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Introduction to Struts Architecture

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Here we will see the MVC pattern followed by struts architecture and also see about various other components that form the architecture of struts.

Model View Controller

Before we see the components and architecture diagram of struts let us first see the conceptual base on which the architecture of struts is created that is the MVC pattern.

Model: The model includes the business logic of the code where the operations related to data such as access to the data, validating the same and the way in which the data is to be saved in data stores or database is included as the responsibility of Model part. Before the data is sent to the database for saving, it is verified by the views present and if the structure of the data is proper then only it is further sent to the database for inserting the record or doing any other sort of manipulations.

View: This part is responsible for all the things that the user will be able to view and also it will take all the required inputs from the user, generating the request that should be passed to the controller for handling and also accept the responses that are in turn sent by the controller which can be further displayed on screen for the users. When using sprites, we can make the use of custom tag libraries, HTML, resources file and HTML when using the View component of the MVC structure.

Controller: This component acts as the median between the other two components that is View and Model. It is responsible for managing and handling all the requests that are received by it from the view side that is user. As soon as the request arrives, a certain business logic code is executed by the controller which handles the model structure and after executing returns the proper data in the form of a model to the view. The parts included in the controller are chúng tôi ActionForm and ActionServlet.

Architecture of Struts

The diagram that will help us to demonstrate the architecture of struts is given below. Let us now see different components of structs architecture and how the flow works.

We can clearly observe the three broad components of the strut’s architecture are Model, View and controller that form the high-level struts architecture. When they are further digging to get the details, we get a clearer view. Interceptors and dispatch servlet filters together try to implement the controller in struts. The model component is carried out by using the actions. The third component that is view is generated by combining results and the type of results. The integration between view and controller and view and model is enabled by using OGNL and value stack which act as a linking and common thread.

Other than the components mentioned in the above diagram, struts architecture includes a lot of configuration related details that include the configuration for results, interceptors, actions, the web application and many other components details.

The required resource is taken by the view and the user(client) further makes the request to the server in case of client-server architecture which contains the specification of the required resource.

Proper action is taken after the filter dispatcher studies the request and decides the action to be taken.

The functionalities related to interceptors that are configured such as file upload of validation are carried out.

The action that is decided and selected after this is executed depending on the type of operation requested in the client request.

If any sort of post-processing is required then the application of configured interceptors is carried out again.

The last step includes the creation of the result by the view and returning the same as the response to the user (client).

Contents of MVC Struts Architecture

The MVC pattern followed by struts generally make the use of the following technologies in each of its components:

Model: Form implementing the business logic, we make the use of Java Beans mostly.

View: As a layer of presentation, we can make the use of Java server pages of Angular JS or any client-side technology for handling the user experience and user interface.

Controller: Most of the time, the use of servlet is made as a controller which includes different action classes that can control security, handling of the session and primary logic related to actions.

All these three components work together to make up and execute the request-response flow in a timely manner with accuracy to the user which adds up to a great user experience. The most prominent feature of model view controller is that due to this separate logical distribution of code, it becomes very much easy to decode, manage and add any additional feature to your application.

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Complete Guide To Java Datagramsocket

Introduction to Java DatagramSocket

Java DatagramSocket class represents a type of network socket that is connectionless and used for sending the packets of the datagram and receiving the packets of the datagram; for delivery of any packet, the datagram socket is the sending and receiving point of the service, and each and every packet sent or received using datagram socket is addressed individually and then routed to the destination, and if multiple packets are transmitted between two machines, the routing of the packets may be different, and they can arrive in any order, and the SO_BROADCAST option is enabled in a newly constructed datagram socket which allows transmission of broadcast diagrams.

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The syntax of java DatagramSocket is as follows:

DatagramSocket variable_name = new DatagramSocket(); How DatagramSocket work in Java?

Datagram Sockets are created on the client program side and server program side by using the DatagramSocket class for communication link and for sending and receiving the data packets.

DatagramSocket() constructor can be chosen to create a datagram socket on the client program side, and the DatagramSocket(int port) constructor can be chosen to create a datagram socket on the server program side.

SocketException object is thrown by either of the constructors if they cannot create the datagram sockets or if the datagram socket cannot be bound to the port.

Once the program creates the datagram socket object, send(DatagramPacket dgp) is called by the program to send the datagram packets and receive(DatagramPacket dgp) to receive datagram packets, respectively.

Consider the below program to send and receive datagram packets by using the DatagramSocket class:


import*; public class Sender { public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { DatagramSocket datasoc = new DatagramSocket(); String strn = "Welcome to DatagramSocket class"; InetAddress ipaddr = InetAddress.getByName("");                 DatagramPacket dpac = new DatagramPacket(strn.getBytes(), strn.length(), ipaddr, 3000); datasoc.send(dpac); datasoc.close(); } } import*; public class Receiver { public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { DatagramSocket datasoc = new DatagramSocket(3000); byte[] buff = new byte[1024]; DatagramPacket dpac = new DatagramPacket(buff, 1024); datasoc.receive(dpac); String strn = new String(dpac.getData(), 0, dpac.getLength()); System.out.println(strn); datasoc.close(); } }


Explanation: In the above program, two sets of programs are created: sending data packets using the DatagramSocket class and one for receiving data packets using the DatagramSocket class. In the program for sending data packets using DatagramSocket class, an instance of a DatagramSocket class is created. Then the string is assigned to the variable strn. Then the internet IP address is assigned to a variable. Then, the datagram packet is created, and the send method of the DatagramSocket class is used to send the data packets to the destination IP address.

In the program for receiving data packets using DatagramSocket class, an instance of a DatagramSocket class is created. Then the instance of byte class is created. Then, the datagram packet is created, and the receive method of DatagramSocket class is used to receive the data packets to the source IP address.


There are several constructors of the DatagramSocket class. They are:

DatagramSocket(): A datagram socket is constructed using the DatagramSocket() constructor, and it is bound to the available port on the local host machine.

DatagramSocket(int): A datagram socket is constructed using the DatagramSocket() constructor, and it is bind to the specified port on the local host machine.

DatagramSocket(int, InetAddress): A datagram socket is created using the DatagramSocket() constructor, and it is bound to the specified local internet address.

Example to Implement Java DatagramSocket

Below are the example mentioned:


Demonstrate the usage of various methods of DatagramScoket class.


import; import; public class program { public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException { DatagramSocket sock = new DatagramSocket(1235); sock.setSendBufferSize(20); System.out.println("The buffer size sent is : " + sock.getSendBufferSize()); sock.setReceiveBufferSize(20); System.out.println("The buffer size received is : " + sock.getReceiveBufferSize()); sock.setReuseAddress(false); System.out.println("The SetReuse address is set to : " + sock.getReuseAddress()); sock.setBroadcast(true); System.out.println("The setBroadcast is set to : " + sock.getBroadcast()); sock.setTrafficClass(45); System.out.println("The Traffic class is set to : " + sock.getTrafficClass()); System.out.println("The Channel is set to : " + ((sock.getChannel()!=null)?sock.getChannel():"null")); sock.setDatagramSocketImplFactory(null); sock.close(); System.out.println("If the Socket Is Closed : " + sock.isClosed()); } }


Explanation: In the above program, a class called program is defined. Then an instance of the datagram socket class is created. The method setSendBufferSize() method of the datagram socket class is called, which sends the buffer size. Then the method getSendBufferSize() method of datagram socket class is called, which receives the buffer size.

Then the method setReceiveBufferSize() method of datagram socket class is called, and then the method getReceiveBufferSize() method of datagram socket class is called, which are used to send and receive the buffer sizes. Then the method setReuseAddress() method of datagram socket class is called, and then the method getReuseAddress() method of datagram socket class is called to send and receive the reused address.

Then the method setBroadcast() method of datagram socket class is called, and then the method getBroadcast() method of datagram socket class is called to set and get the broadcast. Then the method setTrafficClass() method of datagram socket class is called, and then the method getTrafficClass() method of datagram socket class is called to set and get the traffic classes.

Then the method getChannel() method of datagram socket class is called, which returns a true or false. Then the method close() method of datagram socket class is called to close the socket. Then the method isClosed() method of datagram socket class is called to check if the socket is closed or not, and it returns a true if the socket is closed otherwise false.


In this tutorial, we understand the concept of DatagramSocket class in Java through definition, the syntax of DatagramSocket class in Java, working of DatagramSocket class in Java through examples and their outputs.

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Complete Guide On Logstash Monitoring?

Introduction to Logstash Monitoring

Logstash monitoring is the feature available in Logstash, which can be used to get more detailed information about the internal working, processing, and health of the instances running in the background of Logstash inside the system’s environment. This article will look at what monitoring is and how it works. We will also have a detailed discussion on What monitoring is, Why monitoring, monitoring Configuring, monitoring page, and a Conclusion about the same.

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What is Logstash monitoring?

To get more insights about the ongoing running instances of Logstash and their health, we can use the Logstash monitoring feature. Many runtime metrics are captured by Logstash as soon as we execute or run Logstash in our system, which can be further used for getting the data for monitoring various aspects, including the performance and health of the deployment being made by us for Logstash. The below section list outs all the metrics that Logstash collects for monitoring –

Information related to nodes of Logstash includes Operating System information, settings of the pipeline, and information about the Java Virtual Environment (JVM).

Information related to the plugins includes the complete list of the plugins installed in the system.

Stats information related to nodes, processes, JVM, stats related to any events, and the runtime stats of pipelines.

Monitoring APIs can be used to get the information about all these metrics provided in-built by Logstash. We do not have to perform external configurations for using the same as the availability of these APIs is done by default in Logstash. The APIs provided by Logstash for monitoring the metrics during runtime are as listed below –

Hot thread Application Programming Interface (API)

Plugin’s information Application Programming Interface

Node Stats Application Programming Interface

Node information Application Programming Interface

An alternative solution to using APIs is to use X-pack to monitor various metrics of Logstash and transfer the data related to metrics to the monitoring clusters, but this needs some configuration to be made for its usage.

Why Logstash monitoring?

Monitoring is important in collecting all the data related to monitoring using various metrics and transferring and sending them to their respective monitoring clusters or other specified destinations.

The things we need to be careful about priorly before we go for monitoring include the specification of the cluster uuid, which will act as the target. Doing so is optional, but you compulsorily disable the collection created by default to monitor metrics. Further, it would help if you go for installation and configuration of the required plugin or extension, such as metric beat, which will help collect data related to monitoring.

Logstash monitoring Configuring

To configure the monitoring in Logstash, we will have to check whether the monitoring is enabled for the specific Elastic search cluster we are working on and if not, then make it enabled. We can get the details of uptime and the usage of memory along with all the sent and received events by Logstash in the overview section of the dashboard. Further, to get the metrics of Logstash, we can go for the configuration of either of the methods mentioned below –

Deprecated methodology of the legacy collection – Production clusters receive the data related to monitoring from the legacy collectors when following the methodology of the legacy collection, which is deprecated usage as of now.

Logstash monitoring page

When using X-pack in Logstash for monitoring various metrics using the Kibana platform. As discussed above, some prior configurations and installations need to be done. After that, you can follow the steps below to access the monitoring pages on Kibana.

Step 1 – To access the page of monitoring, you firstly need to go to Kibana and then further move to the Stack monitoring page present on it, as shown below –

Step 3 – We can observe the metrics on the screen for our nodes as shown in the below output of Kibana and following the same steps discussed above –

Step 5 – You can further even hit the name of a node to get the details of statistics over a particular duration of time.

In short, to gain insights into the monitoring and performance of Logstash when using X-pack in Kibana for monitoring in Logstash, you will have to drill down to get more detailed metric values.


It is used for getting deeper insights into the overall health and performance of the Logstash. There are various metrics whose information we get when doing the monitoring, as mentioned in the “What is Monitoring section.” We can carry out monitoring either by using X-packs that need little configuration or using various monitoring APIs available.

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A Complete Guide To Pl/Sql With

Introduction to PL/SQL WITH

PL/SQL WITH clause is used for doing the subquery refactoring in complex queries that involve usage of the same result set of a particular query again and again. It is similar to the subqueries that are used in SQL but using the with a clause in the query reduces the complexity of debugging and execution of your query when it is very complex. The usage of with clause is also being done when we need a certain temporary table that will hold the data to be used by our query once or multiple times even without having any of the view or temporary table.

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Syntax of PL/SQL WITH

WITH clause can be used which any of the sql statements of SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE. The syntax of WITH clause is given below:

WITH new temp table (list of new columns) as (statement for filling temp table), statement(s) which use the temp table;

In the above syntax, the new temp table is the temporary table that can be referenced for retrieving the temporary result that is acquired by executing the statement for filling the temp table. The list of the columns that are specified is the names of the columns of the temporary table which should be the same as that of the number column values retrieved from the statement for filling the temp table. The keyword is used to alter mentioning the list of columns inside the brackets for the temporary table. The other statements using the result of the new temp table should be specified after giving a comma after filling the query.

Execution of Statement Containing WITH Clause

The execution of the query statement containing the with clause gives the preference for calculating the result set of the clause which holds the with in it and retrieve the temporary result set in the new temp table.

After this, the statement or statements which are specified other than the with clause are executed. These statements can make the use of the new temp table in it as many times as required. They will be executed after retrieving the result in the new temp table.

The temporary table that is the new temp table is also called CTE which is a common table expression.

Usage of WITH Clause

There are many scenarios in which the usage of with clause may prove helpful in query execution and data management.

Here are some of the key cases where it can be used most probably to make efficient usage of executing and debugging the complex queries that are listed below:

When it is not possible for creating a view in a database for using it in query statements.

When we have to make use of the same result set multiple times inside the query statement.

When we have to use the recursion while retrieving the result set.

Examples of PL/SQL WITH

Given below are the examples of PL/SQL WITH:

Example #1

Suppose we have a table named employee_details which contains the records as shown in the output of the below query statement.


SELECT * FROM [employee_details]


Now suppose, that we have to find out how much does salary the owner of the fruits and vegetable stores is to all the employees working in that particular store. In that case, the total salary for each store can be calculated as follows by using the with a clause for storing temporary results.

WITH temp_table AS ( SELECT store_id as "store", SUM(salary) salary FROM employee_details WHERE store_id IS NOT NULL GROUP BY store_id ) SELECT store, salary as "storewise salary" FROM temp_table WHERE store IN ("VEGETABLES","FRUITS");


The execution of the above query statement will be done firstly for the with statement query to store the details of all the stores and their total salaries I the table temp_table. After this, the execution of the other statement of retrieving the results for only those stores whose store id column will contain vegetables and fruits will be done. The output of the execution of the above query statement is as shown below showing the two stores and the total salary to be given by the owner for each of the stores respectively.

Example #2

Using the temporary result of WITH clause multiple times.

Let’s take one more example to understand the usage of with clause. There is one more table containing alternative contact mobile numbers of the employees named contact_details. The contents of this table can be retrieved by using the following query statement.


SELECT * FROM [contact_details]

Now, consider that we need to retrieve the records from the employee_details table that have a salary greater than the average salary. Along with that we also have to retrieve the mobile number present in the contact details table for that corresponding employee. In this case, we have to make use of the temporary table created by the with clause twice. One will be while calculating the average salary and the other one while retrieving the result set of it for getting the column details of those employees.


WITH temp_table AS( SELECT f_name, l_name, contact_number, mobile_number, salary FROM employee_details INNER JOIN contact_details ON employee_details.employee_id = contact_details.employee_id ORDER BY f_name ) SELECT f_name as "First Name", l_name as "Last Name", contact_number as "Contact Number 1", mobile_number as "Contact Number 2", salary FROM temp_table WHERE



We can make use of the with a clause to get the result so that it can be used inside the particular query statement as a temporary table. The result set of the with clause can be referenced single or multiple times inside the same query statement. The with clause is most often used in complex query statements for efficient and easy execution and debugging of the query statement.

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Complete Guide To A Decentralized Exchange – Pancakeswap

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


our assets. Traditionally, we use a centralized exchange to trade our assets. These centralized exchanges are the middlemen. Our crypto assets are stored on these exchanges, and the exchanges have control over our keys. If these exchanges decide to suspend withdrawals or any features on the exchange, our assets will be stuck on the exchange. This was a similar case that happened to exchanges such as Celsius, Voyager, and Vauld. Due to this, many users’ funds to date are stuck in these exchanges.

Blockchain resolves the above issues by introducing the concept of decentralization. Blockchain technology eliminates the middlemen, giving users control of their assets.

In this guide, I will walk you through how to use one of the most popular decentralized exchanges in the space – PancakeSwap.

What is a Decentralized Exchange (DEX)?

Decentralization brings power into the hands of the people. A decentralized exchange is a decentralized application (dapp) built on a blockchain that allows users to trade their assets in a decentralized manner. As a result, a user does not have to deposit their funds on the exchange. A DEX places control in the hands of the user. All the transactions that a user wants to perform take place via a crypto wallet, and for these transactions to take place, a user must pay fees which is very little compared to a centralized exchange. Hence, users can trade assets without actually depositing these assets on the exchange.

Every DEX is built on a blockchain. For example, UniSwap is a DEX built on the Ethereum blockchain, Raydium is a DEX built on the Solana blockchain, and PancakeSwap is a DEX built on the balance smart chain network. For interacting with a DEX, some fees are required. These fees are in very small amounts as compared to a CEX. The fees are paid in the underlying blockchain native token.

For example, to interact with UniSwap, a user is supposed to pay fees in ETH. For Raydium a user is supposed to pay fees in SOL and for PancakeSwap, a user is supposed to pay fees in BNB.

What is PancakeSwap?

PancakeSwap is a decentralized exchange that is built on the Binance Smart Chain Network (BSC). PancakeSwap allows users to easily swap, stake, farm their crypto assets, participate in contests, and offer many more features.

To access PancakeSwap, a user must use a wallet connected to the Binance Smart Chain Network.

Furthermore, Users are supposed to pay fees in the form of BNB tokens, to perform any transaction on the dapp.

Wallet Used in PancakeSwap

As specified above, we are supposed to use a crypto wallet to interact with a decentralized application. In this guide, I will use the MetaMask web extension wallet to perform any transactions with the DEX.

MetaMask is a crypto wallet where users can send, receive, swap, store, and buy digital assets easily and securely.

Connect your Web3 Wallet to the Dapp

The first step to accessing a DEX is to connect your crypto wallet; here, in our case, the MetaMask wallet. You can connect your crypto wallet by following the steps below:

Select your preferred wallet.

Your wallet will now open on your browser. Select which account of your wallet you want to connect to the DEX.

Once connected, you will notice your wallet address on the home page as well as in the top right-hand corner of the application.

Your wallet is now connected to the DEX. Hence you can now interact with the DEX features.

Swap Tokens

Swapping refers to the process of converting one token to another. For example, converting BNB to ETH.

Users can swap their tokens the following way:

Since we are on the home page, hover over the Trade option in the navbar.

Select the Swap option.

Select or search for the token with which you want to swap the respective token.

Enter the amount of the token you want to swap.

Once the swap is complete, in your wallet, you will notice a decrease in the quantity of the tokens you swapped with and an increase in the quantity of the tokens you swapped it for.

Limit Orders

The limit option in pancake swap is the same as in trading. Limit here refers to a particular price you want to swap the respective token. You can set the price you want to perform the swap in the limit option. Only if the price is met then will the transaction get executed.

For example, you can set the limit price to $200 to swap BNB for BUSD. Only if the price of BNB reaches $200 will the transaction take place.

Used can swap their tokens using the limit option in the following way:

Select the Limit option below the navbar.

Select or search for the token with which you want to swap the respective token.

Enter the amount of the token you want to swap.

Enter the price at which you want the swap to take place.

Scroll down to see your open orders. Your open orders are the orders which are still pending to be executed.

The order history option shows you all your past executed swaps using the limit option.

Once the limit price is met, the swap will be executed, and in your wallet, you will notice a decrease in the quantity of the tokens you swapped with and an increase in the quantity of the tokens you swapped for.

Provide Liquidity

Liquidity refers to lending your crypto to the exchange to increase the liquidity of the protocol. A protocol having high liquidity will be able to execute transactions (swap) very easily.

Users are required to provide liquidity in the form of two tokens. Both tokens are required to be in 50-50 weightage.

For example, if you are providing liquidity to the USDT-BUSD pair, you are required to supply the same quantity of BUSD and USDT.

For liquidity, users have rewarded LP tokens that they can stake and earn a good yield. Furthermore, users are also rewarded 0.17% of the fees generated by the respective trading pair.

Users can provide liquidity by following the steps below:

Since we are on the limit page, hover over the Trade option in the navbar.

Select the Liquidity option.

Select the pair to which you want to add liquidity.

Enter the amount of liquidity you want to provide.

Once the transaction is processed, you will notice the number of tokens you used to supply liquidity is decreased, and you will notice a new token in your wallet, the LP token.

Earn Features

Lets us now put our crypto to work. In the Earn section, we can earn yield for staking our tokens or LP tokens. This is similar to the concept of dividends in the stock market. Users are required to stake their tokens for a particular time (fixed) or flexible time and, depending on the yield rates, will earn the respective returns.

Farms (LP Staking)

The farm option is similar to the pool option. The only difference is that users are required to stake their LP tokens in the farm option. By staking their LP tokens, users can earn a good additional yield on their tokens.

Users can stake their LP tokens by following the steps below:

Hover over the Earn option in the navbar.

Select the Farm option.

On the Farm page, select the LP tokens you wish to stake.

Enter the amount of LP tokens you want to stake.

To calculate your ROI follow the steps below:

Enter your investment amount.

Select the duration of your lockup period.

Select the compounding period of your profits.

These are your results.

Whatever returns are shown are not guaranteed. The APR fluctuates from day to day. So you can expect your results to be higher or lower.

Pools (Token Staking)

The pool section is used to stake your tokens to earn yield. You can stake your tokens for a fixed amount of time or variable time. The yield rates for fixed staking are much higher than flexible staking.

Users can stake their tokens by following the steps below:

Select the Pool option from below the navbar.

On the Pool page, select the token you wish to stake.

Follow the steps below for staking via locked or flexible method.


In flexible staking, users can withdraw their staked tokens whenever they please.

Enter the number of tokens you want to stake.,


In locked staking, users stake their tokens for a fixed time. Users will not be able to withdraw their tokens until maturity (similar to FD). Locked staking provides higher rates.

Enter the number of tokens you want to stake.,

Select the duration you want to lock your tokens for.

Once the transaction has been confirmed, you will notice the number of tokens you allocated to staking has been decreased in your wallet. Once the duration of your staking is complete, the tokens, along with interest will be automatically transferred to your wallet.

To calculate your ROI follow the steps below:

Enter your investment amount.

Select the duration of your lockup period.

These are your results.

Whatever returns are shown are not guaranteed. The APR fluctuates from day to day. So you can expect your results to be higher or lower.


The prediction section is like gambling. Users can bet whether the price of $CAKE or $BNB will go up or down in 5 minutes. If the user predicts the right answer, they will receive their investment x the payout. If the user bets the wrong way, they will lose the entire investment.

For example, if a user invests $10, the payout is 2, and the user’s prediction is UP. If, after 5 minutes, the asset price goes up from the price the user entered, the user will earn 3*10 = $20.

Users can predict by following the steps below:

Hover over the Win option in the navbar.

Select the Prediction option.

On the Prediction page, you will notice the current and next predictions.

You can see the payouts for both predictions.

You can notice the time remaining for the next round to start.

Enter the amount you wish to invest.

If you win, you will receive the payout and your initial investment directly in your wallet.

Bonus Tip!

You must have noticed a slippage option when performing any transaction, such as swapping or adding liquidity.

Slippage refers to the price change between the expected order price and the executed order price.

For example, if your slippage is 10% and you wish to swap an asset, the asset may get swapped when the asset price is +10% or -10%.

To edit the slippage, follow the steps below:

Enter or select your preferred slippage percent.


Also, before visiting any dapp site, ensure that the URL is correct. You may do this by visiting the protocol’s social media profiles, such as Twitter, and using the links in the bio. There have been several scams as a result of phishing links.

Key Takeaways

Decentralized exchange gives control to the people.

A decentralized exchange allows users to trade assets without depositing them on the exchange.

PancakeSwap is a decentralized exchange built on the Binance Smart Chain (BSC) network. Transaction fees on the exchange are paid in the BNB coin.

PancakeSwap allows users to swap, stake, farm, and participate in contests and lottery and offers many more features.

Decentralized applications have risks associated with them. Please conduct intensive research before connecting to any decentralized platform.

Lastly, stay safe in crypto and remember, “not your key, not your crypto.”

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The Complete Guide To Twitter Marketing In 2023

When it comes to achieving your marketing goals, Twitter is a powerful tool. Find out what it takes to create a winning Twitter marketing strategy.

What do NASA, United Airlines, and Wendy’s have in common?

These brands all leverage the power of Twitter marketing to grow their business, engage their audience, build community, and deliver spectacular customer service.

Twitter boasts more than 217 million active daily users making the social media platform an important piece of your marketing strategy. Not only does the microblogging site have a significant user base, but Twitter is also the world’s seventh most popular network and is expected to grow to over 340 million active users by 2024.

But with 350,000 tweets sent per minute and 500 million tweets sent daily, you need to be strategic and savvy to win (and hold) your audience’s attention and achieve your Twitter marketing goals.

If you’re feeling intimidated by this fast-paced network, don’t be. We’ve got everything you need to create and implement a highly effective Twitter marketing strategy that gets results.

Bonus: Download the free 30-day plan to grow your Twitter following fast, a daily workbook that will help you establish a Twitter marketing routine and track your growth, so you can show your boss real results after one month.

As with any network, you need to create a solid social media marketing strategy before diving in, and marketing on Twitter is no different. Understanding how the platform works and how it fits into your overall social media strategy is the key to success.

So, where do you start when creating your Twitter marketing strategy? We’ve outlined the components of a successful foundation below.

Audit your accounts

Does your organization already have an existing Twitter account, or maybe more than one? Your first step should be documenting all existing accounts and which team member has been responsible for them. Remember to check for a Twitter Professional account as well as regular accounts.

Once you have your list, conduct a thorough review of all the accounts you find. Collect information like:

How often does this account tweet?

What’s the engagement rate?

How many followers does it have?

Twitter Analytics or Hootsuite Analytics can provide you with these metrics.

It’s a lot of information, but we’ve got a template for conducting a social media audit to make this process easy.

Set goals

Success on any social media platform begins with having clear, measurable goals. There’s no way to know if your strategy positively impacts your business unless you understand what you’re trying to achieve.

You want to create SMART goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound. So “going viral” doesn’t count. These goals should align with your high-level business objectives and be broken down into measurable indicators of success.

Check out the competition

You know what they say… keep your friends close and your enemies closer.

While it might feel sneaky, don’t forget to review the Twitter accounts of your industry competitors. Analyzing their social media can help you refine your own by revealing weaknesses or gaps in their strategy and ways that you can distinguish yourself.

If you want to be super savvy, create a private Twitter List of your competitors so you can see what they’re tweeting and discussing in real time. If you want to know more about competitive analysis, check out this free, customizable template.

Create guidelines

You need a social media style guide to keep your communications clear and consistent. Guidelines also help you onboard new team members and prevent mishaps and mistakes on social media.

Your guidelines should be shared with everyone on your social media team and may include elements of your overall brand style guide, like your tone and details about your audiences.

But it should also be specific to how you use social accounts, including Twitter, with details like:

Branded hashtags and how to use them

How and where you use emojis

How to format links

Every kind of conversation—good, bad, weird— happens on Twitter, so you want to be ready for anything. Criticism is inevitable, especially as your account grows, so you should plan for how to respond to trolls and manage a PR crisis. Remember, it’s much better to have those resources and not need them than the other way around.

Make a content calendar

Planning your content takes a little bit of time upfront but ultimately saves you effort and stress later on. Trust us. You’ll be glad you did it when you’re not struggling to develop a witty, original tweet for #NationalDoughnutDay at the last minute.

A social media content calendar helps align the content you’re posting on all your channels and spot possible gaps and conflicts that you can address. It also helps you plan ahead and seize opportunities for timely or interesting content, like sharing your sustainability practices on Earth Day or celebrating your female founder on International Women’s Day.

When creating your calendar, consider:

How often you want to post

The best times to post

Who should approve posts

A calendar can also help you assess your content and see if you’re sharing a balanced mix of tweets. You want to follow the rule of thirds (number 8 on this list): ⅓ of tweets promote your business, ⅓ share personal stories, and ⅓ are informative insights from experts or influencers.

However, you can’t set it and forget it. You still need to keep an eye on your Twitter account so you can reply to DMs and mentions and join conversations.

Worried about spending too much time on it? Don’t be— you can manage your social media in just 18 minutes per day.

Tip: Use our free social media calendar template to get started.

Analyze your analytics

Once your Twitter marketing strategy is underway, you must regularly evaluate your efforts and check your progress against those SMART goals you set.

But the data available to you can be overwhelming. We get it. There are a ton of metrics at your fingertips, including vanity metrics that aren’t always meaningful. So think about which metrics really matter. Getting a lot of retweets from a funny meme is great, but did any of that engagement translate to conversions or sales?

Collecting meaningful data will help you demonstrate the value of your marketing efforts and provide insights that will help you refine your strategy over time.

Check out our guide to understanding key performance indicators (KPIs) on social to get started.

Marketing on Twitter is more than just hitting send on the occasional Tweet. The social network boasts many tools and features that help you get the most out of your Twitter marketing campaigns.

Of course, depending on your Twitter marketing strategy, it might not make sense to use them all right off the bat, but it’s worth spending time assessing which features will help you achieve your goals. So let’s look under the hood and suss ‘em out.

1. Twitter Trends

Twitter creates fast buzz around various topics, and when a particular topic, word, phrase, or hashtag gets popular, this is known as a ‘trending topic’ or ‘trend.’

Twitter trends are useful for marketers to get a feel for what topics or conversations are happening on the platform and help you to understand your audience’s interests.

Twitter is all about relevancy and being in the moment. Checking downward trends helps you to see the topics are on their way out, so you don’t create a conversation around a topic that’s already been and gone.

2. Twitter Circle

Everyone wants to be part of the in-crowd, and Twitter Circle is your opportunity to create a small audience of your choice and Tweet exclusively to that group (up to 150 participants.)

Only folks in your Twitter Circle can see the content and interact with those specific tweets. For marketers, your Circle could be a select group of key brands and influencers. You could utilize the feature to position your brand as a thought leader or share industry knowledge relevant to your audience.

3. Twitter Communities

Social media is all about building your brand, building your audience, and building your community. So it makes sense that Twitter Communities are a fantastic feature for marketing on Twitter.

Like Discord, Facebook Groups, or even Slack, Twitter Communities allows you to start or join groups of like-minded accounts and curate content relevant to shared interests.

For example, let’s say you’re an ecommerce brand that specializes in organic wine. You could create a Twitter Community of natural and organic wine lovers, share content, create conversation, offer value, and strengthen your brand’s visibility across an audience of interested and engaged consumers.

However, remember that the point of Twitter Communities isn’t to be sales-ey. Instead, focus on building a community and developing meaningful relationships rather than gaining conversions.

4. Twitter Spaces

Available on iOS, Twitter Spaces is the platform’s version of a live audio chat room (kinda like Clubhouse). Users can host or participate in audio conversations hosted in ‘Spaces’ with some pretty cool benefits for brands and businesses.

For example, Spaces are an ideal location to hold Q&As, AMAs, or fireside chats in real-time with an active, engaged audience. Additionally, Spaces can help establish your brand as a thought leader if you hold industry-specific conversations and gatherings.

Social audio on Twitter might still be in its infancy, but given the power of live audio, this is a feature you leverage the most to engage your audience in real time.

5. Twitter Lists

Opening your Twitter feed can feel like walking into a huge, noisy party with a million conversations happening at once. There’s so much going on that it’s hard to focus on any one topic.

That’s why Twitter Lists are a helpful tool for zeroing in on the conversations that actually matter to your business. These lists are curated feeds from selected accounts, which allow you to tune in to relevant discussions or influential people.

You can make as many lists as you want on Twitter (well, up to a thousand… if you hit that limit, it’s time to log off!). And unlike the main feed, which is ordered through Twitter’s secret algorithm, tweets in your lists are arranged chronologically, which makes it easier to follow evolving issues and current events.

You may want to create lists of your competitors’ accounts, influential thought leaders in your industry, and your own team members. Remember that lists are public, so be thoughtful when naming them.

Cultivating your lists may take a little time, but ultimately they help you use Twitter efficiently and strategically.

1. Optimize your profile

Having an on-brand, professional Twitter profile helps you make an excellent first impression on new followers. Consider how each element of your profile helps to reinforce your brand and inform audiences.

Handle. This is your account name, and it’s how audiences can find you on Twitter. Generally, you want your handles to be consistent across social media and include your company name.

Profile photo. Your profile photo appears next to every tweet you send, so you want it to look sharp. Use your logo or wordmark, and make sure to use the right dimensions for a clear and crisp image.

Header image. Your header image appears on your profile page, and you may want to update it more often than your profile photo. It can reflect current campaigns, provide information, or offer insight into your company culture.

Bio. Your Twitter bio is the place to tell visitors to your account who you are in 160 characters or less.

URL. Include your company’s website or the latest campaign link (just don’t forget to switch it out when you’re done!)

Location. Set your business’s location or leave it blank if you have a global presence.

World-famous fast food chain Wendy’s does a brilliant job of optimizing their profile with relevant images, a snappy bio in the company voice that tells the audience exactly what type of brand they are, and includes a relevant URL to their homepage.

Another thing to consider when optimizing your profile is including a pinned tweet. This feature allows you to ‘pin’ one of your tweets to the top of your Twitter profile and is a brilliant opportunity to show visitors to your account who you are, and what you’re about, or highlight any viral tweets.

— Ecosia (@ecosia) June 9, 2023

2. Engage with your audience

Twitter is a very chatty platform. Although you can (and should!) use images and videos, winning fans and connecting with followers requires nailing an authentic, appealing voice and engaging with your audience.

If you haven’t quite landed on a brand voice yet, this is probably the first step before hopping on board and conversing with your community. Here are a few tips.

Show personality. Your brand voice should be consistent across all your platforms and communicate your brand values. Are you edgy? Funny? Inspirational? Bold? These qualities should be conveyed through your tweets.

Be human. No one likes a tweet that sounds like it came from a robot or a script. Twitter users want to know there’s a real person listening and engaging with them from behind your account. Opt for plain, accessible language over jargon and abbreviations.

Be original. Don’t tweet the same message over and over. Posting identical messages across your social media accounts is a big no-no. Each of your tweets should be unique, otherwise you’ll seem spammy.

Be sincere. The goal of Twitter is not to attract followers by any means necessary; it’s to help you connect with customers and build trust with them.

Engaging on Twitter is an essential part of a winning Twitter marketing strategy, so you must ensure your accounts are continually monitored and active and that someone is replying to direct messages and mentions. Twitter conversations move fast, so it’s noticeable to your followers if you’re not checking in regularly, and a failure to be responsive and timely will damage your brand.

Busy accounts may need multiple team members monitoring them, like UK supermarket Sainbury’s, who do an excellent job of responding to customer queries. Individual team members sign their names to provide a personal touch to their customer service.

Hi Rosemary. I’m sorry about the wifi in the store. Can you tell me what time you visited please? I’ll look into this for you. Nick

— Sainsbury’s (@sainsburys) September 23, 2023

But even if only one person is responsible for your Twitter account, you’ll still want to designate a backup team member so that there are no gaps in coverage and engagement.

3. Run a Twitter poll

However, one exception to this format is Twitter polls. Twitter polls allow you to pose questions and offer up to four answers to choose from. Polls are a great way to engage your audience because they’re simple and fun. And if there’s one thing people love to do on Twitter, it’s express strong opinions about minor topics.

And they have benefits for you, too. Polls let you gather feedback and opinions, learn about customer preferences, tease product ideas, and more. They’re no replacement for in-depth research methods, but they do provide quick and useful insights.

4. Schedule your tweets for optimal post times

Take your Twitter strategy to the next level by scheduling your tweets ahead of time rather than posting them manually one by one.

Scheduling helps you streamline your time on social media and stay on top of your content calendar. That way, you never miss sending an important tweet because your afternoon meeting ran late.

When scheduling Tweets in Hootsuite, you get best time to post recommendations (based on the historical performance of your own posts) right in Composer:

Try Hootsuite for free

5. Let’s get visual (for higher engagement)

A picture is worth 1000 words, which is especially useful on Twitter, where you only have 280 characters to work with.

Visual assets can help you communicate more with each tweet. For example, complement an informative tweet with a chart or infographic, or reinforce an inspirational message with a stunning photo.

A video can help you capture and hold attention, which is ideal for product launches or campaigns. Plus, adding images and videos to your tweets is a surefire way to boost engagement. Tweets with images get up to three times as much engagement, while tweets with videos get up to ten times as much engagement.

GIFs provide another delightful addition to your tweets and a 55% increase in engagement. You can add them directly to your tweets through Twitter’s GIF library.

As a bonus, images (including GIFs) and videos don’t count toward your 280-character limit.

Tip: Ensure your videos are optimized for mobile since Twitter reports that 93% of video viewers watch on a handheld device.

6. Master the art of the thread

7. Become a hashtag expert

Hashtags are a feature on every social platform, but they were born on Twitter. And they remain an invaluable tool to boost your engagement and discoverability on the platform.

Understanding how and where to use hashtags on Twitter will make your content more impactful and help you reach new audiences who share your interests.

Find the right hashtags. Use hashtags that make sense for your industry and niche. Checking out what hashtags are popular among your competitors can provide insight.

Create a branded hashtag. This is a hashtag unique to your business, which can be used to collect and organize content about your brand. They’re ideal for promoting campaigns and finding user-generated content.

— Rapha (@rapha) September 5, 2023

Follow trends. Twitter’s Explore page displays the current trending topics, including hashtags. Joining these conversations will help new audiences discover your posts. Just make sure you understand the context to avoid any embarrassing mishaps.

Don’t overdo it. One to two hashtags per tweet is optimal.

8. Tune in with social listening

Twitter isn’t just about speaking— it’s also about listening. “Social listening” means paying attention to conversations on Twitter that provide insights into your customers and community.

Not only can you find out what people think about your brand and products, but you can also learn from other trending topics and discussions. Social listening helps you refine your messaging, build loyalty and trust, and proactively address pain points and complaints.

Some of the topics you should pay attention to include:

Your business name

Your competitors’ names

Industry hashtags or buzzwords

Relevant trending topics

You can also use Hootsuite to set up streams that will monitor keywords, hashtags, mentions, and other important data.

Get Hootsuite Professional for free for 30 days

9. Run an ad campaign

Once you’ve got a handle on using Twitter organically, it’s time to level up and run your first ad campaign.

Advertising on Twitter can help you grow your audience, promote your products, drive traffic to your website, and more. You can choose to promote your account to gain new followers or promote individual tweets to boost engagement and campaign visibility.

Twitter Ads allows you to target your audience very selectively and provides detailed analytics on campaign results and cost-per-action. As a result, you can reach the right people with your campaign and quickly learn what campaign messages are most effective.

10. Use UTM parameters to measure your success

If you’re ready to get a little more sophisticated with your social media data and analytics, then say hello to UTM parameters.

These are short text codes that you can add to your links in order to hone in on traffic and conversions. They can specify the source, medium, campaign name, and more. You can add them directly in Hootsuite Composer or through Google Analytics.

By capturing this data, UTM parameters show you exactly how people navigate to your website, which tweets are most effective, measure the ROI of your influencer campaigns, and more. They’re incredibly useful for understanding how your Twitter strategy (and other social media efforts) impact your business’s bottom line.

Use Hootsuite to execute your Twitter marketing plan alongside all your other social media activity. From a single dashboard you can monitor your competitors, grow your followers, schedule tweets, and analyze your performance.

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