways:

1. By using add() Method

Syntax:

listViewRef.getItems().add(“item-name”);

getItems(): Used for showing the list item to the user.

2. By using ObservableList Class

Syntax:

FXCollections.observableArrayList(): Takes the all possible Typed list of items.

Note: A recommended way to add the elements to the ListView is ObservableList. Because, This ObservableList, by default observed with the ListView, allows any changes that occur inside the Observable list and updates the ListView automatically.

Step 3: The third step is to create a horizontal or vertical box to add the items.

Syntax:

HBox hBox=new HBox(); VBox vBox=new VBox();//Gives vertical box

Step 4: Creating a scene means screen to display output is the fourth step.

Syntax:

Scene screen = new Scene(hBox or vBox, length, width);

Step 5: Adding a Scene reference screen to the Stage object reference is the fifth step. We are adding an output screen to Stage. We will get this stage object reference from the start predefined JavaFX method.

Syntax:

stage.setScene(screen);

Syntax:

stage.show(); Examples of JavaFX ListView

Following are the different examples of JavaFX Listview.

Example #1 – Adding Items Horizontally to the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.layout.HBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class AddingItemsListView extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ listViewReference.getItems().add("First Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Second Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Third Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fourth Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fifth Item"); /*making list view horizontal*/ listViewReference.setOrientation(Orientation.HORIZONTAL); /* creating horizontal box to add item objects */ HBox hbox = new HBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(hbox, 400, 200); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /*launch method calls internally start() method*/ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Explanation: As you can see from the output, items are added horizontally. You can scroll the scroll bar to see more items like in the output.

Example #2 – Adding Items Vertically to the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.layout.VBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class AddingItemsListView extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ listViewReference.getItems().add("First Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Second Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Third Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fourth Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fifth Item"); /* creating vertical box to add item objects */ VBox vBox = new VBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(vBox, 220, 270); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /*launch method calls internally start() method*/ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Explanation: As you can see from the output, items are added vertically. By default alignment of the list, the view is vertical.

Example #3 – Select Multiple Items from the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.control.SelectionMode; import javafx.scene.layout.VBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class SelectingMultipleItemsListView extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ listViewReference.getItems().add("First Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Second Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Third Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fourth Item"); listViewReference.getItems().add("Fifth Item"); /*Make listview to select multiple values*/ listViewReference.getSelectionModel().setSelectionMode(SelectionMode.MULTIPLE); /* creating vertical box to add item objects */ VBox vBox = new VBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(vBox, 220, 270); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /*launch method calls internally start() method*/ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Example #4 – Adding Items to the ListView

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.collections.FXCollections; import javafx.collections.ObservableList; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.ListCell; import javafx.scene.control.ListView; import javafx.scene.image.Image; import javafx.scene.image.ImageView; import javafx.scene.layout.VBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class AddingImagesToItemsListView extends Application { /*loading images with their paths*/ private final Image cabinetImage  = new Image("Cab.png"); private final Image docIconImage  = new Image("documenticon.png"); private final Image homeCabImage  = new Image("HomCab.png"); private final Image searchIconImage = new Image("searchicon.png"); /*image array to load all images at a time*/ private Image[] imagesArray = {cabinetImage, docIconImage, homeCabImage, searchIconImage}; @Override public void start(Stage displayScreen) throws Exception { /* create list object */ /* adding items to the list view */ "Fourth Image"); listViewReference.setItems(elements); /*setting each image to corresponding array index*/ /*view the image class to display the image*/ private ImageView displayImage = new ImageView(); @Override public void updateItem(String name, boolean empty) { super.updateItem(name, empty); if (empty) { setText(null); setGraphic(null); } else { if (name.equals("Fist Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[0]); /*setting array image to First Image*/ else if (name.equals("Second Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[1]);/*setting array image to Second Image*/ else if (name.equals("Third Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[2]);/*setting array image to Third Image*/ else if (name.equals("Fourth Image")) displayImage.setImage(imagesArray[3]);/*setting array image to Fourth Image*/ setText(name); setGraphic(displayImage); } } }); /* creating vertical box to add item objects */ VBox vBox = new VBox(listViewReference); /* creating scene */ Scene scene = new Scene(vBox, 220, 270); /* adding scene to stage */ displayScreen.setScene(scene); /* display scene for showing output */ displayScreen.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { /* launch method calls internally start() method */ Application.launch(args); } }

Output:

Explanation:

First, paste all the images to the eclipse src folder, then give their names in the Image class.

Now you can see the output in the above image.

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Hdg Explains: How Does Wifi Work?

WiFi is a wireless networking technology that lets you connect your WiFi-enabled devices to a local network. Using WiFi you can transfer data between local network devices or connect to the internet, if a connection is available. Most people probably know this, since we all use WiFi every day, but how does WiFi actually work?

WiFi Is Radio

The most fundamental fact about WiFi is that it uses radio waves to transmit information. Radio waves are what we call a specific frequency range of electromagnetic radiation. Light is the portion of the spectrum our eyes are sensitive to, but is made of the same “stuff” as radio waves.

Table of Contents

WiFi uses two different frequencies for transmission: 2.4Ghz and 5Ghz. That’s 2,400,000,000 and 5,000,000,000 cycles per second respectively. This is pretty high compared to FM radio which has a frequency of only about 100Mhz.

The exact frequency of a radio wave changes a lot about its characteristics. With a higher frequency, you can pack more information into your signal. However, some frequencies don’t have very long ranges. 

Different frequencies also penetrate matter differently. Some frequencies can be bounced off the atmosphere, so your transmitter and receiver don’t need line-of-sight to work. Other frequencies just shoot straight out into space. That’s useful if you want to communicate with a satellite, not so much if the receiver is on Earth.

WiFi Is Digital

WiFi is radio, but it’s digital radio. That means the radio waves are modulated to carry digital code. WiFi is absolutely packed with digital information.

The latest and greatest WiFi technology has a theoretical speed limit of 4.8 Gbps, using four 1.2Gbps data streams at once. That’s 600 megabytes per second! Of course, theoretical speeds are determined in a lab under optimal conditions, but even in the real world modern WiFi is very fast.

WiFi Has Standards & Protocols

WiFi has been around for a long chúng tôi first commercial iteration of the technology was released all the way back in 1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) codified the WiFi standard, which is officially known as IEEE 802.11. The first generation of WiFi is known as 802.11a, but as time went by newer, better versions of WiFi were developed:

802.11a

802.11b

802.11g

802.11n

802.11ac

802.11ax

WiFi is not fully backwards compatible. You won’t find many modern devices that can still communicate with 802.11a devices. Many WiFi devices out there are “bgn” and will work with those three standards, which all use the 2.4Ghz frequency band. 802.11ac uses the 5Ghz band, but most of these routers are “dual band” and also offer 2.4Ghz to talk to older devices using older standards.

In practice backwards compatibility with WiFi is spotty, since some devices are locked to certain speeds within each respective standard. Newer routers may not let things go that slowly!

Incidentally, the whole “802.11” naming convention has been dropped. The latest 802.11ax is now known as WiFi 6, with 802.11 being WiFi 5 and so on.

WiFi Is Encrypted

Anyone can intercept WiFi radio waves, but thanks to digital encryption they can’t simply eavesdrop on what’s being sent and received. At least, this is the case if your WiFi network is password protected. 

Your WiFi password is also the encryption key, so anyone with the password can see all the data packets unfiltered. This is why you should only use websites that are HTTPS enabled and always use a VPN service if you’re using a public WiFi hotspot!

Your WiFi devices are most likely using WPA2. WPA is short for WiFi Protected Access and is a very strong encryption scheme for WiFi connections. However, over the years hackers have discovered various exploits that, in some cases, allow them to break the WPA2 encryption protocols. 

In 2023 the WiFi Alliance, which is the custodian of WiFi technology, announced WPA3. This new version improves security and plugs the security holes found in WPA2. Of course, it will be some time before all hardware out in the wild will support the new security standard.

WiFi Direct Is a Thing

WiFi was designed to use a central device such as a router to manage communication between devices. However, WiFi can also be used to directly connect two devices in what’s known as a “peer-to-peer” connection. This is very handy when, for example, you want to send a large file to someone’s smartphone from yours. 

This is also the type of WiFi that’s often used to cast video from a phone to a smart TV. When you use devices such as GoPro cameras or certain WiFi cameras drones, you’re also using a direct WiFi connection. Bluetooth gets most of the attention in the peer-to-peer wireless connection world, especially since it’s so energy efficient, but WiFi direct is fast and just as simple to use.

Routers, Repeaters & Mesh Networks

While direct WiFi connections are commonplace these days, the WiFi we all use most of the time make use of a hub-and-spoke design. In other words, all of your WiFi devices connect to a central device, which acts as the go-between. For most people, this is going to be the common WiFi router.

Modern routers boast multiple antennas, separating different frequency bands as well as the hardware that sends and receives WiFi data. These routers also handle your internet connection and any wired Ethernet devices on your network, allowing the wired and wireless networks to communicate with each other.

However, as we said above, WiFi signal ranges are pretty limited. Which means that the further you are from the router, the worse the signal strength is. A WiFi repeater can be used to extend that signal at the edge of the coverage range.

While repeaters work well enough, there’s a new trend towards “mesh” WiFi systems. Here, there’s no central router. Instead several smaller routers are spread across your home, connected to each other and providing a seamless cloud of WiFi. This is the WiFi technology most commonly used in large businesses, but it’s become affordable for home use.

Beyond WiFi

WiFi is around us more than ever, as all sorts of devices now have a need for a network connection. However, WiFi is not the only competing technology when it comes to wireless data transmission. Bluetooth rules the roost when it comes to low-power, short range connections. Future versions of Bluetooth may even give WiFi a run for its money when it comes to speed and range.

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