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DROID BIONIC Revealed in Full Hardware Photos [UPDATE: Videos Too!]

The mobile world has been waiting for a device which combines a dual-core processor with the speed of Verizon’s 4G LTE network since CES this past January. It was at this Consumer Electronics Show that the DROID Bionic was originally revealed, a device which combined an unnamed dual-core processor with the ability to run at what Verizon was then noting was up to 10 times faster than 3G with their 4G LTE network. What we’ve got now is a mobile environment where LTE has been worked into three Android smartphones, dual-core processors are in more than five smartphones, but there’s still no combination of the two – by the looks of the photos in this post, that’s about to change very soon.

This same device was seen on the 5th of this month as well in two photos, one showing the front of the device with a battery charging symbol, perhaps pointing to the idea that it needs more than your average charge during a normal day, and another showing the device’s display sitting next to the DROID Charge, showing its size to clearly be larger than the Charge’s 4.3-inch screen, this indicating a 4.5-inch display that would content with the recently revealed Samsung Hercules, also known as T-Mobile’s version of the Samsung Galaxy S II. The first of these two photos also indicates that the edges of the glass covering the display of the device could be curved slightly downward as is the trend in recent high-end smartphones utilizing the super-strong display cover known as Gorilla Glass.

Update: we’ve now got our own hands-on video and photos with the DROID BIONIC – check it out!DROID BIONIC Hands-on:

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What the newest set of photos shows is again the possibility of curved glass on the front of the device as shown by the light hitting the front lower left of the device, as well as the Verizon logo in the lower right, Motorola in the center on the top near the speaker grill, an at least reasonably bright display, four Android buttons below, and a standard looking border around the whole screen. Along the left side of the device you’ll see a recognizable microUSB and microHDMI post combination, this indicating that docks similar to that which we’ve seen on the Motorola ATRIX and Motorola PHOTON 4G will be in order – this same setup can be seen on the side of the recent DROID 3 just released on Verizon as well.

The right side of the device shows a simple volume rocker, and the back shows the same 8-megapixel camera we’ve seen in the past along with a speaker grille in the opposite corner, Motorola symbol, 4G LTE logo, Verizon logo, and “with Google” logo. All of this facing in a direction that indicates the device is meant to be held in a landscape mode, again, for docking purposes.

What do you think? Look like the Motorola device for you? Or will you be banking on the Samsung Galaxy S II with a possibility for no LTE? How about thinness? Everyone knows that the Samsung Galaxy S II is and will continue to be the thinnest smartphone on the market – does the bulk of the DROID Bionic turn you off? — Thanks for the tip Josh!

UPDATE: Additional FCC photos added in gallery below:

UPDATE 2: Videos now added to the fold courtesy of Android Community:

Unboxing and Apps Overview

Boot Screen, Lock Screen, Speed Test

Another Speed Test

CF Bench Benchmarking App

Settings and Quadrant Benchmarking App

LTE web-based video playback

Another Quadrant Benchmark

Live Wallpapers, Camera App, NFL Mobile App and video playback

1080p Video filmed WITH Droid BIONIC Inside Room

1080p Video filmed WITH Droid BIONIC Outside Overcast

1080p Video filmed WITH Droid BIONIC Outside Partly Cloudy

[via GottaBeMobile]

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Motorola Droid X2 Review: Dual

With a gorgeous display and dual-core power, the Droid X2 won’t disappoint gamers or multimedia addicts, but video capture is terrible and you don’t get 4G data speeds.

The hotly anticipated follow-up to last year’s Droid X, the Motorola Droid X2 ($200 with a two-year contract from Verizon) isn’t all that different from the original Droid X, with two big exceptions: a dual-core processor and a qHD display (explained below). Though this is the first dual-core phone from Verizon (it runs on an Nvidia Tegra 2 processor), it misses out on any extra boost from Verizon’s 4G LTE network, as the Droid X2 is only a 3G phone. The X2 excels when it comes to handling video, apps, and other productivity features, but the camera isn’t great, and I wish Motorola would just drop the Motoblur user interface.


The 4.3-inch display dominates the face of the X2 with the same four thin, rectangular buttons lying below it (the usual Menu, Home, Back, and Search) buttons. On the left spine, you’ll find both a micro-USB port and an HDMI port for connecting your phone to your HDTV. On the right spine is the volume rocker, which is nicely recessed into the side of the phone. At the top, you’ll find the 3.5-mm headphone jack and the power/lock switch.

The X2’s 4.3-inch display might be the same size as the original, but this one is a qHD display, which stands for Quarter High Definition. This means the display has a resolution of 960 by 540 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio. This resolution is one-quarter of a full HD 1080p frame (hence the name) and is three-quarters of a 720p frame. The result is crisper details, brighter colors, and better viewing angles.

MotoBlur: Improved, but Not Perfect

Like the Droid X, the X2 runs Android 2.2 with Motoblur. Verizon says that the phone will be upgraded to Android 2.3 (Gingerbread), but the carrier didn’t specify when. The X2’s version of Motoblur is a slightly updated version of what comes on the Droid X and other Motorola Droid phones.

When Motoblur first launched on the Motorola Cliq, it was a mess of chaotic bubbles taking over your home screen with Facebook status updates from high-school friends you no longer speak to and alerts from random RSS feeds. Motoblur has been reduced to home-screen widgets, which you can sync with your social networks.

Some of the things I found annoying about Motoblur have been fixed (like the Gallery, which I’ll discuss below), but it still isn’t perfect. I don’t find that Motoblur really adds much to Android aesthetically or in productivity.


Other than these improvements, I must again lament Motoblur. The camera interface isn’t as intuitive as it is on other Android phones, such as HTC’s, or the standard Android camera app for that matter. For example, if you want to change the exposure, you can’t access the setting from the touch menu when you’re in shooting mode. Instead, you have to hit the physical Menu

Overall, the 8-megapixel camera took good pictures. Of course, snapshots taken outdoors looked better than the ones I shot inside. Colors looked bright and natural, but details weren’t as sharp as I’ve seen on other cameras. Indoor photos had a bit of a dark cast to them, but looked pretty good when I had enough lighting. Photos taken in a dark restaurant looked decent, but not as sharp. I tried the LED flash to see if that would help, but it completely blew out the colors and the whites of my subject (a fake rose on a table; see image above).

Video capture was dismal. As you can see from the sample clip below, the X2’s camcorder had a hard time handling fast-moving action. It had lots of ghosting, blurring, and even some crazy distortion when a bunch of cars went by at once. The video clip below pretty much speaks for itself:

In fairness, I also shot some videos of slow-moving objects (a wind-up toy, my coworkers), but I still noticed ghosting and artifacting, albeit not as pronounced.

Unlike many of the high-end phones we’ve seen, the X2 has no front-facing camera for making video calls. I can’t say I’m exactly surprised, however. Video calls over 3G aren’t exactly ideal in terms of quality and consistency.

Multimedia and Browsing

The Droid X2 is made for watching video and playing games. The dual-core processor helped games run smoothly, while the 4.3-inch display showcased colors, details, and actions brilliantly. I downloaded some games with 3D graphics–Speed Forge 3D, for example–and was impressed with how flawlessly the game ran.

The X2 has a new app called Mirror Mode, which lets you view and share your photos, videos, and downloaded movies on a HDTV via the HDMI output. An HDMI cable for this is unfortunately not included with the Droid X; you’ll have to buy it separately.

Besides your usual VCast suite of video and music apps, the Droid X2 comes loaded with other Verizon standbys (bonus apps or bloatware, depending on how you look at it) such as NFL Mobile, NFS Shift, Skype, Slacker QuickOffice, and more.

Web browsing on the X2 is fantastic. Pages loaded quickly over 3G, and even faster over Wi-Fi. Scrolling and zooming into text was silky smooth. Flash 10 videos played superbly as well. The browser has some nice little tweaks, such as the Bookmarks toolbar, which shows you thumbnail-size versions of your favorite pages. Page history is clustered into groups that can be opened and viewed in the same manner.


Call quality over Verizon’s 3G network in San Francisco was very good. My callers sounded clear and natural with an ample amount of volume. Overall, my friends were very pleased with how my voice sounded over the network.

I haven’t had a chance to formally test the battery life of the X2, but I was impressed with how the battery held up after a full day and a half of testing. I needed to plug it in only at the very end of my testing.

Bottom Line

If you’re holding out for the ultimate Verizon phone–one with a dual-core processor and LTE 4G speeds–you might want to go with the Motorola Droid Bionic, which has been hotly anticipated since CES in January. But if you don’t have 4G coverage in your area, or you don’t want to pay a premium to use 4G, you’ll be happy with the Droid X. Gamers, in particular, will appreciate the large, high-resolution display combined with the power of a dual-core processor. However, if you plan on shooting HD videos with your phone, go with an HTC or Samsung phone–heck, even the iPhone 4. The X2’s video capture is probably the worst we’ve seen from a high-end smartphone.

Nike Mag Official Details Released In Full

NIKE MAG Official Details Released in Full [Updated with Max Detail]

It’s time for the “greatest shoe never made” to make its real life debut, and with the fact that they’re being touted as precise replicas, down to “the contours of the upper, the glowing LED panel and the electroluminescent NIKE in the strap.” This should all bode well for the method in which the shoes will be released, that being 1500 limited-edition pairs of the 2011 NIKE MAG, all of them auctioned off in the very near future on eBay with all net proceeds to go directly to The Michael J. Fox Foundation for a future without Parkinson’s disease.

There will be ten days of auctions, each of the days containing one hundred and fifty pairs of the greatest pair of shoes in history (future history). The 2011 NIKE MAG shoes will be listed up on eBay’s Fashion Vault and the entire massive ball of fire that is the auction set starts on September 8, 8:30PM PST and will all end on September 18. To make this pot even sweeter, a previous 50 million dollar match given to the Michael J. Fox Foundation will be, as NIKE says, “effectively doubling the contributions from the auction.” [UPDATE: this cash is from Google!**] Seem like a sweet enough deal for one of the sweetest sneaker releases in the history of the future? Back to the Future, that is!

As NIKE says, the following is a set of factoids about the 2011 NIKE MAG:

The original NIKE MAG was worn by the Back to the Future character Marty McFly, played by Michael J. Fox, in the year 2023. It came alive, lit up and formed to Marty’s foot. The 2011 NIKE MAG shoe was designed to be a precise replica of the original from Back to the Future II. The aesthetic is an exact match, down to the contours of the upper, the glowing LED panel and the electroluminescent NIKE in the strap. The 2011 NIKE MAG illuminates with the pinch of the “ear” of the high top, glowing for five hours per charge.

The 2011 NIKE MAG – It’s About Time.

Check out the shoes in the high-res photos above and below, check out the ultra-amazing reveal video below, and if you’re a really nice reader and want to make your humble narrator do a somersault of joy, go ahead and buy a few pairs and send em Minnesota way.

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Welcome Back to the Future, where the most widely anticipated pair of sneakers ever conceived have been all but confirmed by NIKE as being about to come into existence – IT’S ABOUT TIME. In a teaser handed out to select sneaker-heavy publishing groups, a midnight call from NIKE quickly turned into a room with only a black box with the swoop logo on it, an iPod Shuffle, and a card which read “Play Me.” Once Dr. Emmett Brown was heard saying “Welcome to Los Angeles. If my calculations are correct, over the next 24 hours you are about to see some SERIOUS SH*T!”, the publisher’s next move was to open the box and find a pair of the Doc’s classic 2023 shades and a message that invited them to an event that promised nothing less than the sneakers themselves!

Check out this tiny gallery of the physical bits as spoken about in the paragraph above, then head even lower in this post to see the epic first official teaser as presented by NIKE in secret also inside the past 24 hours of total salivation in anticipation.

Then, because we love you, it’s time of course to get another glimpse of the very first time we laid eyes upon these epic, epic shoes, courtesy of Dr. Emmett Brown, Marty McFly, and the folks of the 2023 future world of Back to the Future II:

Power laces, alright!

UPDATE: a bit more information and some photographs from HighSnobiety as they’re at the official NIKE release event with a real live pair of the shoes: the foam support in the ankle and toe box are amongst the only modifications made compared to the original form of the Back to the Future screen-ready shoe, both of these increased for comfort and actual real-world wearability. These sneakers represent the first “rechargeable” footwear ever offered by NIKE, each of the shoes able to hold a five hour charge for the MAG illumination (again, activated by a pinch of the “ear” of the sneaker).

One of perhaps the most important things to note here is the fact that these sneakers do note “self-lace” as the patent from 2010 made by NIKE would suggest. Another point to make is that this release isn’t quite pinpointed to 2023, the year when the sneakers “first appeared” in the Back to the Future film series. Does this mean that this is only the first wave of these shoes? We’ve got a few more years to wait and see!

UPDATE 2: First, have a look at a segment released today by EA Sports called “Two Steps from Greatness” about Tinker Hatfield. For those of you unaware of the greatness that is NIKE VP Tinker Haven Hatfield, he’s the designer of a few shoes you may have heard of including Air Jordans 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16, and 20, and of course, the original NIKE MAG sneakers for the Back to the Future II film and now the re-imagining of said shoe for this 2011 release. Check out the segment where he speaks about the 2011 NIKE MAG here:

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There’s a video scene out there promoting the shoes, (that we’ll be finding soon, I’m sure), made to replicate the original film series that’ll be called a “lost scene” and will star Christopher Lloyd (the Doc) and Donald Fullilove (Mayor Goldie Wilson), as well as basketball star Kevin Durant and the greatest sneaker designer of all time, Tinker Hatfield. Can’t wait!

Then there’s the 2 minute high-quality viral video that goes with this whole project, it featuring each of the actors/etc listed above along with Bill Hader of Saturday Night Live fame selling some shoes at a NIKE store – check out what Hatfield says and note the date at which the Doc travels forward to – are we looking at another less exclusive release in the future? We’ll see!

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How To Reduce Hardware Reserved Memory In Windows 11/10

When it comes to computer performance, one of the most critical factors is memory or RAM (Random Access Memory). A computer’s RAM plays a crucial role in its ability to process multiple tasks simultaneously.

However, in some cases, you may notice that a portion of your computer’s RAM is marked as “Hardware Reserved Memory.” This issue is common to both Windows 11 and Windows 10 operating systems. In this article, we’ll delve deeper into what Hardware Reserved Memory is, why it is so high on some computers, and how you can reduce it.

Hardware Reserved Memory refers to the portion of your computer’s RAM that is reserved for hardware devices such as a GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), sound card, network adapter, and other hardware components. This memory is set aside to ensure that these hardware components have enough memory to function correctly.

You can check the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory on your Windows 11 computer by following these steps:

Scroll down to the “Hardware Reserved” section to see how much of your installed memory is reserved for hardware devices.

That’s it! You can now see the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory on your Windows 11 or Windows 10 computer using the Task Manager.

The amount of Hardware Reserved Memory on your computer depends on the hardware components installed on your computer. If your computer has a high-end GPU, sound card, and other hardware devices, they will require more memory to function correctly. Therefore, the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory will be higher.

On some computers, you may notice that almost half of the total installed RAM is hardware reserved. For example, if you have 16GB of RAM installed on your computer, you may notice that only 8GB is available for use, with the other 8GB marked as Hardware Reserved.

Related issue: 16GB RAM Installed Only 8GB Usable in Windows 11

The main reason for Hardware Reserved Memory being too high is the hardware components installed on your computer. High-end GPUs and other hardware components require more memory to function correctly. Additionally, some software programs and device drivers can also contribute to high Hardware Reserved Memory.

Suggested read: Why is My Memory Usage So High When Nothing is Running?

The impact of Hardware Reserved Memory on system performance depends on how much memory is reserved. If a significant portion of your RAM is reserved, it can limit the amount of memory available to run applications and multitask.

This can lead to slower system performance and longer load times for applications. In extreme cases, a high amount of Hardware Reserved Memory can cause your system to run out of memory, which can result in crashes or freezes.

There are several steps you can take to reduce the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory on your computer:

See also: How to Clear RAM Cache in Windows 11

If you have a CPU with integrated graphics, it may be using a portion of your RAM as video memory. You can adjust the amount of memory allocated to your integrated graphics card in your computer’s BIOS settings.

To adjust the amount of RAM allocated to your integrated graphics card, follow these steps:

Restart your computer and enter the BIOS setup by pressing the appropriate key (usually F2, F10, or Del) during startup.

Navigate to the “Advanced” or “Chipset” settings.

Look for an option called “Integrated Graphics Share Memory“, “Internal Graphics Memory Size” or something similar.

Adjust the memory allocation as desired and save your changes.

Note that reducing the amount of memory allocated to your integrated graphics card can potentially impact the performance of graphics-intensive applications. Be sure to test your system thoroughly after making any changes to the BIOS settings.

Warning: Making incorrect changes in your computer’s BIOS settings can cause serious issues. Therefore, it’s crucial to ensure that you understand the changes you’re making and their potential impact on your system before adjusting any settings in the BIOS. If you’re not confident in making these changes yourself, it’s recommended that you seek the help of a professional or the manufacturer of your computer. Additionally, if you have messed up your BIOS settings by accident, you may want to try clearing the CMOS to reset the BIOS to its factory defaults.

If your computer has a dedicated graphics card installed, you may be able to disable the integrated GPU to reduce the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory. To disable the integrated GPU, follow these steps:

Restart your computer and enter the BIOS setup by pressing the appropriate key (usually F2, F10, or Del) during startup.

Navigate to the “Advanced” or “Chipset” settings.

Look for an option called “Integrated Graphics“, “Onboard Graphics” or something similar.

Set the “Integrated Graphics” option to “Disabled.”

Save your changes and exit the BIOS setup.

Also see: How to Force App or Game to Use Dedicated GPU or Integrated Graphics

Note that disabling the integrated GPU may cause your system to rely solely on a dedicated graphics card, which may not be capable of handling all of your graphics needs. Before disabling the integrated GPU, be sure to verify that your dedicated graphics card is functioning properly and capable of handling all of your graphics needs. In case of

Windows 11/10 has a feature that allows you to adjust the maximum amount of memory that the system can use. To do this, follow these steps:

Go to Start menu and search for “msconfig“.

Select “System Configuration” from the search result.

In the Advanced Options window, check the “Maximum memory” option and set the maximum amount of memory that you want to allocate to the system.

Note that this setting will not affect the amount of memory reserved for hardware devices.

As mentioned earlier, some hardware devices can reserve memory that is not necessary for their proper functioning. By disabling these devices, you can free up some of the reserved memory. To do this, follow these steps:

Press the Windows key + X to open the Quick Link menu.

Select “Device Manager.”

In the Device Manager window, locate the hardware device that you want to disable.

Repeat this process for any other unnecessary hardware devices.

Note that disabling necessary hardware devices can cause issues with your system, so be sure to only disable devices that you do not need.

Outdated or faulty device drivers can sometimes cause issues with your system’s memory management. Updating your device drivers, especially graphics drivers, can sometimes help to reduce the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory.

To update your device drivers, follow these steps:

Select “Device Manager.”

In the Device Manager window, locate the hardware device for which you want to update the driver.

Follow the on-screen instructions to update the driver.

Hardware Reserved Memory can significantly impact your computer’s performance by limiting the amount of memory available to run applications and multitask. By following the steps outlined in this article, you can reduce the amount of Hardware Reserved Memory on your Windows 11/10 computer and improve its performance.

It’s essential to strike a balance between reducing Hardware Reserved Memory and ensuring that your hardware devices have enough memory to function correctly. By taking the time to optimize your computer’s memory management, you can achieve the best possible performance from your system.

Shoot, Edit, And Manage Photos In Android

With your Android device at hand, you may never need to carry a camera again. The Android operating system packs enough photo functionality to let you take top-notch pictures and edit images on the fly. Learn how to harness that power, and capture memorable moments in a snap.

The Android Camera

Whether you have an Android tablet or phone, you can always access your device’s camera by tapping the Camera app icon in the main app drawer. (If you like, you can place this icon on your home screen as a shortcut.) Some phones also have a dedicated hardware button for loading the camera on demand.

When you open the Android camera, you’ll see a large viewfinder plus a few on-screen buttons. Thanks to manufacturer-specific modifications, the specifics of the layout vary somewhat from one device to the other, but you’ll always find the same basic functions: a large shutter button for snapping a photo, a switch to toggle between your device’s still photo and video-recording modes, and an icon for opening your device’s gallery of stored multimedia.

Finally, if your device has a front-facing camera as well as a rear-facing one, you’ll find a switch to toggle between the two lenses.

Viewing and Editing Photos

Every image you capture is stored in the Android Gallery app, which is accessible from the main app drawer as well as from the Camera app itself. Within the Gallery, you’ll find all of your images organized into different folders based on how you obtained them.

You can tap on any folder to view the files inside, then swipe through the various thumbnails and tap on any one to view the image at full-screen size.

When viewing an image, you can pinch to zoom in or out. You can also tap the image to bring up a series of additional options (on a phone, the options will typically appear at the bottom of the screen; on a tablet, they’ll be in the top-right corner). These options provide quick ways to delete the image; to share it via Bluetooth, email, text message, Picasa, or any social networking app installed on your phone; to set the image as your main system wallpaper or as an icon for someone in your contacts list; and to rotate or crop the image.

To move among different images within any folder, simply swipe left or right on the screen. You can also use the commands at the top-left of the screen to return to the folder’s main page.

The Gallery app allows you to play a slideshow of your photos, too. Just look for the Slideshow option, at the bottom of the screen on a phone or at the top-right of the screen on a tablet.

Editing Images

Another useful app is the PicSay Photo Editor. This free app includes tools for color-correcting images and for applying a variety of visual effects. The PicSay Pro edition–priced at about $4.30–adds a bevy of additional photo-editing features, ranging from painting tools to red-eye removal utilities.

Image Widgets

With Android’s widgets, you can bring your favorite images right onto your device’s home screen. Android has a built-in picture frame widget that lets you frame a single photo on the screen. Some tablets and phones come with extra manufacturer-added options as well.

Looking for something more? The Android Market offers several robust photo widgets, such as the aptly named Android Photo Widget. A free version of the program gives you a choice of three frame sizes and about four dozen frame styles. It’ll cycle through up to 10 of your photos at an interval of your choosing.

The paid version of the app, available for about $2.15, will cycle through as many of your photos as you like. It also has extra size options and the ability to pull images from the Internet to include in the rotation.

Other Ways to Get Images

Besides using photos that you’ve snapped yourself, you can download images to your device from the Web or transfer them directly from your computer. Any image you save onto your device, regardless of where you store it, will always show up in the Android Gallery application.

To grab an image from the Web, simply press and hold your finger on it while in your device’s browser. A menu will pop-up with the option to save the image to your storage.

What Is Dom In Selenium Webdriver: Structure, Full Form

What is DOM in Selenium WebDriver?

DOM in Selenium WebDriver is an essential component of web development using HTML5 and JavaScript. The full form of DOM is Document Object Model. DOM is not a computer science concept. It is a simple set of interfaces standardized among web developers to access and manipulate documents in HTML or XML using JavaScript.

This tutorial aims to cover basic concepts of HTML document structure and how to manipulate it using JavaScript. We will cover the following topics in this tutorial:

Understanding the DOM Structure

You will need to understand the DOM structure if you are building any website that involves scripting using JavaScript. Understanding DOM is even more critical if you are doing any one or all of the following complicated tasks in your website –

Developing content that updates itself continuously without refreshing the entire page – like current price of all the stocks in your user’s portfolio

Developing content that is customizable by user – like ability to change the layout so that Mutual funds portfolio appears before stocks portfolio

Developing responsive content in your website thus making your website adapt to different media screens viz. iPhone, desktop, tablet etc. automatically

A basic HTML page

my first article

How does it look like to a browser’s DOM PARSER? How do you access the body element?

var body = window.document.body;

How do you say “Hello World”? Finally the entire HTML file will look like

Open Windows Notepad and paste the following content inside it. Then save the file as “MyFileNewFile.html” (ensure that your file name ends with .html).

Finally just open the file using any one of your preferred browser and you will see “Hello World!”

Components of DOM in Selenium

Below are the main components of DOM is Selenium WebDriver:





Window is the object that contains the document object in a DOM. It sits on top of everything.

To get to a window object from a given document

var window = document.defaultView;

In a tabbed environment each tab has its own window object. However, if one would like to catch and implement events like window.resizeTo and window.resizeBy they apply to the entire window and not to the tab alone.

Properties of Window Object in DOM

window.localStorage – gives access to browser’s local storage. The local storage can be used to store and retrieve data from a session.

window.localStorage.setItem(‘name’,’xyz’); var name = window.localStorage.getItem(‘name’);

Useful Methods of Window Object

window.alert() – displays an alert dialog with a message.

window.alert(‘say hello’);

There are many useful events which window object exposes. We will discuss them in “Events” section under Advance Topics


Document marks the beginning of a DOM tree. Document is the first node in a DOM. It has several methods and properties, whose scope applies to the entire document like URL, getElementById, querySelector etc.

Properties of Document Object in DOM

Document.documentURI and chúng tôi – They both return current location of the document. If, however, document is not of type HTML chúng tôi will not work.

Document.activeElement – This method returns the element in the DOM which is in focus. This means if a user is typing in a textbox, Document.activeElement will return reference to that textbox.

Document.title – This is used to read or set a title of a given document.

Useful Methods of Document Object

var label = Document.getElementById(‘introDiv’); label.setInnerHTML(‘say hello again’);

Document.querySelectorAll(String selector) – this is another widely used method to select one more elements based on rules of CSS selector (if you are familiar with jQuery’s $ notation, that itself uses this method). We will not delve into CSS selectors much. CSS selector is set of rules by which you may get a list of similar elements (based on the selector rule). We have used this method before in “Hello World” section.


Element Object in DOM

Element is any object represented by a node in a DOM tree of a document. As always, Element object itself is just a contract of properties, methods and events between a browser and an HTML document. There are special kinds of Elements like HTMLElement, SVGElement, XULElement etc. We will focus only on HTMLElement in this tutorial.

Properties of Element Object in DOM

chúng tôi – This property can be used to set or read “ID” (a unique identifier) for an HTML element. ID has to be unique among the elements in a DOM tree. As mentioned before, ID is also used by Document.getElementById method to select a particular Element object within a DOM tree.

HTMLElement.contentEditable – contentEditable property of an element determines if the content is of that element is editable/modifiable. This property can be set as shown in the script below. This property can also be used to determine if a given element is editable or not. Try the following script inside any HTML body and you will notice you can edit any content of the body.

document.body.contentEditable = true;

Element.innerHTML – innerHTML is another important property which we use to access HTML content inside an element. It is also used to set new HTML content of the element. It is widely used to set/change the content of data fields. Say for example you want your webpage to update temperature of Mumbai City every hour you may run the script in the following example every hour.

document.getElementById(‘tempValue’).innerHTML = ’26’;

Useful Methods of Element Object

Element.querySelectorAll – This method is similar to the already discussed querySelector method for the document object. This method however will limit its search within the descendants of the element itself.

Debugging in DOM

Developer tools of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer (10 or above) or Safari allow easy debugging right inside the browser. Sometimes different browsers interpret same HTML markup differently and that is when debugging helps you inspect the DOM as has been interpreted by that particular browser’s DOM engine.

Now, let us say you want to change the temperature value from 26oC to 32oC in your last example. We will take few simple steps to do that. Screenshots shown here are from Mozilla’s Firefox– however, the steps are same in all other browsers.

Open chúng tôi (or whatever name you gave to your HTML file in tutorials above) using your browser

Notice that the element where you chose to “Inspect Element” is shown highlighted in your browser (debugger window usually appears on the bottom of the screen)

Notice the change in content of your HTML page. You may close the debugging window now.

Note that your changes will only be persisted for this session. As soon as you reload or refresh (hit F5) the page the changes will be reverted back. This indicates you did not change the actual HTML source but just the local interpretation of your browser.

As a fun exercise try doing the following. Open chúng tôi in your browser and use the debugger tool to get following the result – notice how it says “I have hacked Facebook”.

DOM Events What are Events in DOM?

Method 1

document.getElementById(‘tempValue’).innerHTML = ’26’;

document.getElementById(‘tempValue’).innerHTML = ’32’; }

Method 2

document.getElementById(‘tempValue’).innerHTML = ’26’; document.getElementById(‘tempValue’).innerHTML = ’32’ },false);

Troubleshooting in DOM

Q. How do I know if an element exists or not?

A. Try looking up the element using any of the selector and check if the element returned is a null. See example below –

if(document.getElementById("elementIDWhichIsNotPresentInDOM") === null) { }

Q. I get TypeError: document.getElementByID is not a function…

A. Make sure that the method name exactly matches the API method. Like in the question above – it is getElementById and not getElementByID.

Q. What is a difference between children and childNodes?

A. The method children get us the collection of all elements within the calling element. The collection returned is of type HTMLCollection. However, the method childNodes get us the collection of all the nodes within the calling element. Add following scripts to our example and see the difference –

The childNodes method returns 14 items

document.write("Using childNodes method") for(i=0;i<document.getElementsByTagName("section")[0].childNodes.length;i++) { document.write((i+1)+"."); document.write(document.getElementsByTagName("section")[0].childNodes[i].toString()); } document.write("Number of nodes in a section " + document.getElementsByTagName("section")[0].childNodes.length);

While the children method returns just 7 items

document.write("Using children method") for(i=0;i<document.getElementsByTagName("section")[0].children.length;i++) { document.write((i+1)+"."); document.write(document.getElementsByTagName("section")[0].children[i].toString()); } document.write("Number of nodes in a section " + document.getElementsByTagName("section")[0].children.length);

Q. I get Uncaught TypeError: Cannot read property ‘innerHTML’ of undefined…

A. Make sure that the instance of HTMLElement you are calling the property innerHTML on was set after initial declaration. This error generally happens in following scenario. See how the error can be avoided in next block of code…

var element; if(false) { element = document.getElementById('tempValue1'); } element.innerHTML = '32'; var element = null; if(false) { element = document.getElementById('tempValue1'); } if(element != null) { element.innerHTML = '32'; } Summary

In this tutorial we learned what a DOM is and how it is essential concept to understand to build dynamic web pages.

We also touched upon types of DOM elements like Window, Document, and Element.

We learned some useful DOM methods and properties available within each kind.

We saw how most browsers offer developer tools to play with any webpage available on the Internet – thus learning to debug and resolve issues with our own website.

We also briefly touched upon DOM Event mechanisms.

Finally we covered few troubleshooting items in DOM.

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