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Definition of Redshift coalesce

Redshift coalesce function will return the first not null value as result, coalesce function is built-in function of redshift. Coalesce function is work same as IFNULL function in SQL, this function will evaluates the argument from left to right and after finding the not null values it will not evaluate the remaining arguments. This function will accept the number of arguments but it will returns the first argument which was not null, if all the value are null then it will return the empty result set. This function is useful when we have returning the backup value.

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Syntax:

1) COALESCE (Value1, Value2,….,ValueN);

2) COALESCE (Argument1, Argument2,…., ArgumentN);

From table_name;

Parameters

1) Value1 to ValueN – Any value which we have using with coalesce function in redshift. For multiple values coalesce function will return a first not-null value in result.

2) Coalesce – Coalesce is the function name in redshift which returns first not-null value as a result. Coalesce function is also known as NVL function in redshift.

3) Select – Select is used to fetch data from table by using a coalesce function in redshift. We can use multiple column or single column at one time to fetch data from table.

4) Argument 1 to Argument N – Argument is nothing but an integer value that we have passing with coalesce function in redshift. If suppose we have passing five argument with coalesce function and if first argument contains null value then coalesce function will return next not null value.

5) Column name – This is a column name of table which was we have using with coalesce function. If we want to fetch data from table using coalesce function in redshift then we need to pass column name.

6) Table name – This is nothing but the name of table which was we have using with coalesce function to retrieve first not-null value.

How coalesce works in Redshift?

Redshift coalesce function is used to return the first not null value from table column or argument list which was we have used in query.

This function will evaluates values or arguments from left to right to find the not-null value or argument. After finding first argument it will not evaluating the remaining argument from column or values which was used in query.

If our table column contains multiple null value but in result we have not required any null value at that time we have using coalesce function in redshift.

Coalesce function will returns the empty result when we have passing all the null values in our query.

Below example shows that coalesce function will returns the empty result when we have passing all the null values.

Code:

Select coalesce (NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);

In above example, we can see that we have used all argument as null values. After checking all the null values result is showing the empty set.

After finding first not null value coalesce function will stop the query execution it will not check other argument or values.

Below example shows that after finding first not null value coalesce function will stop the query execution.

Select coalesce (NULL, NULL, 10, NULL, 50);

In above example, we can see that the result of argument list (NULL, NULL, 10, NULL, 50) is 10. After finding 10 coalesce function will not search the next value, it will not goes to search next 50 values which was not null. It will stop evaluation at 10 value.

Coalesce function is same function as NVL function which was used in big query. At the time of migrating the code into the redshift we need to rewrite this function into big query.

We can use single as well as multiple column while evaluating data using coalesce function in redshift.• If we want query which was return the result of null values of certain function same time we have using coalesce in redshift.

Coalesce function in redshift is also used with argument list which was we have using in our query. It will shows first not null values using argument list.

Examples

Below example shows coalesce in redshift are as follows.

1) Coalesce function with argument list –

Below example shows that coalesce function with argument list are as follows. We have passing the (NULL, NULL, 15, NULL, 20, NULL, 25, 30) argument list with coalesce function.

The result of the argument is 15. We can see that it will retrieves first not null value as 15 and skipping all the values which was comes after 15.

Code:

Select coalesce (NULL, NULL, 15, NULL, 20, NULL, 25, 30);

2) Coalesce function with single argument

Below example shows that coalesce function with single argument. We have passing only one argument as 50.

The result is below example is 50, because coalesce function has finds not null value in first argument.

Select coalesce (50);

3) Coalesce function using single column as argument list –

Below example shows that coalesce function using a single column as argument list are as follows.

We have using the start_date column from date table.

Code:

Select coalesce (start_date) from date1 order by 1;

4) Coalesce function using multiple column as argument list –

Below example shows that coalesce function using multiple column as argument list are as follows.

We have using the start_date and end_date column from date table.

Code:

Select coalesce (start_date, end_date) from date1 order by 1;

Conclusion

Redshift coalesce function is very useful to find the first not null value from column or argument list. If suppose all column value contains the not null value then coalesce function will returns the empty result. Coalesce function will stop execution after finding the first not null value.

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How Outer Function Works In Numpy?

Introduction to NumPy Outer

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Syntax

Outer() is one of the predefined functions of the Numpy library, and mainly, it’s used for vector and matrix calculations; its basic syntax is as follows below.

import numpy as first x=first.ones() y=first.linspace() z=first.outer(x,y) print (z)

Above basic Python code, we have imported the numpy packages in the Python script, and it has called the pre-defined methods of the package. The vector has rows and columns for all the dimensions, releasing both 2D and 3D vectors in matrix multiplications.

How outer Function works in NumPy?

In the Numpy library, the outer is the function or product of two coordinate vectors in the matrix calculations. We use more than one vector with dimensions like any variables, and their variables are calculated using the “x” multiplication operator for calculating matrix outputs. If suppose we use the tensor type of datas like a multidimensional array of numbers, then the outer function will give the tensor as a result. It is also known and defined as tensor algebras. The outer function is also known as the outer product, and the tensor is also referred to as the tensor product. The outer function used dot products, and Kronecker products also used standard matrix multiplications.

The Numpy arrays have used both single and multi-dimensional arrays if we can pass the Python list to the arrays method in single or one-dimensional arrays. And if we pass the list of lists packages in the arrays method in multi or two-dimensional arrays. The matrix array multiplication in every inner list and the outer lists becomes the rows and columns if the number of columns equals the number of elements in each inner list. When we use arrays in the Numpy, it has some default and important pre-defined methods, which are arrange(), zeros(), and ones(), etc, while creating the NumPy arrays. Also, if we use the arrays, it takes the arguments like start index, end index, and some linearly-spaced types of numbers that can be the specified ranges. The index values are different depending on the application requirement.

Examples of NumPy Outer

Here are the following examples as mentioned below.

Example #1 import numpy as np p = np.array([3, 6, 8], float) q = np.array([4, 7, 13], float) print("The Calculation of Matrixes and vectors are.") print("p:") print(p) print("q:") print(q) print("The Outer function used in the p and q are:") print(np.outer(p, q))

Output:

Example #2

Code:

import numpy as np p = np.ones(6) q = np.linspace(-5, 3, 7) r = np.outer(p, q) print (r) x = [5, 9] y = [2, 6, 4] z = np.outer(x, y) print(z)

Output:

Example #3 import numpy as np p = np.array([[4, 3, 2, 1, 16], [-7, 4, 3, 6, 15], [-5, 2, 19, 11, 26]]) y = [2, 6, 4] print(p[:3, :7]) print(p[:6,]) print(p[:,5]) print(A[:, 4:8]) z = np.outer(p, y) prPostint(z)

Output:

In the above three examples, we described the outer function in different areas, as well as the Numpy library has used many other different methods like slicer(), inner(), ones(), etc. If the user inputs must be entered in multiple areas simultaneously, the inputs are validated in both the front and back ends. Depending on the application requirements, the inputs can be in number formats such as integer, float, or decimal point. When using the Numpy packages, it becomes essential to validate user inputs due to their specific design for integer formats and utilization of arrays and vectors for matrix calculations.

Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed some important points regarding the Numpy packages and their method, especially in the outer() function. So in the latest and future technology purpose, these Numpy packages and their methods are an important part of the technology trends.

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How Boolean Type Works In Powershell?

Definition of PowerShell Boolean

PowerShell Boolean operators are $true and $false which mentions if any condition, action or expression output is true or false and that time $true and $false output returns as respectively, and sometimes Boolean operators are also treated as the 1 means True and 0 means false.

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Syntax:

Boolean type is the form of the output and its output is True or False but for the syntax, it uses the comparison and conditional operators to compare the two or multiple values.

And there are other syntaxes based on the commands and conditions as well. Which are shown in the examples.

How Boolean type works in PowerShell?

When evaluating the Boolean expression it compares the left side of the value to the right side of the value. If the value of the left side is equal to the value of the right side then it is evaluated true otherwise false as shown below.

"Hello" -eq "hello"

Output:

It depends on the condition we apply. For example, the above operator is not case sensitive. If we use the case-sensitive operator then the output will be false. For example,

"Hello" -ceq "hello"

Output:

In the Boolean type, 1 is treated as $true, and 0 is treated as $false. For example,

-not 0

Output:

In the above examples we have seen that the left side of the object is compared to the right side of the object in the -EQ operator but let evaluate the below expressions.

2 -eq $true

Output:

In the above example, the first is true but the second is false. So when the first example is true, its reverse should be also true but the Boolean operator doesn’t work that way. It works on the typecasting and the left side of the object type plays the main role here. In the first example, 2 is automatically type-casted to Boolean while in the second example, $true is type-casted to the integer as shown below.

[int]2 -eq [int]$true

Output:

Condition like IF/Else also uses the Boolean output. If the condition is true then it uses the ‘IF’ block, otherwise else block is executed. For example,

else{“5 is less than 6”}

In the above example, if the condition checks whether the expression is true or false and that is a Boolean value and based on it, the script executes the block.

Few commands also directly return the Boolean values like Test-Path, Test-Connection, etc.

Test-Path C:Temp10vms.csv

Output:

While Test-Connection, by default doesn’t produce the Boolean output but when we add -Quiet parameter, it produces the Boolean output.

Test-Connection chúng tôi -Count 2 -Quiet

Output:

Dollar + QuestionMark syntax ($?) also produces the Boolean output. It checks whether the last command run was successful or failed and it gives the output accordingly.

$?

Output:

Examples

Let us discuss examples of PowerShell Boolean.

Example #1: Using Comparison Operators to check Boolean values.

10 -ge 11

Output:

With String objects,

“abc” -ne “abc”

Output:

Example #2: Using the cmdlets

Using those cmdlets which returns the output Boolean type. For example,

Test-Path command.

This command directly returns the Boolean value based on the path existence. For example,

Test-Path C:Temp

Output:

Test-Connection command.

Some command returns the value but not the Boolean value but they support parameter which returns the Boolean value. For example, the Test-Connection command uses -Quiet parameter to return a Boolean value.

Test-Connection chúng tôi -Count 2 -Quiet

Output:

}

Output:

Example #3: Commands without supported Boolean output parameter

Some commands don’t support the output which has true or the false value as the output and in that case, we can use those commands inside the IF/else condition to handle the Boolean output.

}

Output:

You can also use the Where block after a pipeline to evaluate if the output is true or false. For example,

}

Output:

In the above example, if the process doesn’t exist, it produces the output false and executes the else condition. Otherwise, the true output and will execute the IF condition.

Example #4: Boolean type output for multiple conditions

When there are multiple conditions used, the output will be as below.

-And will check if both the conditions are true then the output is True, otherwise False.

-OR will check if any of the condition is true then the output is True, otherwise False.

(6 -lt 5) -or (4 -gt 5)

Output:

Conclusion

Boolean types (True and False) are very useful while working with the scripts. While writing scripts, programmers need to evaluate the previous output and moves to the next commands if they are true or false. It also helps to create a flow chart properly for scripts.

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How Random Works In Kotlin With Examples?

Introduction to Kotlin Random

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Syntax of Kotlin Random

In kotlin language has many default classes, methods and keywords for to implement the application. Like Random is one of the abstract class types, and it is used to generate the pseudo-random number generator; it has its own keyword and its syntax for to perform the operations in the code.

fun name() Assert.assertTrue((0..1000).all{   (0..10).contains((0..10).random()) } ) Assert.assertFalse(((0..1000).all{ (0..10).contains((0..10).random()) } } { }

The above code is the basic syntax for utilising the random class and its method for to calculate the pseudo-random number generations.

How Random Works in Kotlin?

The random number generation is like a pseudo number sequence; it generates automatically and random manner.  It returns a repeatable and sequence order with seeded on the data type like two generators with the same seed produce for sequence number range also the same version of kotlin runtime polymorphism. With the help of a random number generator algorithm, the numbers are calculated, generating sequence. While on the JVM machine, the random number generator is not the thread-safe, and it does not invoke it with the multiple thread sequences; it is also arranged with the synchronization.

So that two seeds can produce with the same sequences of values within the kotlin runtime versions. Based on the algorithm, the user inputs are accepted with initial ranges that can be the seed or key so we apply that seed in the sequence manner with some mathematical operations for to generate the output results. So that output we named it random number use that also results in random number will give the next set of iterations to continue their tasks. So it’s not possible for generating the true random numbers. So it has two types like non-deterministic random number generator and true random number generator. Non-deterministic random number generators are also called as pseudorandom number generators.

Examples of Kotlin Random

Given below are the examples of Kotlin Random:

Example #1

Code:

package one; import java.util.Random val rd = Random() object Tests { var infos = "Welcome To My Domain its the first example that related to the kotlin random function" } val vars = arrayOf("'Your first inputs' - Its the Monday", "'The second inputs' - Its the tuesday", "'The third inputs' - Its the Wednesday", "'The fourth inputs' - Its the Thursday", "'The fifth inputs' - Its the Friday", "'The sixth inputs' - Its the Saturday ","'The seventh inputs' - Its the Sunday", "'Every object has the separate attributes and its elements' - Programming language") val vars1 =  arrayOf("'Your eight inputs'- programming concepts and its implemnetations","'The most important things in the life are the day you are born and the day you find out why'- what is the reason for this") val vars2=arrayOf("'The life is more precious things and don’t wasted every single minute in a day you are born and the day you find out why.' - Great legend","'Great lengends are more powerful when compare to the others life are the day you also born with the silver spoon' - The Legendary things") fun res(at1: Int, at2: Int) = rd.nextInt(at2-at1+1)+at1 println(vars1[res(0,(vars1.size)-1)]) println(vars[res(0,(vars.size)-1)]) println("Thank you users have a nice day users keep spending your valuable time with us") }

Output:

In the above example, we used the arrayOf() method in the variable, and we validated the integer number and generate it randomly.

Example #2

Code:

package one; import java.util.Random fun demo(strleng: Int) : String { println("Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin random concepts") val inpstr = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXTZabcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789" return (1..strleng) .map { inpstr.random() } .joinToString("") } fun second(){ lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 0") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 1") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 2") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 3") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 4") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 5") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 6") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 7") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 8") lst.add("The input is entered on the text box is: 9") for(i in lst) print("The arryList are iterated please find your input values $i ") } fun main() { val strleng = 13 val res = demo(strleng) println(res) }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

package one; import java.util.Random interface infy  { fun third(strl:String) : String{ println("Welcome To My Domain its the third example that related to the kotlin random concepts") val inpstr = "Valuable Inputs must be entered and its more important for validation with both front and back end" return (inpstr) .map { inpstr.random() } .joinToString("") } } class Test{ fun four(leng:Int):String {println("Your operations are starting") val chs = ('a'..'z') + ('A'..'Z') + ('0'..'9') return (1..leng) .map { chs.random() } .joinToString("") } } fun main() { val num=17 val strs=Test() println(strs.four(num)) println("Your operations are ended") }

Output:

In the final example, we used class and interface are additionally added for to perform the random() function.

Conclusion

In the kotlin language, mobile applications are intermittently added some default methods to perform the user tasks according to the software requirement. But some mathematical operations are needed to be performed without affecting the application functionality like that random is one of the default class and methods for performing these operations.

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How Does Index Works In Perl With Examples?

Introduction to Perl index

The index is the function available in Perl to get the index. If we want to know the index or the position of the substring, then we can use this function to get the value. By the use of the index function, we can also get the position of the character in the string. In the short index, the function is used to get the position or index where the substring or character is placed in the given string; inside index methods, we just have to pass our parameters. In the coming section, we will discuss this method more in detail to better understand the method to use.

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Syntax

We can directly use this function in the program without including any library because it is an inbuild function available in Perl to deal with String. Let’s see its syntax for better understating how to use it in programming see below;

1. index(text, substring, index): calculating with index.

In the above syntax, we are passing three parameters as the input. The last parameter is not mandatory to pass.

2. index(text, substring): without index being passed.

In the above syntax, we pass two parameters as input to calculate and return us the value.

index("String to find from", "string to search"); index("some string", "some",0)

Above, you can see the sample syntax for the index method to use in Perl programming.

How does index work in Perl?

As of now, we know that index is used to get the position of the element in the string. This method can take two or three parameters. We have some scenarios where we want to know the actual position of the character or any substring into the string so we can call this method and get the position. By the use of this method, we can even specify the index of the substring from which we want them to evaluate the position. In this section, we will first discuss the method signature of the index and return type. Let’s see the signature of the method in detail see below;

1. index(text, substring, index): This method takes three parameters as the input. By using this method, we can get the actual position of the character or substring inside a string message. Let’s discuss its signature in detail;

text: This parameter is used to pass our actual string from which we want to calculate our character or substring position value. We can create a normal string in Perl and pass this inside the method.

substring: This parameter is the original substring that we want the index() method to calculate its value and return the position for that element in a given string.

index: This is the optional parameter in this method. If you want to set the starting index for the substring, then mention this parameter while calling the index() method in Perl. If we do not mention it, it just takes up the default value of ‘0’.

2. index(text, substring): This method is also used to get the index of the substring. But it has one difference from the above one is that here we are not mentioning the index or the starting index for a substring so that it will take up as default of ‘0’.

Apart from all this, all the things are similar in both the methods available in Perl. These are the in-build method of Perl, so we do not need to mention or import any library in our project before using it. Let’s see one sample example for beginners how to use this in programming see below;

Example:

# Your code here! $mystr = "Hello to find !!";. $myresult = index ($mystr, 'find');

In the above lines of code, we are trying to find a substring into the string. First, we have created one string object and assign it some value. After this, we call the ‘index’ method and pass our string inside it with the value to be searched as ‘find’ in the string. So it returns us an integer value with its actual position in the string.

Examples

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

In this example, we are using the index method without index param to get the substring position in Perl.

Code:

# Your code here! $mystr1 = "I am first string "; $mystr2 = "I am second string "; $mystr3 = "I am third string "; $mystr4 = "I am fourth string "; $mystr5 = "I am fifth string "; $myresult1 = index ($mystr1, 'first'); $myresult2 = index ($mystr2, 'second'); $myresult3 = index ($mystr3, 'third'); $myresult4 = index ($mystr4, 'fourth'); $myresult5 = index ($mystr5, 'fifth'); print "Result for each string are :::n"; print "One: $myresult1n"; print "two: $myresult2n"; print "three: $myresult3n"; print "four: $myresult4n"; print "five: $myresult5n";

Example #2

In this example, we are using the index method with index param to get the substring position in Perl.

Code:

# Your code here! $mystr1 = "I am first string "; $mystr2 = "I am second string "; $mystr3 = "I am third string "; $mystr4 = "I am fourth string "; $mystr5 = "I am fifth string "; $myresult1 = index ($mystr1, 'first', 3); $myresult2 = index ($mystr2, 'second', 2); $myresult3 = index ($mystr3, 'third', 1); $myresult4 = index ($mystr4, 'fourth'. 1); $myresult5 = index ($mystr5, 'fifth', 0); print "Result for each string are :::n"; print "One: $myresult1n"; print "two: $myresult2n"; print "three: $myresult3n"; print "four: $myresult4n"; print "five: $myresult5n";

Output:

Conclusion

We may have some scenarios where we need to have the actual position of the substring from the string so we can use the index() method in Perl. We can also evaluate the position of the character by using the same method in Perl. Also, this can help me know whether the character or substring is present in the string or not.

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How Or Operator Works In Perl With Examples?

Introduction to Perl OR

Perl OR operator which is also termed as the logical operator is assigned to be true only if the two operands are non-zero values.

C-style Logical OR administrator duplicates a piece in the event that it exists in one or the other operand.

A Perl administrator is a progression of at least one images utilized as a feature of the grammar of a language. Henceforth, a few people consider Perl an “administrator arranged language”.

Every administrator works on at least zero operands.

Consider an administrator an exceptional kind of capacity the parser comprehends and its operands as contentions.

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$s OR $p = 1(true)

Where,

OR is the logical operator used in binary value calculation of the two variables $s and $p.

How OR operator works in Perl?

Now we see examples on how the logical OR operator works in Perl.

Example #1

Code:

$s = false; $p = true; $v = ($s or $p); print "Result of $s or $p = $vn"; $s = 0; $v= not($s); print "Result of not($s)= $vn";

Output:

In the above program, we first assign values to s and p variables and then use the logical OR operator to determine the true and false values and the Perl program is executed and the output is as shown in the above snapshot.

Example #2 $s = true; $p = true; $v = ($s or $p); print "Result of $s or $p = $vn"; $s = 0; $v= not($s); print "Result of not($s)= $vn";

Output:

In the above program, we assign both s and p variables as true and use the logical OR operator to find out the result. Thus the program is executed and the output is as shown in the above snapshot.

perldoc perlop and perldoc perlsyn give voluminous data about Perl’s administrators, however, the docs accept that you’re as of now acquainted with a couple of basic software engineering ideas. Luckily, you’ll perceive these thoughts from composed language and rudimentary arithmetic, regardless of whether you’ve never heard their convoluted names.

The priority of an administrator oversees when Perl ought to assess it in an articulation. Perl assesses the administrator with the most elevated priority first, at that point the following most elevated, right to the least priority. Recall fundamental math? Increase and gap before you add and deduct. That is priority.

The associativity of an administrator oversees whether it assesses from left to right or option to left. Option is left affiliated, with the end goal that 2 + 3 + 4 assesses 2 + 3 first, at that point adds 4 to the outcome, not that request for assessment matters. Exponentiation is correct affiliated, with the end goal that 2 ** 3 ** 4 assesses 3 ** 4 first, at that point raises 2 to the 81st force. Use enclosures on the off chance that you compose code this way.

On the off chance that you retain just the priority and associativity of the basic numerical administrators, you’ll be fine. Disentangle your code and you won’t need to remember other associativities. On the off chance that you can’t streamline your code (or in case you’re keeping up code and attempting to get it), utilize the center B::Deparse module to see precisely how Perl handles administrator priority and associativity.

The arity of an administrator is the quantity of operands on which it works. A nullary administrator works on zero operands. An unary administrator works on one operand. A twofold administrator works on two operands. A three-parted administrator works on three operands. A listary administrator works on top-notch of at least zero operands.

Conclusion

Hence, we would like to conclude by stating that you have perceived how Perl oversees setting through its administrators. To comprehend Perl completely, you should see how administrators communicate with their operands. Each administrator has a few significant qualities which administer its conduct: the quantity of operands on which it works, its relationship to different administrators, the settings it authorizes, and the grammar it gives.

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