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Priority is the order in which the developer should resolve a defect whereas Severity is the degree of impact that a defect has on the operation of the product.
Priority is categorized into three types: low, medium and high whereas Severity is categorized into five types: critical, major, moderate, minor and cosmetic.
Priority is associated with scheduling while Severity is associated with functionality or standards.
Priority indicates how soon the bug should be fixed whereas Severity indicates the seriousness of the defect on the product functionality.
Priority of defects is decided in consultation with the manager/client while Severity levels of the defects are determined by the QA engineer.
Priority is driven by business value while Severity is driven by functionality.
Priority value is subjective and can change over a period of time depending on the change in the project situation whereas Severity value is objective and less likely to change.
High Priority and low severity status indicates, defect have to be fixed on immediate bases but does not affect the application while High Severity and low priority status indicates defect have to be fixed but not on immediate bases.
Priority status is based on customer requirements whereas Severity status is based on the technical aspect of the product.
What is Bug Severity
Bug Severity or Defect Severity in testing is a degree of impact a bug or a Defect has on the software application under test. A higher effect of bug/defect on system functionality will lead to a higher severity level. A Quality Assurance engineer usually determines the severity level of a bug/defect.What is Priority?
Priority is defined as the order in which a defect should be fixed. Higher the priority the sooner the defect should be resolved.
Defects that leave the software system unusable are given higher priority over defects that cause a small functionality of the software to fail.
Types of Severity
In Software Testing, Types of Severity of bug/defect can be categorized into the following parts:
Critical: This defect indicates complete shut-down of the process, nothing can proceed further
Major: It is a highly severe defect and collapses the system. However, certain parts of the system remain functional
Medium: It causes some undesirable behavior, but the system is still functional
Low: It won’t cause any major break-down of the system
Types of Priority of bug/defect can be categorized into three parts :
Low: The Defect is an irritant but repair can be done once the more serious Defect has been fixed
Medium: During the normal course of the development activities defect should be resolved. It can wait until a new version is created
High: The defect must be resolved as soon as possible as it affects the system severely and cannot be used until it is fixedTips for determining the Severity of a Defect
Decide the frequency of occurrence: In some cases, if the occurrence of a minor-defect is frequent in the code, it can be more severe. So from a user’s perspective, it is more serious even though it is a minor defect.
Isolate the defect: Isolating the defect can help to find out its severity of the impact.Difference between Severity and Priority in Testing
Defect Priority has defined the order in which the developer should resolve a defect Defect Severity is defined as the degree of impact that a defect has on the operation of the product
Priority is associated with scheduling Severity is associated with functionality or standards
Priority indicates how soon the bug should be fixed Severity indicates the seriousness of the defect on the product functionality
Priority of defects is decided in consultation with the manager/client QA engineer determines the severity level of the defect
Priority is driven by business value Severity is driven by functionality
Its value is subjective and can change over a period of time depending on the change in the project situation Its value is objective and less likely to change
High priority and low severity status indicates, defect have to be fixed on immediate bases but does not affect the application High severity and low priority status indicates defect have to be fixed but not on immediate bases
Priority status is based on customer requirements Severity status is based on the technical aspect of the product
During UAT the development team fix defects based on priority During SIT, the development team will fix defects based on the severity and then priority
CosmeticExample of Defect Severity and Priority
Let see an example of low severity and high priority and vice versa
A very low severity with a high priority: A logo error for any shipment website, can be of low severity as it not going to affect the functionality of the website but can be of high priority as you don’t want any further shipment to proceed with the wrong logo.
A very high severity with a low priority: Likewise, for flight operating website, a defect in reservation functionality may be of high severity but can be a low priority as it can be scheduled to release in a next cycle.Defect Triage
Defect triage is a process that tries to do the re-balancing of the process where the test team faces the problem of limited availability of resources. So, when there are large number of the defect and limited testers to verify them, defect triage helps to try to get as many defects resolved based on defect parameters like severity and priority.
How to determine Defect Triage:
Most systems use priority as the main criteria to assess the defect. However, a good triage process considers the severity as well.
The triage process includes the following steps
Reviewing all the defects including rejected defects by the team
Initial assessment of the defects is based on its content and respective priority and severity settings
Prioritizing the defect based on the inputs
Assign the defect to correct release by product manager
Re-directs the defect to the correct owner/team for further actionGuidelines that every tester should consider before selecting a severity
Severity parameter is assessed by the tester whereas the priority parameter is assessed by the product manager or by the triage team. For prioritizing the defect, it is imperative for a tester to choose the right severity to avoid confusion with the development team.
Understand the concept of priority and severity well
Always assign the severity level based on the issue type as this will affect its priority
Understand how a particular scenario or Test Case would affect the end-user
Need to consider how much time it would take to fix the defect based on its complexity and time to verify the defectConclusion:
In Software Engineering, Assigning wrong severity to defect can delay the STLC process and can have some drastic implication on the overall performance of the team. So, the responsible person needs to be precise and accurate on its call for assigning defect.
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Testing is the most important stage in the process of delivery of any software product, as it not only validates the quality of the product but also provides an opportunity to the developer to improve it further.
Unit testing and integration testing are both software testing techniques, but they are quite different from each other in their scope and they focus on different parts of the software.
Read this article to learn more about unit testing and integration testing and how they are different from each other.What is Unit Testing?
Unit testing is a type of testing technique in which a single module is tested at a time. It is also known as white box testing. Unit testing checks if a small piece of code in the application is doing what it is supposed to do. In unit testing, a single module is going to be tested at a time, hence the focus of the tester is on the internal design of the application as well.
Unit testing is performed as the first stage of testing and it is generally performed by developers of the application. Parallel testing is not supported in unit testing because a single module is tested at a time in unit testing.
As a single module is tested at a time, so defects get easily identified and are locked as per module. Unit testing generally does not depend on the size of project, so it can be performed in both small and large sized projects.What is Integration Testing?
Integration testing is a type of testing in which multiple modules are tested to verify if different pieces of the modules are working together as expected. Thus, integration testing helps to validate the collection and interface modules of the product.
Integration testing is generally performed after performing the unit testing, because this testing requires the knowledge of interlinked modules and their interactions. Importance is given to the functionalities in the system interface among individual modules.
Integration testing covers only the functional testing of the product. It is often performed by test engineers and developers.Difference between Unit Testing and Integration Testing
The following are the important differences between Unit Testing and Integration Testing −
Unit testing is the testing where primarily single module is tested or it checks if the small piece of code is doing what it is supposed to do.
Integration testing is the testing where multiple modules are tested to verify that if different pieces of the modules are working together as per expectation or not.
A single module is going to be tested at a time, so the focus of the tester is on internal design of the application as well.
Multiple modules get integrated and are tested as a single module so tester focus more on integrated functionality rather on internal design of the application.
Unit testing is performed at the first stage of testing as it is performed first of all other testing processes.
Integration testing is performed after all modules get integrated are done with unit tested i.e. Integration testing is done after unit testing and before System testing.
Unit testing is also known as white box testing.
Integration testing is known as black box testing.
As unit testing as mentioned in above points performed at first stage of testing so generally performed by developers.
Integration testing is done after all modules get integrated and thus performed by Testers.
In unit testing, the detection of defects is comparatively easy as single module interaction at a time.
While in case of Integration testing, detection of defects is comparatively difficult as compare to Unit testing.Conclusion
The most significant difference that you should note here is that, in unit testing, only a single module is checked at a time; whereas in integration testing, multiple modules are tested simultaneously.
Handling and reporting financial transactions is a crucial part of every company. Different applications, together known as application software, are used to process and record transactions to make the process more manageable. The general ledger, payroll, accounts receivable, and accounts payable are just a handful of the elements that may be included in accounting software.
When it comes to bookkeeping programs, QuickBooks is among the most popular options. Intuit’s on-premises accounting solutions for small and medium-sized enterprises are the result of extensive research, development, and marketing on the company’s part. Among the many benefits it offers is the opportunity to outsource and get help for payroll processes remotely, as well as to conduct online banking, gain remote access, do reconciliations, and send and receive emails.
It’s possible for a QuickBooks user to interact with many different types of people, including customers, employees, and vendors. There has to be a clear delineation between all of these things based on the functions they serve in a business setting and the types of evidence that support their existence.Who is a Vendor?
One who makes a living by selling products or services to others. One may categorize them according to the industry they serve, the location of their headquarters, and the predicted delivery time of their wares. A client who switches roles and becomes a vendor must be included on both the customer and vendor lists for accurate reporting. However, the name should be tagged or otherwise identified to avoid confusion over separate transactions. One way to simplify things is to designate a letter, say “C,” for the customer’s account and a letter, “V,” for the vendor’s account.Who is a Customer?
Customers are the ones who buy a company’s products or services, and their spending is what secures the company’s success and survival. Therefore, a company should prioritize client satisfaction and loyalty. QuickBooks makes it easy to maintain your customer database by letting you combine, add, and even delete duplicates. Several methods exist for accomplishing this.Similarities − Vendor and Customer in QuickBooks
Both accuracy and completeness are required for documenting and reporting monetary dealings.
Both can be easily managed by combining similar pieces or perhaps doing away with those that aren’t necessary at all.Differences − Vendor and Customer in QuickBooks
The following table highlights how a Vendor is different from a Customer in QuickBooks −
Characteristics Vendor in QuickBooks Customer in QuickBooks
A vendor is someone who sells goods or provides a service.
A company’s customers are the people who buy its products and services.
B2B refers to the relationship between a company and a vendor.
Business-to-consumer, or B2C, refers to transactions between companies and end users.
A vendor’s principal goal is the delivery of products and services to customers.
Having items and services acquired is the primary motivation for being a customer.
Using the icon for the service desk, you may go to any of your saved preferences.Conclusion
Both suppliers and customers are crucial to the smooth operation of your QuickBooks business, but they serve different purposes. Someone who buys goods or services from a vendor has a business relationship with that company on the level of a business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction, while someone who sells goods or services to a company has a business relationship with that company on the level of a business-to-business (B2B) transaction. However, both are crucial when it comes to the recording and reporting of financial activities.
The fundamental distinction between ‘opacity’ and ‘flow’ would be that ‘opacity’ determines the limit of darkness in addition to opaqueness, whereas ‘flow’ controls how rapidly the color is applied. Imagine flow to be a dial that controls how much water flows from the faucet. If you use 100%, you obtain all of the colors in one shot, but when you select a lower Flow, you receive lighter streaks that aggregate until the opacity limit.
In Photoshop, Opacity is accessible in both layer settings and the navigation menu, while the flow is only accessible in the menu bar beside Opacity. The Opacity of any corresponding tool can be adjusted, whereas the flow feature can only be used on brush tools. Opacity is described as a typically transparent structure due to a body’s nature or state that renders it impenetrable to light rays
In contrast, flow is described as going in a stream to progress with a constant change of position among the individual particles. The brush menu shows Opacity and flows as decimal percentages. The percentage of the brush’s Opacity and flow can be adjusted. It has two alternatives: grow or decrease. When we select the brush tool, a slider displays that can be used to control the Opacity and flow of the brush as required.
Opacity controls transparency, while flow regulates the flow and stroke of a brush-style tool. Opacity can be applied to multiple layers, but it only impacts the topmost layer. At the same time, flow could be given to any layer as well as the intensity will gradually decrease as additional levels stack up the layer. “Flow” and “opacity” are similar words used in Photoshop or other laptop editing applications for sketching and painting tools currently available for digital creation and e-painting.
Read this article to find out more about Opacity and Flow and how they are different from each other.What is Opacity?
Opacity is a feature in film imaging and software, specifically Photoshop, that allows transparency areas in an image or image layer by adjusting the light passage on a layer. The Opacity of a substance is the extent to which it restricts light. When more of the basic picture is visible, the Opacity of levels, filters, and effects may be adjusted
Regarding Photoshop editing, the brush tool benefits the most from varying the intensity of the ‘opacity’ function. This happens because you use the paintbrush for hiding, which is intended for the most complex changes in Photoshop.
The broad definition of Opacity is a region in a typically transparent construction inaccessible to incoming light because of the nature or condition of a body. It is a feature used in creativity and art to manipulate the lightness and darkness of the color or the whole layer.
When you change the Opacity of a level or a function, you make the surface or instrument effect less or more visible. An opacity of 0% signifies that the level of utility effect is fully transparent, 100% indicates no transparency, and 50% means that the surface or tool impact is 50% clear.What is Flow?
The trace will gradually get darker, comparable to shading back and forth between pencils in the same location. Pushing firmly enough to make the pencil mark completely black is comparable to Photoshop’s 100% Flow option.
The more you go beyond a specific point, such as a low Flow setting, the more the ink accumulates. Once more, when masked in Photoshop, this is extremely handy
Another point to remember is that when using a low-flow option, you should employ a soft brush. The ink will come out of a pointed end if you employ a strong brush. Using a soft bristle brush, on the other hand, the ink will mix as it exits the paint.Differences between Opacity and Flow
The following table highlights the major differences between Opacity and Flow −
An opaque region in a normally transparent change induced by a body’s nature or circumstance renders it resistant to light rays
The usual definition of the phrase ‘flow’ in English is to go in a stream, to progress with a constant
Transparency is the opposite of Opacity. However, the opacity feature in many editing software packages can be used to adjust the transparency level
The flow option does have an indirect impact on transparency because it can be changed when using the brush tool.
The opacity tool is employed to control layer transparency and regulate an image’s light intensity.
When the paint or stroke fills the layer, the flow function is used to adjust the intensity of the brush bristles.
Select the layer from the Options menu. In the Layers option, enter a value ranging from 0 and 100 for Opacity, or press the button to the side of the Opacity box to move the Opacity slider, which appears instantly.
In Photoshop, the flow parameter is located next to the Opacity choice and controls the speed at which paint is applied.
Factor of Dispersion
Opacity does not affect the dispersion factor.
Flow setting can be used to modify and increase the dispersion factorConclusion
To summarize, both Flow and Opacity could be ideal Brush Tool choices, especially the flow tool. The difficulty is knowing how and when to use which choice. In Adobe, utilizing Opacity in Layers is extremely straightforward; simply drag the slider to create a somewhat opaque level. Whenever used in your tools, it is more hard and time- consuming to learn
The flow feature, in contrast, is restricted to the brush tool and strokes, which is an extremely aesthetically pleasing element to use, particularly for font insertion and drawing. Opacity and Flow could be an effective choice for Photoshop, and it is widely used in editing
A content management system (CMS) is used to generate and update digital files. CMS allows for web-based posting, content management, version control, and many other features. There are various CMSs, two of which are Joomla and WordPress. Joomla is more adaptable, versatile, and durable than WordPress.
Two open-source content management systems are Joomla and WordPress. The main differentiation between Joomla and WordPress is that Joomla is better suited for e-commerce, social media, and moderate to large businesses. In contrast, WordPress is best suited for small to medium-sized companies, blogs, and smaller e-commerce sites.
WordPress and Joomla are both content administration systems written in the same language; both are free and outstanding. Most people would claim WordPress is the greatest for blogging; however, Joomla has missed out on effective blogging growth, which is significantly superior to WordPress. Several of these extensions are not free. When it involves serious work, you must stick with Joomla since there are virtually no limitations to the kind of websites you may build, ranging from web journals to e-commerce.
Both softwares are powerful CMSs. They allow users to create, update, and manage website content. However, WordPress is easier to operate than Joomla. For beginners, the training in Joomla is much higher. Working with WordPress is pretty simple, despite its equal ability in content management.
The first scenario might be on a service such as chúng tôi while the second could be on a PC running the software package Web journal Equipment, Distributing Stage, and CMS. A nearby computer might be configured to operate as its web server, enabling WordPress to be evaluated or taught by a single user. Features include plugin development and design architecture. When comparing the SEO of both systems, Joomla has a small benefit.
Read this article to find out more about Joomla and WordPress and how they are different from each other.What is Joomla?
Joomla is an open-source content management system that enables you to create websites and web applications without creating code from scratch. There is no need for the client to have programming knowledge or experience. Building on one’s website while linking the backend to databases such as MySQL and PostgreSQL is simple. It supports the development and publishing of web content. The uploaded articles could be organized in any way the user sees fit.
Joomla has evolved to become one of the most extensively used content management systems worldwide. Joomla is an open-source project that is free to use. But just because it is free does not mean it is indeed lacking in functionality. In reality, the user-friendly interface will astonish you with its WYSIWYG function, which generates identical results each time. Another aspect of being happy is the frequent updates.
Joomla is constantly being enhanced with new functionality and features. It becomes easier to use for each new update. Anyone can participate in a Joomla forum as a contributor. Joomla is an open-source project that encourages volunteers and their contributions.What is WordPress?
WordPress is a free, open-source content management system (CMS) that can dynamically adjust blogs and websites. It is built in PHP. WordPress enables users to create, edit, delete, view, and publish content. As a result, it is simple to set up and operate. Due to its simplicity of use, it is famous among learners. Plugins allow the user to enhance the application. User management operations such as shifting consumer roles, adding and deleting users, and resetting passwords are also supported by WordPress.
Themes include templates, so the user does not need to start from scratch. The user can have photos, audio, and video to make the web pages more visually appealing. WordPress has a user-friendly admin interface and a simple learning experience.
WordPress contains posts and pages by default. Pages are more useful as constant material, informative instead of topical than posts, which are intended for frequent blog posts. While a webpage written in HTML and published to a server is considered “static,” WordPress depends on a database to keep and display content. This is known as “dynamic.”
WordPress takes significantly less technical knowledge than hand-coding a website from the start. Although dealing with code is still an option, it is possible to build attractive, fully working sites using only the graphical user interface. WordPress can handle websites of any size if the web host package has adequate resources.Differences between Joomla and WordPress
The following table highlights the major differences between Joomla and WordPress −
Open Source Matters, Inc. created Joomla, a free and open-source content management system for producing web content.
WordPress is a content Management System that is built on PHP and MySQL and it is an open-source platform.
Joomla is not particularly SEO-friendly.
WordPress is better for SEO.
MySQL and other database management systems are supported by Joomla
WordPress supports only MySQL.
Extensions may be used to extend the Joomla application.
Plugins allow the WordPress application to be expanded.
Joomla is a medium-level learning tool.
WordPress is simple to use and suitable for beginnersConclusion
Joomla is most commonly used for social networking and e-commerce websites. Similarly, WordPress was first launched as a blogging platform. You may now develop any website you desire using either platform. Joomla can provide greater protection and versatility when managing different types of content for a developer or a user wanting to hire one.
One reason for concern is that Joomla’s CMS share of the market is declining, whereas WordPress’s is growing. Joomla is not going anywhere anytime soon. However, investing in the leading contender seems logical if you wish to develop your profession on a website.
Cigars and cigarettes both have tobacco in them but one of the main differences between the both are that in a cigar the tobacco is wrapped in a tobacco leaf, or another material that contains tobacco. Cigarettes contain tobacco wrapped in a paper, or any other material that does not contain tobacco. In general cigars are bigger and thicker when compared to cigarettes, they contain more tobacco in them as well, they last longer when smoked and are more expensive. Both of these are bad for an individual’s health and are known to cause throat or lung cancer.What is a Cigar?
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented leaves of tobacco that are made to be smoked. They are usually produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. From 20th century, almost all of the cigars are made of mainly three components, the binder leaf that holds the filler paper together, the filler and a wrapped leaf that is often the highest quality of leaf used. The cigar usually consists a cigar band that is printed with the cigar manufactures logo.
Nowadays modern cigars come with two bands, they especially are the Cuban cigar bands, showing the limited edition bands that displays the year of production.
One story goes that, Christopher Columbus and his other explorers who followed him to places like Mexico, Central Asia, Brazil and Cuba found that the Indians among those regions smoked a long and thick bundle of twisted tobacco leaves that was wrapped in a dried palm leaf.What are Cigarettes?
A cigarette consists of a cylindrical roll or ground tobacco that is wrapped in a paper or another substance that doesn’t contain tobacco. The end of the cigarette is lit and the smoke is inhaled while smoking a cigarette. Many of the cigarettes that are manufactured have filters on one end of the cigarette that is intended to trap some toxic chemicals that are present in the cigarette smoke.Difference between Cigar and Cigarette
The following table highlights how a Cigar is different from a Cigarette −
Cigar / Cigarette
A cigar is usually wrapped in leaf tobacco.
A cigarette is a tobacco product that is wrapped in paper.
Nicotine content in them
It contains about 100-200mg.
It contains about 10mg
It does not contain a filter.
A cigarette contains a filter at one end of it.
In case of premium cigars they generally have tasting notes like cedar, earth, spices, coffee and leather and reflect low notes of the soil where the tobacco is grown in.
In case of cigarettes they are made of chopped homogenised tobacco that is processed and concealed inside a paper tube, thus it is difficult to assign a tasting note to it as it usually tastes like dried out tobacco, the chemicals that are used in its production or like burning paper.
Time taken to smoke
It takes about 30-60 min to smoke one cigar.
It generally tasked about5-10 min to smoke a cigarette.
Cigars are not inhaled, but they are savoured if their taste and their aroma.
Cigarettes are generally inhaled by an individual.
Both cigar and cigarettes contain tobacco and are known to be great health risks and lead to a lot of consequences in terms of health. They lead to cancer and nicotine addiction and increase the risk of lung and throat cancer in an individual.Conclusion
In conclusion, cigars are considered more classy and for a more celebratory use whereas cigarettes are considered to be addictive and dangerous. But apart from that perception both of these cause cancer and cigars are most likely to cause oral cancer and cigarettes are likely to cause lung cancer in a smoker.
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