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In a Google Webmaster Central hangout, Google’s John Mueller answered whether it was worth spending time creating author pages.

Mueller downplayed the importance of author pages for ranking. He said that you can’t say author pages really matter.

Then he explained where it can matter.

Author Pages on News Sites and YMYL

Some people believe that author pages and “expert authors” are important for ranking.

But that’s not anything that Google has said.

I’ve had numerous companies come to me for help after an update. Many had tried adding author pages but that didn’t solve their problems because author pages are not a ranking factor.

Mueller’s answer confirms that it’s not something you really must do.

Related: How to Use Structured Data to Support E-A-T

Are Author Pages Necessary?

This is the the question asked of John Mueller:

“Question about E-A-T and YMYL.

We’re working with news websites. What tips can you give us about indication of content authors?

Is it really necessary to make pages for each author, provide big info with photo, bio links to social networks?

…Does this really matter that there are lots of work to do elsewhere.”

John Mueller Comments on Content Author Pages

John’s answer begins by noting that E-A-T and YMYL are terms from the Quality Raters Guidelines (QRG).

“So, E-A-T is Expertise, Authority, Trustworthiness. And YMYL is You Money or Your Life content.

These are terms from the Google Raters Guidelines that we put out.”

The QRG is a guide for third party raters to use. The intent of the guide is to help the raters use a consistent standard for rating search results. That’s important because otherwise the raters would use their own subjective opinions.

Google has recommended the use of the QRG to publishers as a way for them to judge their own sites for quality.

Google never said that the QRG reflected Google’s ranking algorithms. The QRG is just a standard for rating websites.

Mueller next downplays the importance of author pages as an absolute necessity:

“I think like with all kinds of content it’s not the case that you can say this really matters and you absolutely must do it.”

Mueller next explains that if you want to build trust with your readers, then using an author page is a good way to do that.

The context of his statement is not about ranking. The context is about building trust with readers.

Mueller’s explanation:

“I do think with a lot of news websites, especially if you’re providing information that you want people to trust, then this certainly makes sense.”

Mueller downplays the use of author pages as an SEO factor:

“So it’s not something that where I’d say it’s the same as removing a no-index meta tag on a page because that’s like really and on-and-off switch.”

Mueller then remarks on improving content and prioritizing content improvement and adding author bios.

“But if you’re improving the content of your site, that works well for users, that works well for Google.

So it seems like something that could be done.

How to prioritize that versus other things on the website that’s really hard to do. That’s where you almost need to kind of use your experience and figure out what works well on your side.”

Related: Google’s E-A-T: Busting 10 of the Biggest Misconceptions

Are Author Bios Important?

It’s clear that author bios are not ranking factors. The idea that author bios are important comes from the QRG encouragement that the quality raters look for them.

But the reason the QRG says that is to give the raters a common standard for verifying the quality of a site. It’s not because an author bio is a part of Google’s algorithm.

Author bios can be important within the context of building trust with users.

If the author is an expert then it makes sense to make a statement about their expertise. As John Mueller stated, it’s a way to build trust with users.

Can it help your rankings? Only in an indirect way.

Site visitors who trust your site are more likely to recommend your web page, to trust it and to return to it if the author bio builds credibility for the content.

It’s time for publishers and the SEO community to view author bios outside of the context of ranking. It’s more realistic to consider author bios from the context of what it might mean for users.

Watch the Google Office Hours Hangout here:

You're reading Google Explains How Author Pages May Help

Google Youtube Content Planning Guide Works For Web Pages

YouTube Content Planning Guide

The guide is organized into three sections

First Steps

Content Planning

Content Creations

First Steps for Content Planning

This part contains three sections:

Find Your Why

Think About Branding

Learn the Formats

Find Your Why

This is about writing down reasons for creating the content. Low quality content that fails to help a site rank is, in my opinion, content that lacks a relevant purpose.

A relevant purpose could be found in identifying goals that the audience may have, problems that need solving.

The kinds of questions one might find in a (competitor’s) Frequently Asked Questions section can give an indication of the kinds of problems and concerns that your readers might need to have addressed in your content.

Goal oriented content can perform well with users because some search queries can have underlying goals and purposes that need addressing.

For example when someone searches for Pancakes they’re probably really asking, “How do I make a pancake?”

So instead of writing an article about Pancake and adding associated phrases like breakfast and pancake batter and synonyms like flapjacks, a content writer can instead focus on writing a web page that directly and unambiguously answers the question,  “How do I make a pancake?”

That’s the difference between writing for keywords and SEO and writing for users. The SEO who misses the point focuses on synonyms and associated phrases. The person who understands the question that is inside the search query will focus on answering the question.

That’s why content that is written in a way that answers a question that underlies a search query is more helpful and useful than content that is written because it needs to contain specific keywords in it.

Learn more about the Latent Question Concept: Search Queries: Search Results Analysis: The Latent Question

This is how Google addressed it in the context of political content:

– For inspiration, check out this channel trailer that breaks down the “why?” in compelling fashion””

Answering the above questions can help solve the “What Should I Talk About” dilemma that every content creator faces, regardless if it’s text for a web page, YouTube video or a podcast.


The next section was about branding the YouTube channel so that it has an attractive appearance.

Areas of focus for a YouTube channel:

“Channel Banner

Channel Avatar

Channel Trailer


That’s pretty relevant for anyone contemplating a YouTube channel!

Content Formats

The next section is called “Learn the Format(s). This is a reference to different kinds of content. There are different kinds of content that can be cycled through. Having these written down and put on a schedule can be helpful.

These are the content formats that Google suggested:

Weekly Coverage

Behind the Scenes






Live Streams

2. Content Planning

“Consistency doesn’t equal volume. It’s far less important that you post frequently than it is that you post on a reliable schedule.”

“Keep your content manageable. High production videos are great, but can be very difficult to sustain. Find a balance between content quantity and quality that you can maintain over the long term.”

Three Kinds of Content

Google identifies three kinds of content:


That’s a way of conceptualizing different kinds of content, identifying what the purpose of the content so as to fit it into a schedule.

Hero Content

Hero content, outside of YouTube, could be thought of as content that tries to rank for a major keyword phrase or address an important pain point. It’s not limited to evergreen content, it can also be focused on a current event, like a conference or an important announcement.

Here’s how Google explains it in the context of a politician YouTube channel:

“Frequency: Rare. Usually built around a major event, moment, or idea.

Content: Mass appeal topics that lean into increased interest in the general public at a particular time (Ex. Election day, State of the Union address, major legislative vote, etc.).

Audience: Hero Content attempts to cast as wide a net as possible and be accessible to viewers who may be unfamiliar with your organization or content.

Goal: Provide a moment of significant visibility for your content,converting a large amount of casual viewers into long-term subscribers.”

Help Content

Generally, I think all content should be helpful or useful in some way, even an eCommerce product page (with reviews, how-to data, unique product info, etc.).

What Google’s referring to as Help Content is evergreen content. Evergreen content is content that addresses a topic that remains the same every year. Topics like how to boil an egg or how to make a California Roll don’t really change much.

Evergreen content is great for any website because it’s useful and can become a source of steady traffic and links, with only a minor infrequent content touch-up to keep it relevant.

Google’s YouTube guide offers this explanation:

“Frequency: More often than Hero, but less than Hub

Content: Evergreen topics targeted towards specific questions or areas (Ex: What is the NHS, How would “The Green New Deal” work, etc. )

Audience: Broad and targeted appeal, typically this type of content can appeal to more casual viewers who do not normally engage with your channel

Goal: Provide evergreen videos that continuously gain viewership and convert subscribers at a steady rate”

Hub Content

This is the main content that’s produced on a regular basis. This means relying on the content “formats” that Google suggested.

Content Formats

Weekly Coverage

Behind the Scenes






Live Streams

The goal of Hub content is to give regular site visitors and new visitors something to dig into once they discover your YouTube channel, podcast, or website.

An important aspect of Hub content is being timely with current events. Fresh news and content that’s breaking is highly popular and keeps people coming back. I suspect there’s a little fear of missing out (FOMO) involved that keeps visitors returning for more.

“Frequency: Your regular chosen cadence. Think of Hub Content as your channel’s “bread and butter.”

Content: Sustainable, targeted content that appeals directly to your subscribers’ tastes and expectations. (Lean into your formats!)

Audience: Your existing subscriber base, plus those viewers who’ve been watching but haven’t subscribed.

Goal: Keep your audience coming back with steady, consistent content that appeals to their expectations and desires. Secondarily, provide a bank of content for new viewers to explore after subscribing.”

3. Content Creation

This section addresses issues that are directly related to video production.

“Stay accessible…audiences want to see the real, unfiltered you. Personal content is best. Distance and mystique are not your friends here.

Imperfections are your friend. While it may seem counterintuitive, don’t be afraid to keep your videos rough around the edges.

Capture great audio. Good sound can significantly impact how viewers experience your video.”

Creating Great Content Takes Planning

It takes an organized plan to get a content program rolling. Google’s tips for YouTube content are useful for creating a successful content strategy.


Global Getting Started Guide for Politicians (PDF)

Hdg Explains: How Does Wifi Work?

WiFi is a wireless networking technology that lets you connect your WiFi-enabled devices to a local network. Using WiFi you can transfer data between local network devices or connect to the internet, if a connection is available. Most people probably know this, since we all use WiFi every day, but how does WiFi actually work?

WiFi Is Radio

The most fundamental fact about WiFi is that it uses radio waves to transmit information. Radio waves are what we call a specific frequency range of electromagnetic radiation. Light is the portion of the spectrum our eyes are sensitive to, but is made of the same “stuff” as radio waves.

Table of Contents

WiFi uses two different frequencies for transmission: 2.4Ghz and 5Ghz. That’s 2,400,000,000 and 5,000,000,000 cycles per second respectively. This is pretty high compared to FM radio which has a frequency of only about 100Mhz.

The exact frequency of a radio wave changes a lot about its characteristics. With a higher frequency, you can pack more information into your signal. However, some frequencies don’t have very long ranges. 

Different frequencies also penetrate matter differently. Some frequencies can be bounced off the atmosphere, so your transmitter and receiver don’t need line-of-sight to work. Other frequencies just shoot straight out into space. That’s useful if you want to communicate with a satellite, not so much if the receiver is on Earth.

WiFi Is Digital

WiFi is radio, but it’s digital radio. That means the radio waves are modulated to carry digital code. WiFi is absolutely packed with digital information.

The latest and greatest WiFi technology has a theoretical speed limit of 4.8 Gbps, using four 1.2Gbps data streams at once. That’s 600 megabytes per second! Of course, theoretical speeds are determined in a lab under optimal conditions, but even in the real world modern WiFi is very fast.

WiFi Has Standards & Protocols

WiFi has been around for a long chúng tôi first commercial iteration of the technology was released all the way back in 1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) codified the WiFi standard, which is officially known as IEEE 802.11. The first generation of WiFi is known as 802.11a, but as time went by newer, better versions of WiFi were developed:







WiFi is not fully backwards compatible. You won’t find many modern devices that can still communicate with 802.11a devices. Many WiFi devices out there are “bgn” and will work with those three standards, which all use the 2.4Ghz frequency band. 802.11ac uses the 5Ghz band, but most of these routers are “dual band” and also offer 2.4Ghz to talk to older devices using older standards.

In practice backwards compatibility with WiFi is spotty, since some devices are locked to certain speeds within each respective standard. Newer routers may not let things go that slowly!

Incidentally, the whole “802.11” naming convention has been dropped. The latest 802.11ax is now known as WiFi 6, with 802.11 being WiFi 5 and so on.

WiFi Is Encrypted

Anyone can intercept WiFi radio waves, but thanks to digital encryption they can’t simply eavesdrop on what’s being sent and received. At least, this is the case if your WiFi network is password protected. 

Your WiFi password is also the encryption key, so anyone with the password can see all the data packets unfiltered. This is why you should only use websites that are HTTPS enabled and always use a VPN service if you’re using a public WiFi hotspot!

Your WiFi devices are most likely using WPA2. WPA is short for WiFi Protected Access and is a very strong encryption scheme for WiFi connections. However, over the years hackers have discovered various exploits that, in some cases, allow them to break the WPA2 encryption protocols. 

In 2023 the WiFi Alliance, which is the custodian of WiFi technology, announced WPA3. This new version improves security and plugs the security holes found in WPA2. Of course, it will be some time before all hardware out in the wild will support the new security standard.

WiFi Direct Is a Thing

WiFi was designed to use a central device such as a router to manage communication between devices. However, WiFi can also be used to directly connect two devices in what’s known as a “peer-to-peer” connection. This is very handy when, for example, you want to send a large file to someone’s smartphone from yours. 

This is also the type of WiFi that’s often used to cast video from a phone to a smart TV. When you use devices such as GoPro cameras or certain WiFi cameras drones, you’re also using a direct WiFi connection. Bluetooth gets most of the attention in the peer-to-peer wireless connection world, especially since it’s so energy efficient, but WiFi direct is fast and just as simple to use.

Routers, Repeaters & Mesh Networks

While direct WiFi connections are commonplace these days, the WiFi we all use most of the time make use of a hub-and-spoke design. In other words, all of your WiFi devices connect to a central device, which acts as the go-between. For most people, this is going to be the common WiFi router.

Modern routers boast multiple antennas, separating different frequency bands as well as the hardware that sends and receives WiFi data. These routers also handle your internet connection and any wired Ethernet devices on your network, allowing the wired and wireless networks to communicate with each other.

However, as we said above, WiFi signal ranges are pretty limited. Which means that the further you are from the router, the worse the signal strength is. A WiFi repeater can be used to extend that signal at the edge of the coverage range.

While repeaters work well enough, there’s a new trend towards “mesh” WiFi systems. Here, there’s no central router. Instead several smaller routers are spread across your home, connected to each other and providing a seamless cloud of WiFi. This is the WiFi technology most commonly used in large businesses, but it’s become affordable for home use.

Beyond WiFi

WiFi is around us more than ever, as all sorts of devices now have a need for a network connection. However, WiFi is not the only competing technology when it comes to wireless data transmission. Bluetooth rules the roost when it comes to low-power, short range connections. Future versions of Bluetooth may even give WiFi a run for its money when it comes to speed and range.

How To Add, Rearrange, Duplicate And Delete Pages In Pages On Mac

Knowing how to quickly and easily work with pages in the Apple Pages application is essential when creating lengthy documents. You may want to add a page in a specific spot, delete the one you no longer want, or rearrange them in a different order.

This tutorial shows you how to add, rearrange, duplicate, and delete pages in Pages on Mac.

Types of documents in Pages

Before we get into how to work with pages in Pages, it’s important to know that there are two different document types and the process for working with pages depends on the type.

Word-processing documents are the normal types for writing essays, reports, articles, and letters. The document is made up mostly of text.

Page Layout documents are what you use to create things like newsletters, flyers, and posters. The document consists of objects like text boxes and images.

Add a new page in Pages

While the process for adding a new page in Pages is basically the same for word-processing and Page Layout documents, it’s important to note that there is a difference in where the page will be placed.

Add a new word-processing page

1) Move your cursor to the spot in your document where you want the new page to appear.

Add a new Page Layout page

1) Select the page of your document where you want the new page to follow.

Rearrange pages in Pages

Rearranging your document pages differs completely depending on the document type with the Page Layout type being much simpler.

Rearrange word-processing pages

Technically, there is no way to just move pages around in a word-processing document, which is unfortunate. But there is a workaround that you can use, and here’s how. Say you have a five-page document and you want page two moved to the end.

1) Go to the end of page five and insert a new page as described in the steps above.

Rearrange Page Layout pages

Duplicate a page in Pages

Like with rearranging pages, duplicating a page in a Page Layout document is much easier than it is in a word-processing document.

Duplicate a word-processing page

Word-processing documents use Sections, and by default, the document is all one Section unless you specifically add more. So, you cannot just duplicate a single page (unless it’s its own section), you must duplicate the Section and delete what you don’t want.

2) You’ll then need to remove the unwanted pages for that section as described in the “Delete a page” steps to follow.

Duplicate a Page Layout page

Delete a page in Pages

Removing a single page from a document is, once again, simpler with a Page Layout document than a word-processing document. But of course, it can be done.

Delete a word-processing page

1) Go to the page you want to delete in your document and delete everything from the page.

Delete a Page Layout page

Working with pages in your document in Apple Pages on Mac can be a little tedious, depending on your document type and what you’re trying to accomplish. But there is a way or a workaround no matter what. Do you find working with pages in Pages easy or not?

Related tips:

Google+ May Charge For Custom Urls In The Future

A post yesterday on Social Media Today pointed out an aspect of the new Google+ Terms of Service for its custom URLs, which it has been rolling out gradually to all pages and profiles.

The second bullet states that Google+ may start charging for URLs in the future, with notice given before the fact. Google must have some faith that users will pay for a custom username; however, if a user isn’t a marketer or is just using their Google+ profile for personal reasons, they may not be so inclined.

Other Paid Social Media Networks

The concept of charging for social networks, either as a whole or for certain components, is not a new one. The Verge reported in September 2013 that Path, a private social network focused on sharing content with your inner circle, will begin selling monthly and annual subscriptions for access to virtual stickers and additional camera filters. Subscriptions range from $1.99 for the Android app, $4.99 for a 3 month iOS subscription, and $14.99 for an annual subscription on either platform.

Another example of a paid social network that has gotten some visibility is chúng tôi which was launched by Dalton Caldwell in August 2012. chúng tôi focuses on allowing users to have once account to connect to several different social applications, including HootSuite and Pocket.

The creators of chúng tôi are hoping that by promising users that they exclusively own their content and hosting a platform that is targeted specifically to developers, they can catch a market that is willing to pay.

LinkedIn is another example of a social network that has a freemium model (same as

No matter where paid social networks go next, the big question is: if the other big social media networks (Google+, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest) go paid with a freemium version, will users follow?

Would you pay for a custom Google+ URL? pricing screenshot taken 11/11/2013.

Hacker Book Author: Companies Too Stingy About Security

The author of a book on network security warns that most companies aren’t spending enough money to adequately protect themselves and most IT administrators are out of control of their own networks.

Top HP security architect Donald Pipkin recently released the second edition of his book, “Halting the Hacker: A Practical Guide to Computer Security.” Pipkin’s book looks at threats, tools and responses with a focus on countermeasures to protect HP-UX, Linux or Unix systems.

The man with 15 years of network security experience tells eSecurityPlanet that network and security administrators need to figure out exactly what their data is worth and put that figure in line with how much they’re spending on security. He also says he worries about all those stable old networks that were built before security was a major concern, and that users are adding devices and modems to corporate networks under IT’s radar.

Q: Is there a general profile of today’s corporate network hacker?

The hacker profile has become more diverse than it was a few years ago. Historically, the hacker has been the young, MIT student trying to figure out how things work and somewhat unaware of the consequences. Today, there are more people with malicious intent looking for ways to profit from hacking. Regular criminals have discovered that over the Internet they have greater access to people. A lot of it has to do with the amount of skill necessary. Early on, it required a lot of skill to know what worked. Today it’s more plug-and-play. Hacker tools are exploding on the market. You don’t have to create an exploit by yourself. It’s almost point-and-hack. You really don’t need to know anything but how to run the tools to break into a system.

Q: Are most companies adequately prepared for a network attack?

Most companies are taking basic precautions. There’s a lot of denial and there’s a lot of funding issues. Companies are spending money on viruses and things that have an immediate day-to-day impact. Those things have to be taken care of. But a lot of companies don’t have a good risk understanding of what a disgruntled employee or someone from the inside can have. I don’t think they’ve evaluated those risks. Employees can access porn sites. But they also can really do some damage. There’s more of a need for companies to do a big risk analysis.

Q: What could IT and security administrators do to improve their preparedness?

Do some disaster planning. Know what your data is and what it’s worth. What is the impact if that information is destroyed or disclosed or just taken and misused. It’s not just that my business can’t do business if the information is destroyed. But if it’s taken and misused, you have privacy issues to deal with. What is my level of liability if someone is injured by the information that is stolen and disclosed? With health care, think of the information they have about people. What if someone gets access to those records and misuses it? You have health care providers and insurance companies and all these people who have the right to see some of this information. How do you control that? It’s going to take a lot of time and resources to control that environment.

Q: What are a lot of companies doing wrong?

In the big picture, it’s probably still, boiled all down, the way they budget for security. A lot of companies say they have x million dollars budgeted for computer hardware and 10% of that budgeted for security. Security doesn’t just protect assets, but information. What is information worth? And shouldn’t you be paying some percentage of that for security? Security departments find themselves underfunded for the work they have.

Q: What part of the corporate network is generally the most vulnerable?

Outside hackers are coming in through unsanctioned connections. Users are installing their own modem or their own little wireless connection. Companies have done a good job of securing what they know they need to secure. But sometimes they don’t secure areas because they’re not even aware they exist. The technology is simpler today. The end users don’t have to rely on IT to do everything anymore. If they want to put in a modem and dial out to get their personal mail from somewhere on the Internet, they can do it. IT doesn’t know that these things are going on. Companies need to have a good education program, explaining to people that they need to let IT know what they’re doing so IT can help them do it safely. And companies should have a good scanning and monitoring system so they can tell when something ends up on their network.

Q: What tools are coming down the pike that you are most eagerly anticipating?

Centralized administration. I’ve always been a real big believer in enterprise security and enterprise management. We have such diversified systems scattered everywhere — servers and desktops and email. You have to have a way to control those — all the users and passwords and traffic and privileges. You have all kinds of problems there. Centralized administration will help with security because it will bring in consistency. You’ll be able to standardize — what passwords are changed and how often — you can rapidly assign and remove people from resources…a person’s ID is the same whether theyre on email or the mainframe or a server.

Q: What worries you the most?

My personal concerns have to do with the infrastructures that have been around for a long time. There are a lot of issues about when you have systems out there that are 15 or 20 years old. When you have old air traffic control systems or old systems running the oil pipeline across the country, there are security issues. When they get a system running, they leave it alone. But 15 or 20 years ago, people weren’t concerned about hacking. There are a lot of old systems out there that are vulnerable.

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