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Difference Between Bank Rate vs Repo Rate

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Bank Rate

It is the Rate that central banks charge for a loan that they provide to a commercial bank and does not involve any collateral. Whenever any commercial bank has a shortage of funds they can borrow from the central bank. The bank rate is one of the important factors which is used by policymakers to regulate the economy. The economy is stimulated by decreasing the bank rate. This makes borrowing cheaper and encourages the same which increases spending. When the policymakers think that the rate of inflation is going up they increase the bank rate. it is used in determining the monetary policy of the economy

Repo Rate

In our daily life when we fall short of funds we go to the bank to borrow some money. In a similar fashion when a bank falls short of money it goes to the central banks to borrow money. Repo rate is the rate at which central banks lend money to commercial banks at the time of financial needs. This loan is given by keeping some securities, bonds as collateral. For example, a bank borrows $20000 from the central bank and the rate of interest is 10%, then the commercial bank will pay the central bank $2000 as the total amount of interest.

It is used to maintain liquidity in the banking sector. If the central bank of the country is looking to increase liquidity in the banking system then it will decrease the repo rate on the other hand if it wants to curb borrowing and control the liquidity it will increase the repo rate. An increase in rate means the Central bank will get a higher amount of interest

Head to Head Comparison Between Bank Rate vs Repo Rate (Infographics)

Below is the Top 8 Comparison between Bank Rate vs Repo Rate.

Key Differences between Bank Rate vs Repo Rate

Let us see some major differences between Bank Rate vs Repo Rate.

Definition – Bank Rate is the rate at which a Central bank lends loans to financial institutions and other commercial banks. Repo rate is a short term rate at which commercial banks lends loan to central banks in case they face any shortages

Goals – Bank Rates are used to fulfill long term goals while repo rate fulfill short term goals

Agreement – When the Central bank lends money at the bank rate, there is no agreement involved. The loan is given at a fixed rate to the commercial bank. On the other hand, in the case of the repo rate, there is a repurchase agreement made between the banks. This agreement consists of a predominant rate at which the bank will return the loan

Collateral – When dealing with bank rates no collateral is required to be provided. When dealing with Repo rates, on the other hand, the loan is granted only when collateral is provided

Effect on Changes in the Rate – When the bank rate is increased or decreased it has a direct impact on the consumers and the economy. For example, if bank rates are increased, the loans become expensive as the interest rate increases. This curbs lending and slows economic growth. If rates are decreased the interest rate decreases and loans become cheaper. This increases lending and borrowing and increases economic growth. Reverse repo does not have this kind of impact on the economy.

Bank Rate vs Repo Rate Comparision Table

Let us discuss the topmost comparisons between Bank Rate vs Repo Rate.

Particular Bank rate Repo rate

Meaning Bank rate is the rate that central banks charge for a loan which they provide to the commercial bank Repo rate is the rate that commercial banks charge for re-purchasing securities sold by commercial banks to the central bank

Collateral Collateral is not involved when charging Bank rate Collateral like securities, bonds, an agreement is involved when the reverse repo is charged

Rate The bank rate is always higher than the repo rate Repo rate is always lower than the bank rate

Effect on Customer Increasing bank rates has an impact directly to the customers since loans now become costly which hampers the economic growth Repo rate is mainly handled by banks and increase or decrease does not affect the customer directly

Goal Bank rate is mainly for satisfying the long term goal of the commercial banks Repo rate is mainly used for satisfying short term financial needs

Loan Tenure The tenure is longer than a month Since the repo rate is an overnight loan the tenure is one day

Agreement There is no repurchasing involved here There is an existing repurchase agreement

Measure Bank rate is a measure that helps in deciding the loan lending rates in a country Repo rate is a measure that is used to control inflation by deciding the rate of liquidity


Bank and Repo Rate are both used in determining the monetary policy of the country which is deciding by the Central bank of the country to have control on the liquidity, pace, and money supply in the country. Mainly borrowing from the central bank is the last resort when no other means of borrowing is available. Hence Bank rate is thus become a theoretical concept.

Repo Rate is used by the banks as the topmost policy rate used by the central bank of the country to set as an anchor for determining the interest rate of the country

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7 Uncommon Conversion Rate Optimization Tactics

Even if your website is extremely well-optimized for search engines and you’re getting quality traffic, you may still find that you aren’t converting visitors.

In these cases, optimizing your website for conversion is the logical next step.

Tweaking your fonts or headings, optimizing your images or forms, introducing more urgency to your messaging, or making good landing pages remain fundamental. Once you have these covered, you need to look for uncommon conversion rate optimization (CRO) tactics that will produce even better results.

Here are seven tactics that can help bring your CRO game to the next level.

1. Pay Attention to Message Match

Message match is the practice of aligning your ad to the landing page you are sending visitors to. To really win at message match, you should consider some of the following practices:

Dynamic text replacement for your different ad groups: This involves ad and landing page copy that changes depending on the different personas you hope to attract. Users will see the same product but it will have a different heading or description based on the ad group they belong to.

Overall match between your ad copy and landing page copy: A general match between the wording of your copies allows for greater consistency and flow between ad and landing page, including headers, subheaders, primary and secondary ad copy, CTAs, etc.

Match keyword intent to copy: Different keywords express different forms of intent. Make sure to have copies to match the keywords that drive visitors to your landing page, for example, a copy for visitors that want more information vs. one for visitors who are ready to commit.

Match CTAs: Not only your copy but your calls to action, as separate elements, should also be consistent with keyword intent for maximum effect. Different users require different CTAs.

Match with email campaigns: A further step is to match your emails with your landing pages not only in terms of copy, keywords, and design but also in terms of the lists of subscribers you are sending these emails to.

2. Go for Hyper-personalization

It’s never too soon to start personalizing your visitors’ experience.

You can personalize just about anything in your marketing campaigns. This includes:



Landing pages

Product recommendations

Product pricing

By segmenting your lists, as well as by collecting data on behavior (such as browsing or purchase history), you can begin to provide increasingly more personalized messages and offers to your audience.

While you need to strike a balance and avoid becoming too intrusive with your personalized offers, personalization is good because it distinguishes you from others.

3. Engage Customers With Micro-commitments

Create engagement and drive conversions through customer micro-commitments.

Micro-commitments are small steps you ask your visitors to take towards a conversion goal. Since they are ‘micro,’ they don’t really cost your visitors anything nor require them to deeply and seriously consider whether they want to commit.

Here are five types of micro-commitments you can use to optimize your conversion:

Social sharing micro-commitments: Ask your visitors to share your content, follow, or like your page in exchange for a free download.

Buyer-identifying micro-commitments: Ask your visitors to commit to something that will identify them as potential buyers, and gather more information in the process.

Payment micro-commitments: Break down the price into smaller payments to make it more alluring and less threatening.

Customer feedback micro-commitments: Ask your visitors to provide you with feedback through surveys. This puts them in the position to provide full feedback once they commit to it. You can then ask them for their email at the end of the survey to send them a report or results.

4. Perform Multivariate Testing for Optimal Usability

Multivariate testing is a fantastic opportunity for websites that enjoy a high volume of traffic coming to their website. It refers to testing multiple combinations of elements on your landing pages and checking which combination has the greatest effect on your conversion goal.

For example, you could test variations in the headers, images, fonts, copy, and CTAs on one of your landing pages. When you create all the various possibilities, the traffic coming to your page is split between them.

You can then measure the effectiveness of the combinations in relation to the conversion goal. This way you can collect plenty of quantitative data, and make conclusions on the basis of measurements.

But if you have less traffic coming in, then multivariate may be too costly and time-consuming. In this situation, you might want to stick with A/B testing possibilities instead or at least pick the elements you want to test with great scrutiny.

Heat maps and mouse tracking are often overlooked since they require you to have a large volume of visitors to make reliable conclusions. Two types of tactics stand out in this type of approach:

Mouse (or scroll) tracking: Scroll maps show you how far people scroll on your page, and where they drop off. Based on that info, you should adjust your design and copy accordingly, especially if you have a long page. Maybe you need to add visual cues that will help readers move along, or you need to check the quality and type of content at the point where readers tend to bounce.

6. Collect Data With On-site Surveys, Polls & Instant Feedback

Any type of feedback you can get from your visitors is worth a lot. The better you design your surveys or polls, the more information you will get out of them. When designing qualitative surveys, you can go for exit surveys, email surveys, or on-site surveys.

Exit surveys pop up when visitors are about to leave your site, while on-site surveys show up on a particular landing page. For both types of surveys, you need to decide which pages you will position them on, what you will want to know from visitors, and when surveys should appear.

The information you want to get from such surveys should be actionable. What you should aim for is to give users space to share their own observations and experience (i.e., leave you qualitative feedback). That’s why yes/no questions and multiple choice answers don’t work so well for such surveys.

Questions that ask users about points where they experience difficulties or friction are particularly useful. These questions are great for helping you find what stopped people from converting on a particular page.

Email surveys, on the other hand, are great to send out to first-time buyers or to visitors who just subscribed to your list, in the form of a welcome email. You can get plenty of good data from people who just interacted with your brand for the first time — either by converting or signing up to your email list — to get data on their experience with either of these processes.

Finally, consider doing some usability testing to get live feedback on how people experience your website and where they get stuck or what they find particularly useful or powerful.

7. Direct Your Website Traffic

Getting traffic that converts is an essential part of your optimization efforts. But you must also make sure to direct it wisely.

When analyzing your traffic, pay attention to the flow customers take through your website, and whether it isn’t getting lost at some point. For example, asking people to find their way through your website instead of providing them with offers that they can simply choose from is one type of hurdle.

Or you may find that part of your potential conversions drift away because you have placed distractions close to a conversion point.

To resolve these issues and optimize conversions, you must look at your traffic funnel and spot the places where leaks occur. You then need to analyze these pages to establish which element serves as a deterrent or distraction to visitors. Doing some tests should help you establish whether you’re on the right track.

Where to Start With These CRO Tactics?

You don’t need to implement all of these practices to raise your conversions. Focus on the ones that make the most sense and are easiest for you to implement.

Don’t multivariate test if you don’t have enough traffic. Try out something else that is more likely to succeed.

Image Credits

In-post Images: Screenshots by author taken May 2023.

Do I Need A High Refresh Rate Laptop?

original Razer Phone‘s 120Hz screen was primarily aimed at gamers, but the technology has rapidly spread to countless consumer-focused devices. With the exception of Apple’s iPhone, you’d now be hard-pressed to find a flagship with a 60Hz display, while handsets as cheap as the £199 Poco X3 have a 120Hz panel.

Logic suggests that laptops will be the next major form factor to embrace high refresh rates. Again, gaming devices have been the early adopters here, sporting displays all the way up to 300Hz. It feels like only a matter of time before this filters its way to everyday consumer devices.

However, we might have to be patient. The coronavirus pandemic has sent demand for laptops skyrocketing, and even now the education sector is reporting shortages of suitable devices for homeschooling. With that in mind, it’s no surprise to see manufacturers prioritise solid performance and a portable design over these sorts of embellishments.

At CES 2023, Lenovo launched one of what is only a handful of consumer-focused high refresh rate laptops to make it to market. The Yoga Slim 7i Pro has a 90Hz display, Intel 11th-gen chips and the option for a discrete Nvidia GPU, but a price to match – it’s likely to cost in excess of £1000. 

Why we haven’t seen more high refresh rate laptops

Aside from customer demand, the other big factor is price. Put simply, it still costs a lot more to include a high refresh rate display over one at 60Hz. That’s why the Asus ROG Zephyrus G14 and Acer Predator Helios 300 start at £1,099 and £1,299 respectively.

Traditionally, high refresh rate laptops have had a tendency to reduce colour accuracy and contrast in the display. That may have left some manufacturers reluctant to embrace the technology, but the strength of the Razer Blade Stealth screen has shown that you don’t necessarily need to make these sacrifices.

The Razer Blade Stealth 13 has a 120Hz display

As with its phones, Apple looks to have taken a different approach. The new M1 chip on its MacBook laptops (such as the new Air) delivers big improvements to performance and power efficiency, two areas that are likely to be more noticeable day-to-day. The company hasn’t shunned the technology completely – it is on the iPad Pro, after all – so don’t rule out high refresh rate Apple laptops in the near future. 

High refresh rate or OLED?

Aside from processing power, the display is one of the most common ways to distinguish a premium laptop from its more affordable siblings. The dearth of high refresh rate consumer laptops mean you’ll likely be choosing between this and an OLED screen.

Both are ‘nice to have’ rather than a necessity on an everyday laptop for productivity, but that changes if you’d also like to use it for consuming content or gaming. The rich colours and deep blacks of an OLED will provide noticeable gains when watching movies or TV shows, but gamers will appreciate the extra smoothness a high refresh rate display offers.

OLED displays still haven’t come to budget laptops, though, so you’ll probably be paying four figures either way. 

Samsung might be leading the way

Should high refresh rate laptops become the norm, it looks like Samsung is ahead of the game. As Business Wire reported, in January 2023 the Korean company began mass-producing 90Hz laptop screens, ahead of a presumed rollout to devices in the relatively near future. 

This will likely begin with Samsung’s own hardware, like the next Galaxy Book Flex or Galaxy Book Ion, but we’d still expect to see more laptops adopt the technology in the near future. 

High refresh rate consumer laptops might not be widely available just yet, but it feels like only a matter of time before they become the new industry standard.

Until that’s a reality, you’ll probably have to be content with 60Hz. For the pick of the market right now, check out our best laptop chart. If you really want to buy a high refresh rate laptop, many of the options in our best gaming laptop chart support 120Hz or more.

You may have decided on the refresh rate of your device, but have you considered the future for upgradeable laptops?

Tips To Increase Accuracy Of Heart Rate Monitor On Apple Watch

The built-in heart rate monitor feature of Apple Watch is great for exercise and monitoring general heart health, but from time to time you may notice the heart rate number reported back seems unusual given your present state. For example, you may be sitting at your desk working and see some number way out of line with your regular heart rate, or perhaps you’re exercising and you see a number much below what you’d expect. These outlier readings happen somewhat frequently on Apple Watch, but there’s usually a reason that is easy to address.

Wait for a Second BPM Reading

First, if you’re seeing a reading that doesn’t look quite right, be sure to leave the Watch heart rate glance active for another few seconds so that another reading or several can be taken. The latter readings tend to be more accurate if the first one is way out there, for example I’ve had readings tell me my heart rate was 150 BPM while sitting at a desk (come on I didn’t drink THAT much coffee!) but after letting the Watch read heart rate a bit longer, it jumped back into a typically expected range. These outlier readings are fairly common, and perhaps a software update can address these.

OK, so you’ve let Apple Watch get another reading or four, and the heart rate is still way off? Why?

Be Sure the Apple Watch Band Has a Snug Fit

The most common cause of Apple Watch providing inaccurate heart rate readings appears to be due to the fit of the Watch band itself. A loosely fitting band that moves around at all, or that has notable gaps between the Watch and the skin, can easily cause an inaccurate reading. For the most accurate heart rate readings, you will want to be sure you’re wearing the Apple Watch fairly snug against your skin, which is a bit easier with the Apple Watch Sport bands and various bands with magnetic latches rather than some of the other bands, particularly the link bracelet. If you don’t have an Apple Watch Sport band, you can get a surprisingly good quality knock-off Apple Watch Sport band from Amazon

for considerably cheaper than what you’d pay at Apple for an ‘official’ plastic band. Whatever band you use, just be sure it fits snug for the best results.

Check for Grime on Skin or Other Sensor Obstructions

Another frequent reason why Apple Watch may offer inaccurate readings is if the Apple Watch light sensors on the back of the device are obstructed, whether it’s grime, heavy dirt, film, undried lotions, or sunblock. From personal experience, certain brands (maybe types?) of sunblock can cause the Apple Watch heart rate reading to be way off, so if you exercise with the Apple Watch outdoors and wear sunblock, you’ll want to be mindful of that being a possible cause of an inaccurate hear rate reading. This seems to be particularly true with the greasier sunblock types that are sort of shiny on application, typically found with waterproof varieties, whereas the sunblock creams that dry out and don’t leave the skin all shiny usually are fine.

A Bug? A Software Solution?

As hinted at earlier, it’s also possible that some software issues may cause the Apple Watch heart rate monitor to be inaccurate, so be sure you install WatchOS updates when they’re available for Apple Watch to get any potential bug fixes or improvements to the devices capabilities. For example, a future Apple Watch update could discard the very first heart rate glance reading which is typically the inaccurate one, and only show the accurate BPM after that.

For what it’s worth, I’ve tried resetting and erasing the Apple Watch to set it up as new again, and it didn’t make a difference in the heart rate reading ability, so unless the feature isn’t working at all for you, that troubleshooting step is likely to be fruitless.


Bitgert Holders Growth Rate Shall Surpass Polygon And Polkadot Next Month

By the virtual of being among the largest coins in the market, Polygon and Polkadot enjoy some of the large crypto communities in the market. This can be seen in both the Polygon and Polkadot address holders. However, over the past few months, the growth of the Polygon and Polkadot community members has stagnated. In fact, Polygon and Polkadot holders’ have decreased in the last few months due to the growing selling pressure as the crypto markets crash. Though a bullish market and the upcoming Polygon and Polkadot developments next month are likely to grow their holders’ count,

Why Bitgert Holders’ Is Expected To Explode Next Month


Why Bitgert Roadmap V2 Is A Major Factor

The roadmap will be key in growing the

Bitgert Chain Nodes Improvement is also Key

One of the recent announcements by the Brise team is upgrading the

The Centcex (CENX) Exploding Hype

By the virtual of being among the largest coins in the market, Polygon and Polkadot enjoy some of the large crypto communities in the market. This can be seen in both the Polygon and Polkadot address holders. However, over the past few months, the growth of the Polygon and Polkadot community members has stagnated. In fact, Polygon and Polkadot holders’ have decreased in the last few months due to the growing selling pressure as the crypto markets crash. Though a bullish market and the upcoming Polygon and Polkadot developments next month are likely to grow their holders’ count, Bitgert (BRISE) is expected to do chúng tôi Bitgert holders’ count is expected to skyrocket more than Polygon and Polkadot because of the developments the team is undertaking. Some of these developments are coming to fruition this October, and they will be attracting a lot of investors to BRISE. The new investors buying Bitgert will skyrocket the number of holders, and that’s how the community will grow bigger than Polygon and Polkadot. The Bitgert roadmap V2, the 1000+ partnerships , and the Bitgert BRC20 blockchain are some major developments that will skyrocket Bitgert chúng tôi roadmap will be key in growing the Bitgert community and the value of $BRISE because of the massive adoption of its products. There are many game-changing products in this roadmap that will grow the coin adoption faster than Polygon and Polkadot. Decentralized marketplaces, the NFT marketplace, Paybrise, Brise CEX, and the decentralized OS are just a few of the roadmap V2 products that will enable BRISE to do better than Polygon and chúng tôi of the recent announcements by the Brise team is upgrading the BRC20 blockchain nodes. The success of these updates is expected to increase the chain adoption, which will make BRISE do better than Polygon and chúng tôi addition to the Bitgert coin doing well, Centcex is another coin that many crypto enthusiasts have been observing. The explosive price growth of the Centcex coin has been one of the biggest reasons why CENX is getting a lot of attention. The Centcex coin could be the next big thing in the crypto industry after Bitgert. It is a coin that could offer today’s investors huge returns from their investments next month. Check out Centcex today.

Fears Spread About Online Bank Runs

What if there were a run on a bank and no one knew? In recent days, some U.S. media have focused on a “silent run” on the deposits of Wachovia bank, which is now being taken over, after a bailout plan stalled and its rival Washington Mutual was seized.

Commentators including Nouriel Roubini, professor of economics at New York University’s Stern School of Business, have highlighted the scope for quiet withdrawals by depositors whose assets exceed guaranteed levels.

But in Europe, another high-profile banking failure has drawn attention to a different 21st-century phenomenon: As homes and businesses increasingly manage their finances online, mass withdrawals may be invisible.

Fortis, focus of a cross-border rescue last week, was also in part the victim of a silent bank run, which along with a dramatic fall in its stock prompted Benelux governments to step in and inject cash into the banking and insurance group.

“If Fortis were in trouble, I would transfer my money over the Internet to my parents’ account,” student Frederique Schilte said outside an Amsterdam branch, where she had gone to drop off a bill payment.

Fortis said it had lost about 3 percent of its deposits since the beginning of this year, both from consumer and business clients, or about $7 billion in euros.

Dutch Finance Minister Wouter Bos noted Fortis had trouble keeping corporate clients and was faced with “increasing liquidity problems in the banking activities.”

The intervention seemed this week to have worked.

“We were worried last week, but now that it is now part of the Dutch government, we are staying with Fortis,” said a Dutch customer who declined to give her name but said she and her husband have been Fortis customers for 28 years.

Speed and volume

Britain’s Northern Rock, which last September suffered the first run on the deposits of a major British bank for more than 140 years, saw customers line up over three days at branches when confidence evaporated, creating scenes that one politician said made Britain looked like “a banana republic.”

But branch withdrawals slowed after the government guaranteed savings. The major damage was done by withdrawals by Internet, postal and telephone customers. Almost $25 billion of savings were withdrawn from Northern Rock from the start of the panic until the end of 2007, more than half its retail deposits.

About one-third of the cash pulled out was at branches, but the remaining two-thirds, or almost $17.6 billion, was taken out by non-branch customers.

Whether visible or not, the psychology is the same: Barbara Williams, a retired customer of Northern Rock, was one of hundreds who stood in line outside its branches last year.

“I didn’t initially panic but the more you watch the news and read you think maybe we ought to do it as well,” she told Reuters at the time. “We thought we would do what everyone else is doing. Rightly or wrongly it’s a chance you can’t take.”

This is one of the concerns behind recent scrambles by governments in Europe to increase depositor sums under guarantee. Ireland and Denmark have offered blanket guarantees to savers, and pressure is mounting on others to follow.

Ironically, it was another Dutch bank, ING, that pioneered the growth of online banking by launching ING Direct over a decade ago: amassing $261.5 billion in savings and current account deposits, it is now the world’s 12th largest.

ING Direct operates without physical branches; customers open and manage their accounts via the phone or Web. It is not active in its home markets because of its existing retail network, and has instead built a business network in North America, Europe and Australia.

Banks have always lent more than their clients hold on deposit, leaving the risk that none would have enough cash to pay out if they all turned up at once. Back in the 1930s, depositors faced losing all their money if a bank collapsed.

Attilio Vianello, now 98, remembers how in the 1930s he had just started a job at Credito Veneto, a small bank based in Padoa, Italy, as the crisis spread beyond Wall Street to Europe.

“Banks were going bust from one day to another and the vast majority of people did not manage to rescue their savings because once they knew, it was too late. They would find the doors already shut,” he recalled.

The electronic equivalent of this would be a server failure, or a Web site shutdown. But executives point out that in any silent run — made possible by electronic money transfer whether through the Internet or wholesale networks — the most damaging aspect is the speed at which business customers can move.

“The so-called silent run on the bank — it’s real,” Carlos Evans, Wachovia’s (NYSE: WB) wholesale banking executive, was quoted as saying in the Kansas City Star newspaper. He said withdrawals started picking up on Sept. 26 and over subsequent days.

“You go from being weakened to in trouble in a matter of days. I don’t think people understand how quickly events unfolded,” he said.

Confidence can return, but often only after dramatic state intervention. Now state-owned, Northern Rock recently had to close to new savers after attracting about $10.5 billion this year from customers drawn by government guarantees.

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