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The large majority of people working in IT procurement are “significantly dissatisfied” with the way SaaS (software as a service) vendors define contract language related to security, a feeling likely to persist through 2024, according to a Gartner report.

“Contractually, very little security language appears in the body of SaaS contracts,” Gartner analysts Jay Heiser and Alexa Bona wrote in the report. “Typically the security section contains little more than platitudes, stating that the provider will use ‘commercially reasonable efforts to establish and maintain security safeguards.’ These are often declared to be ‘in line with industry standards,’ which are mostly never defined.”

SaaS vendors also tend to give themselves the right to change security language at will, rather than adhere to a specific version, according to Gartner.

Gartner reviewed more than 100 SaaS vendors’ “master service agreements or service contracts and [service level agreements]” for the report, and found that providers “are extremely vague about the forms of service, and especially the levels of it.”

“They accept little or no financial responsibility for fulfillment of these vague commitments, so even if it is determined that these obligations were not met, the buyer has no recourse,” the report adds.

Guidelines needed

While a set of standards for SaaS vendor transparency are emerging, “they cannot be considered adequately mature,” Gartner said.

For example, there’s no consistent opinion regarding what constitutes a service-level agreement, according to the report. Generally, SLA contract terms refer to application uptime and the speediness of support call responses, which lend themselves readily to hard numbers. But other measures, such as “recovery time objectives,” are “not common across the industry,” Gartner said.

Customers signing SaaS deals should seek to include an array of protective language, including the ability to conduct periodic audits of the vendor’s security measures; vulnerability testing; “ongoing background checks for administrative personnel”; and the classification of security incidents or service losses “according to severity with differing response and notification requirements according to the level of security,” according to Gartner.

In addition, customers should ask SaaS providers to maintain liability insurance policies that name the customer as a beneficiary, Gartner said.

“Nearly all contracts have a force majeure clause that excludes several forms of catastrophic incident,” the report states. “If a failure simultaneously affected 1,000 customers, and each was entitled to $2 million of compensation, it would amount to a total payout of $2 billion. Ask service providers what their total liability would be in the case of a failure impacting all of their tenants, and demand evidence of adequately underwritten insurance.”

Gartner’s recommendations reflect a discussion that’s been ongoing in the software industry for some time as SaaS becomes mainstream.

Spending on SaaS totaled more than $14.5 billion in 2012 and is expected to top $22 billion by 2024, according to figures Gartner released last year.

Those numbers are being driven not only by growth in pure-play SaaS vendors such as chúng tôi but also due to the ongoing shift by traditionally on-premises software vendors like SAP and Oracle to SaaS delivery models.

The nature of SaaS buying is also changing. Procurement is increasingly occurring at the departmental level, such as in marketing or human resources, rather than as part of a centrally planned IT strategy, a trend that could exacerbate the contract risks cited by Gartner.

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What Is Euler’s Theorem In Information Security?

Euler’s theorem is a generalization of Fermat’s little theorem handling with powers of integers modulo positive integers. It increase in applications of elementary number theory, such as the theoretical supporting structure for the RSA cryptosystem.

This theorem states that for every a and n that are relatively prime −

$$mathrm{a^{phi left ( n right )}, equiv, 1left ( mod , n right ) }$$

where $mathrm{phi}$(n) is Euler’s totient function, which counts the number of positive integers less than n that are relatively prime to n.

Consider the set of such integers −

R = {x1, x2, … x$mathrm{phi}$(n)}, i.e., each element xi of R is unique positive integer less than n with ged(xi, n) = 1. Then multiply each element by a and modulo n −

S = {(ax1mod n), (ax2mod n), … (ax$mathrm{phi}$(n)mod n)}

Because a is relatively prime to n and xi is relatively prime to n, axi must also be relatively prime to n. Therefore, all the members of S are integers that are less than n and that are relatively prime to n.

There are no duplicates in S.

If axi mod n and n = axj mod n then xi = xj

Therefore,

$$mathrm{Pi _{i=1}^{phi left ( n right )}left ( ax_{i}, mod, n right )=Pi _{i=1}^{phi left ( n right )}, x_{i}}$$

$$mathrm{Pi _{i=1}^{phi left ( n right )}, ax_{i}equiv Pi _{i=1}^{phi left ( n right )}, x_{i}left ( mod, n right )}$$

$$mathrm{a^{phi left ( n right )}, xleft [ Pi _{i=1}^{phi left ( n right )}, x_{i} right ]=Pi _{i=1}^{phi left ( n right )}, x_{i}left ( mod, n right )}$$

$$mathrm{a^{phi left ( n right )}equiv 1left ( mod, n right )}$$

Euler Totient Function

Euler’s Totient function is the mathematical multiplicative functions which count the positive integers up to the given integer generally known as as ‘n’ that are a prime number to ‘n’ and the function can be used to understand the number of prime numbers that exist up to the given integer ‘n’.

Euler’s Totient function is also called as Euler’s phi function. It plays an essential role in cryptography. It can discover the number of integers that are both smaller than n and relatively prime to n. These set of numbers defined by $mathrm{Z_{n}^{*}}$ (number that are smaller than n and relatively prime to n).

Euler’s totient function is beneficial in several ways. It can be used in the RSA encryption system, which can be used for security goals. The function deals with the prime number theory, and it is beneficial in the computation of large calculations also. The function can be utilized in algebraic computation and simple numbers.

The symbol used to indicate the function is ϕ, and it is also known as phi function. The function includes more theoretical use instead of practical use. The sensible requirement of the function is limited.

The function can be better understood through the several practical examples instead of only theoretical explanations. There are several rules for computing the Euler’s totient function, and for different numbers, different rules are to be used.

The Euler totient function $mathrm{phi}$(n) calculates the number of elements in $mathrm{Z_{n}^{*}}$ with the help of the following rules −

$mathrm{phi}$(1) = 0.

$mathrm{phi}$(P) = P − 1 if P is a Prime.

$mathrm{phi}$(m x n) = $mathrm{phi}$(m) x $mathrm{phi}$(n) if m and n are relatively prime.

$mathrm{phi}$(Pe) = Pe − Pe−1 (if P is a prime. )

The following four rules can be combined to obtain the value of $mathrm{phi}$(n), factorize n as

$$mathrm{n=P_{1}^{e1}, x,P_{2}^{e2}xcdot cdot cdot P_{k}^{ek}}$$

$$mathrm{phi left ( n right )=left ( P_{1}^{e1}-P_{1}^{e1-1} right )left ( P_{2}^{e2}-P_{2}^{e2-1} right )xcdot cdot cdot xleft (P_{k}^{ek}-P_{k}^{ek-1} right )}$$

The difficulty of finding $mathrm{phi}$(n) depends on the difficulty of finding the factorization of n.

Virgin Mobile 3G Mobile Broadband, Zero Contract

What price freedom? In terms of 3G wireless Internet access, it’s about $40 to $60 per month, with a two-year contract. But unlike most other mobile broadband services from U.S. wireless carriers, Virgin Mobile USA’s new Broadband2Go service doesn’t shackle you while setting you free. You can use the wireless mobile broadband service as needed–no contract required.

The Back Story

On June 10, Virgin Mobile USA announced Broadband2Go, a nationwide (U.S.) mobile broadband service offering prepaid, contract-free Internet access using the Sprint data network.

To use Broadband2Go, you must first purchase a Virgin Mobile-branded USB modem built by Novatel Wireless. Currently, the compact $150 modem is sold by Best Buy.

You have four Virgin Mobile USA service plans from which to choose:

100MB of data for $10 (which expires in 10 days)

250MB for $20 (expires in 30 days)

600MB for $40 (expires in 30 days)

1GB for $60 (expires in 30 days)

Broadband2Go isn’t the only pay-as-you-go 3G option. Other 3G mobile broadband plans require a one- or two-year commitment and cost $40 per month and up. For example, Novatel Wireless’s MiFi device is available from Sprint and Verizon Wireless. If you pay full price for the MiFi ($400), you can then pay $15 per day for unlimited use, with no contract. Otherwise, you must agree to a contract and a monthly data plan ($40 monthly for up to 250BM and $60 monthly for up to 5GB).

The Setup: Do Try This at Home

I received a review unit of the Novatel Broadband2Go modem, along with coupons for using the service, the morning before leaving for Harmony Ridge Lodge, a handsome retreat in the Sierra foothills outside Nevada City, California. Having been to Harmony Ridge Lodge many times before, I know that Wi-Fi connectivity isn’t widespread across the property and cell phone coverage can be spotty. (The idea is to get away from it all, you see.)

You’re supposed to plug the modem into a USB port, follow a few on-screen prompts, and then you’re online. But my netbook didn’t recognize the modem and asked me to find the software driver for it. So I called Virgin Mobile’s toll-free tech support line. A representative suggested I pop the modem out, wait 30 seconds, and pop it back in. That did the trick, installing both the modem’s driver and the Broadband2Go software utility, which you use to connect and disconnect from the 3G data network.

By the way, in both instances, I found the Broadband2Go tech support representatives helpful, knowledgeable, and friendly.

The Connections

Back home in San Francisco, I found an unexpected use for Broadband2Go when I took my partner to a hospital (for a minor back injury) to be X-rayed. We were there for hours, and I was on deadline. There were only two Wi-Fi hotspots in the waiting area, both password-protected. I used the Broadband2Go modem and service to get online, so I could get my work done while we waited. The connection was stable and reasonably fast. Later, I used Broadband2Go at home and at a few other spots in San Francisco–including Ocean Beach on a beautiful day–without any difficulty and with good speeds and reliable connections.

The Wrap Up

Aside from a more complicated install than I had expected, my only complaint about the Broadband2Go service is the 10-to-30 day expirations tied to Virgin Mobile USA’s plans. Why not give customers 90 days (or longer) to use up their data plans?

Mobile Computing News, Reviews, & Tips

What Will Chrome Mean for Road Warriors? Google recently announced it’s working on the Chrome OS. Among Chrome OS’s promises are fast bootup time and strong security, two potential benefits of particular importance to mobile professionals.

Review: HTC Touch Pro 2 HTC’s new unlocked Touch Pro 2 smartphone ($800) is pricey and, like many Windows Mobile smartphones, pokey when launching apps or scrolling through contacts. But it’s a nice change from your typical smartphone and has a clean, modern look.

How Much Does It Cost to Own a Smartphone? Smartphones such as Apple’s iPhone 3G, which is now only $99, may seem like a good deal up front–but the costs can quickly add up. We did the math, and we discovered that the total cost of ownership over the life of a 2-year contract for a 16GB iPhone 3GS was $159.82 per month, or $3,835.75.

Suggestion Box

Contributing Editor James A. Martin offers tools, tips, and product recommendations to help you make the most of computing on the go. You can follow him on Twitter. Jim is also the co-author of Getting Organized in the Google Era, to be published in March 2010. Sign up to have Mobile Computing e-mailed to you each week.

Important Definitions Under Indian Contract Act, 1872

The Indian Contract Act 1872 is a piece of legislation that the British passed in India to regulate contracts and agreements. It was written to safeguard both parties from unfair terms they might not have been aware of when consenting to them and to lay out guidelines for what happens when one side violates the terms of the agreement. For persons who enter into agreements with others in India or overseas, this act, which is still in effect today, offers legal safeguards.

What does Indian Contract Act of 1872 Define?

The law that controls India’s contract law is known as the Indian Contract Act, which was passed by the Indian Parliament in 1872. The Act establishes the laws and guidelines that control the creation and enforcement of contracts in India. It explains the fundamental ideas of offer, acceptance, consideration, and the desire to establish legal relations. It also describes the legal repercussions of contract breach.

All agreements made in India, including those made by people, businesses, and the government, are subject to the Indian Contract Act, 1872. It is a thorough law that addresses every facet of contract law and offers a framework for addressing disagreements that arise from contractual interactions. To keep up with evolving commercial needs, the Act has undergone numerous amendments.

Rights under Indian Contract Act

There are two types of right which is guaranteed under Indian Contract Act 1872-

Right in rem

Right in personam

Example: A contract is made between Akku and Ram for the delivery of ten books on a specific day. If Ram does not provide the same to Akku, Akku may only sue Ram and not anyone else. This deal worries the rest of the globe.

Important Definition under Indian Contract Act 1872

The given table highlights terms that defined under the Indian Contract Act −

Important Definitions Sec 2(h)Contract Sec 2(e)Agreement Sec 2(d)Consideration Sec 2(b)Promise Sec 2(a)Proposal Sec 2(c)Promisor /Promisee Sec 2(f)Reciprocal Promises Sec 2(g)Void Agreement Sec 2(i)Voidable Contract Sec 2(j)Void Contract

Definition of Contract

Simply described, a contract is an agreement between two parties that is expressed in writing and that has specific obligations (promises) that must be fulfilled by both parties. When this written agreement is made enforceable by law, it is referred to as a contract. When an agreement is “enforceable by law,” it indicates that it only applies to the parties to it and that breaking any of its terms could result in legal action, including the termination of the entire agreement.

According to the Contract Act, a contract is “an agreement that is enforceable by Law.” An agreement between two parties is a settlement that includes commitments or pledges that both parties must keep. Such a deal becomes a contract when it is rendered legally binding.

According to Salmond, a contract is an arrangement between two or more people that establishes and specifies obligations and allows for the acquisition of rights by one or more parties to the actions or forbearance of others.

According to Anson: “The law of contracts is the area of law that establishes the conditions under which a promise shall be deemed legally binding on the maker.”

Definition of Agreement

As defined in Section 2(e), agreement. When two minds come to a consensus on a goal, an agreement is produced. They both concur on the same idea in the same way. Every promise and every combination of promises that serve as consideration for one another are referred to as agreements in Section 2(e). A contract is only formed when one party makes an offer and the other party accepts it.

Therefore, Offer + Acceptance = Agreement

Definition of Consideration

An offer made by person A to person B results in the formation of a contract when that offer is accepted by the other party.

Consideration is the value offered in exchange for keeping a promise. It need not be money, but it should be something that both parties have agreed upon and that has some value.

A contract without consideration is often void; however, Section 25 of the Contract Act lists some exceptions.

Though it need not be sufficient, consideration must have some worth. Performing an act or refraining from performing an act is considered consideration for a promise. The act of paying money is also a part of performing an act.

Definition of Promise

A contract whereby the promisor commits to acting in the other party’s best interests by performing or doing something for them.

When a promise is made, everything mentioned at the time in connection to it must be taken into account; as a result, if a guy makes a promise to pay whatever he owes while also denying that he owes anything, no action will be taken to carry out that promise. And when the promise is conditional, the condition must be met before it becomes binding. Express or implied promises are made.

Definition of Proposal

The Indian Contract Act of 1872 defines proposal as “when one person will indicate to another person his willingness to do or not do something (abstain) with a view to obtain the assent of such person to such an act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal or an offer” in Section 2(a).

Definition of Promisor/Promisee

When a promise is made, everything mentioned at the time in connection with it must be taken into account; as a result, if a guy makes a promise to pay whatever he owes while also denying that he owes anything, no action will be taken to carry out that promise. And when the promise is conditional, the condition must be met before it becomes binding. Express or implied promises are made.

One who makes a promise.

The promisor is obligated to follow through on his promise, unless it is against the law, such as a promise to steal or assault and battery; when the fulfillment is prevented by an act of God, such as when someone has promised to teach someone drawing but loses his sight and cannot do so; when the promisee prevents the promisor from carrying out his obligation; when the promisee has released the promisor from his obligation; or when the promise has been made without the promisor’s knowledge.

Definition of Reciprocal Promise

Sec 59 defines the definition of reciprocal promise as- It’s possible that the parties entered into the contract with the intention of performing legal actions. However, they agreed to commit crimes under particular circumstances after the contract was made. In this case, the previous legal acts are valid and the preceding illegal acts are held void.

Definition of Voidable Contract

The term ‘voidable’ signifies ‘capable of being voided’. A voidable contract is initially believed to be legitimate and enforceable, but if flaws are found, one party may reject it. The contract remains valid and enforceable if a party with the authority to reject it chooses not to reject it despite the flaw. In most cases, entering into a voidable contract only hurts one of the parties because that party doesn’t recognise the other party’s dishonesty or fraud.

Conclusion

Contracts are a daily occurrence for every man. As trade, business, and industry grow in modern civilization, so too does man’s capacity for contract-making. People can negotiate the finest deal possible for the aim of making contracts thanks to the law’s protection and conferral of rights.

Individuals are free to control and define their relationships however they see fit. The Indian Contract Act of 1872, which is a statute in India, lays out these general principles. As a result, contracts can operate legally and give those who are harmed by them recourse. As a result, one of India’s most significant laws is the Indian Contract Act of 1872.

FAQs

Q1. An agrees to trade B 500 kg of grains for 300 liters of oil. Is this a valid offer?

Ans. No, this is not a valid offer. The details of the offer are rather ambiguous. There is no mention of what oil A will be selling to B. Is it cooking or crude oil? There is no mention. Additionally, he will receive 500 kg of grains in exchange, though it is unclear which kind. Since the specific terms are not mentioned, this is not a valid offer.

Q2. What is a promise in a contract called?

Ans. Consideration is a promise, performance, or forbearance bargained by a promisor in exchange for their promise. Consideration is the main element of a contract. Without consideration by both parties, a contract cannot be enforceable.

Q3. Who defined the law of contract?

Ans. According to Anson, the law of contract is that branch of law which determines the circumstances in which a promise shall be legally binding on the person making it. According to Section 2(h) of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, An agreement enforceable by law is a contract.

Language Acquisition: Meaning And Significance

What is Language?

Language (from old French ‘language’ ‘language,’ and from Latin ‘lingua’ ‘the tongue’) was introduced by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure in 1915. It was used to refer to the two main components of speech, language, and parole, which are innate to all humans and are learned through heredity. It is sometimes claimed that these two components generally equate to competence and performance.

Language Acquisition

Language acquisition can be understood as how children learn a language. It is often used interchangeably with language development; however, language acquisition is preferred by those who highlight the child’s active involvement as a learner with significant innate linguistic knowledge.

One may wonder why a child would acquire language without learning or developing it.

Since the late 1950s, Noam Chomsky’s work and the nativist (generativist) ideas it inspired have impacted society, and this effect is reflected in the term “acquisition.” The phrase has linguistic roots and highlights the idea that grammar is activated by the environment rather than being learned. Additionally, it suggests that linguistics and other types of development are mostly independent of language development. The procedure relies on ingrained grammatical understanding, and its modeling is formalist, with very little weight given to experience.

Learning is a concept with ties to behaviorism and psychological roots. Skinner proposed the first scientific theory of how a language is learned in the late 1950s. It strongly emphasized hands-on learning and associative language acquisition, with adult reinforcement gradually influencing the child’s language development.

Stages of Language Acquisition

The distinct progression of stages children experience during the first five years of life is one of the most compelling arguments that language acquisition is genetically hardwired. Additionally, each stage has traits that remain constant over time. For instance, only nouns and verbs appear up until the two-word stage. Although kids will have heard these word classes in their environment, no child ever starts using conjunctions or prepositions. Overextending is another trait. Children always start learning semantics by extending the meaning of words. For example, suppose the first animal they encounter is a dog. In that case, they may start using the word “dog” to refer to all other animals. Alternatively, they may refer to all men as papa or use the spoon for all utensils. Children move from general to particular, which is the generalization made here.

To begin with, all linguistic levels of their language lack differentiation. As they repeatedly encounter things from their environment, they gradually introduce more and more distinctions. The ability to make distinctions between things in language may be related to cognitive development; the more discerning a child is in how they perceive and interpret the environment, the more they will try to represent that in their language.

Conditions of Language Acquisition

It includes  −

Learning a language comes naturally to kids and happens quickly.

Without Explicit Teaching

A first or native language can be learned without formal training, unlike learning a second language as an adult. Typically, parents do not teach their kids the grammar rules or dictate what sorts of phrases they may and cannot use. Language naturally evolves when children are exposed to linguistic input or from what they hear. Children are not often corrected, and even when they are, they rebel against it.

Based on Positive Evidence

Children should be informed by their parents of the limitations of the language they are exposed to; this type of information is referred to as negative evidence. Corrections are infrequent and do not appear to change how children speak. Many studies have been done to determine whether children have access to negative evidence from their parents’ disapproval or failure to comprehend, parents’ extension of what children say, and the frequency of parents’ reactions to children’s utterances. The widespread consensus is that not all kids are given negative evidence consistently, even though this issue is still hotly contested. Negative evidence is, therefore, not a credible source of information. By relying on positive evidence, such as the utterances they hear around them—a readily accessible resource—children have the best chance of succeeding in learning a language.

Under varying circumstances and in a limited amount of time

The conditions under which children pick up language vary, as does the linguistic information each child is exposed to. However, they all do so in a short period and with the same level of expertise. Although their vocabulary is still developing, they have grasped most of the language’s constructs by the time they are about five years old.

Logical Problem with Language Acquisition

Researchers have identified specific language acquisition issues. For starters, even though they only hear a limited number of sentences, children develop extensive language knowledge. Another issue is that children tend only to use data that supports their conclusions, that is, positive evidence. Children are not taught which sentences are poorly constructed or which interpretations are not permitted in their language, but gradually they learn this information; all mature speakers can determine whether a sentence is appropriate. Furthermore, youngsters’ “mistakes” do not always make the mistakes that would be anticipated if they extrapolate from verbal information. Children may hear phrases like “Whom do you want to invite?” and “Whom do you want to see?” but they do not automatically generalize these phrases to “Whom do you want to come?” or other impossibly difficult English phrases. Even though this generalization seems sensible, kids never say anything like that.

Conclusion

Tim Cook Sends Email To Apple Employees Regarding Management Changes

Earlier today, Apple announced some major changes to its management team. The company’s SVP of iOS Software, Scott Forstall, will be leaving next year, as will SVP of Retail John Browett. Other executives, particularly Jony Ive, will be picking up Forstall’s responsibilities, and a search is underway for Browett’s replacement.

This afternoon, Tim Cook sent an internal email to Apple employees regarding the management changes, and thanked Scott for his many years of service. We’ve got that email after the break…

Tim Cook’s letter to employees, via 9to5Mac:

“Team,

We are in one of the most prolific periods of innovation and new products in Apple’s history. The amazing products that we’ve introduced in September and October – iPhone 5, iOS6, iPad mini, iPad, iMac, MacBook Pro, iPod touch, iPod nano and many of our applications – could only have been created at Apple, and are the direct result of our relentless focus on tightly integrating world-class hardware, software and services.

Jony Ive will provide leadership and direction for Human Interface (HI) across the company in addition to his longtime role as the leader of Industrial Design. Jony has an incredible design aesthetic and has been the driving force behind the look and feel of our products for more than a decade. The face of many of our products is our software and the extension of Jony’s skills into this area will widen the gap between Apple and our competition.

Eddy Cue will take on the additional responsibility of Siri and Maps. This places all of our online services in one group. Eddy and his organization have overseen major successes such as the iTunes Store, the App Store, the iBookstore and iCloud. They have an excellent track record of building and strengthening our online services to meet and exceed the high expectations of our customers.

Bob Mansfield will lead a new group, Technologies, which combines all of our wireless teams across the company in one organization, allowing us to innovate in this area at an even higher level. This organization will also include all of our semiconductor teams, who have some very ambitious plans. As part of this, I am thrilled to tell you that Bob will remain with Apple for an additional two years. Bob has led some of our most challenging engineering projects for many years.

Additionally, John Browett is leaving Apple. Our search for a new head of Retail is already underway. In the meantime, the Retail team will report directly to me. Retail has an incredibly strong network of leaders at the store and regional level, and they will continue the excellent work they’ve done over the past decade to revolutionize retailing with unique, innovative services and a focus on the customer that is second to none. This phenomenal team of talented and dedicated people works their hearts out making our customers happy. They have our respect, our admiration and our undying support.

Please join me in congratulating everyone on their new roles.

I’d like to thank everyone for working so hard so that Apple can continue to make the world’s best products and delight our customers. I continue to believe that Apple has the most talented and most innovative people on the planet, and I feel privileged and inspired to be able to work with all of you.

Best,

Tim”

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