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There are growing concerns that Apple could be facing an anti-trust investigation by the US Department of Justice.What does antitrust mean?
In most jurisdictions around the world, it is illegal for large companies to band together to form agreements or “trusts” to behave in a particular way – for example, to all sell their products for the same high price. Laws designed to outlaw this type of behavior are called antitrust legislation.
However, the term is used more generally to refer to laws designed to prevent companies from engaging in any kind of anti-competitive action – that is, do anything that would tend to artificially distort competition within a market.
One common myth is that antitrust laws only apply to monopolies. This is very much not the case: They apply to any company large enough to have a dominant position in any market. As we shall see below, the definition of the word “market” can be crucial to deciding whether antitrust concerns arise.Why is Apple facing antitrust investigations?
First, Apple is a very large company, and it would be very easy for a company of that size to commit antitrust violations, so it is to be expected that any massive corporation would be put under the antitrust microscope.
But in Apple’s case, there are some more specific concerns based on the company”s market dominance in particular areas. These are addressed below.What are the antitrust concerns with Apple?
There are a number of different ones, in areas as diverse as ad tracking and Sign In With Apple, but here are three of the main ones.The App Store
The biggest antitrust concern is the App Store.
Apple argues that it does not have a dominant position in this market, as it considers the relevant market to be either “smartphones” or “apps.” Since the company holds a minority share of the smartphone market in most of the countries in which it operates, it believes it cannot be considered to have a dominant position.
Competition regulators tend to take the view that the relevant market is “iOS apps,” and here Apple has a 100% monopoly on their sale and distribution. Edge cases aside, there is no way for a developer to bring an iOS app to market without selling it through the App Store.
Companies like Epic Games argue that they should be allowed to sell in-app purchases without Apple taking a cut of their revenue. The argument here is that Apple harms developers by taking part of their income, and consumers by forcing developers to charge more to make up for Apple’s cut. Apple, in response, says that it is perfectly normal for a company to take a cut of the sales it facilitates.Default apps Relationships with carriers and retailers
Apple has also been found guilty in more than one country of exploiting a dominant position within the smartphone market to place undue demands on carriers and retailers.
Because the popularity of iPhones meant carriers had to sell them, Apple was able to dictate terms. In South Korea, for example, it was accused of imposing three onerous conditions on local carriers:
Additional areas of concern range from Apple Pay to a 4K video codec alliance!What could happen to Apple as a result?
Antitrust outcomes will usually happen on a country-by-country basis, though there are exceptions. In Europe, for example, it is likely that the European Union will act as a bloc, and that any legislation applying to Apple will apply across all 27 member countries.
The worst-case scenario for Apple is for the US government to call for the breakup of the company. For example, it might be ruled that Apple Inc cannot run an App Store while also selling the iPhones on which those apps run. This is not a likely outcome, however.
A more likely scenario is a series of smaller changes. For example, Apple might be required to appoint an independent oversight board to carry out app reviews, or that it must allow Spotify to offer in-app subscriptions without taking a cut.How is Apple responding?
In public, Apple’s stance is an outraged one, arguing that it does not have a dominant position and is doing nothing wrong. Behind closed doors, the company is aware that it either has to change some of its practices, or be forced to do so by law.
For example, while publicly declaring that a 30% commission on apps was industry standard, Apple made a massive U-turn by introducing the Small Business Program, with a 15% commission instead. Although touted as applying to the smallest developers, it in fact applies to 98% of them. It would be more accurate to say that the App Store now has a standard commission rate of 15%, with a higher 30% rate applying only to a tiny minority of companies.
The company has also quietly made a number of other changes in direct response to antitrust concerns, for example, opening up the Find My app to third-party accessories, and allowing people to change their default email app and web browser.
However, Apple is still sticking its head in the sand and hoping the issue will go away – when it absolutely won’t.
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You might have heard of something called an IP Address, – if you haven’t, start off by reading our article explaining the concept – but for this article on NAT (Network Address Translation) you need to know that IP addresses are limited. You also can’t have two devices on a network with the same IP address.
The problem is that different networks, such as your home network and computers on the internet as a whole, will inevitably have the same IP addresses or have incompatibilities in how their network addresses are set up. NAT solved both the problem of IP address scarcity and incompatible networks that need to talk to each other.
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Most of the time it’s not something you need to worry about, but sometimes your internet woes are a result of NAT going wrong. So having a basic understanding of what NAT is and how it works can help solve the issue.Where Does NAT Happen?
In the case of regular users like us, NAT is a job handled by your router. The router has an IP address assigned to it by your service provider. That’s the address that the rest of the internet sees. Every device on your home network is assigned a private IP address, which is what they’ll use to talk to each other.
When a device on your network wants to communicate with the outside world, the router stands in for it. The router has a public IP address, which everyone else sees. It keeps track of which private IP addresses requested what traffic and makes sure the data packets are routed to the right device.Private Vs Public IP Addresses
By convention, certain ranges of IP addresses are reserved for specific purposes. Public IP addresses are reserved for the internet-facing devices such as your router or web servers. Your ISP allocates a public IP address to your router and that’s the address that all outsiders on the web see. Typically a private internet address is something like 192.168.0.X or 10.1.1.X, but this varies from one router to the next. While private addresses have to be unique within a private network, they are almost certainly the same between private networks.
A public IP address, as mentioned above, is the one seen by everyone else on the internet. When you visit a website, your browser is connected to its public IP address. Typically, home routers don’t allow direct access through its public IP address that wasn’t initiated by it. This means you can’t just type in the public address of your friend’s router and have access to devices on their network.
However, some web services and devices, such as video game consoles, need a more lenient approach. This is where various NAT types come into play. Often problems arise from your connection’s NAT type being wrong for the type of service you’re trying to use. We’ll cover NAT types in more detail next.NAT Types
While the basic idea of what NAT is isn’t too complicated, in practice there’s a lot of nuance to how it actually works. There are various types of NAT that are appropriate for different translation needs.Static NAT
The static style of NAT maps one specific private IP address to a specific public IP address. With static NAT it’s possible to access the device mapped to the public address directly.
This is the type of NAT used for web servers that are also part of a private network. When accessing the server through this static map, you can’t also access the other devices on its private network. The server itself, however, can talk to the devices on its private network with no issue.Dynamic NAT
Dynamic NAT is used when you have a pool of public IP addresses that you want to dynamically assign to the devices on your private network.
This is not used for web server access from outside the network. Instead, when a device on the private network wants to access the internet or another resource not on the private network, it is assigned one of the public IP addresses in the pool.NAT Overload (PAT)
With elements of both static and dynamic NAT, the NAT overload style is the most common form and is what most home routers use. It’s known as NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) among other names.
In most cases, your router has one public IP address assigned to it, yet all the devices on your network probably want internet access. Using NAT overload the router sets up a connection between its public IP address and that of the server. It then sends the packets to the server, but also assigns a return destination port.
This helps it know which packets are meant for which IP address on your private network. That’s the PAT part of the process, incidentally.Proprietary NAT Types
To muddle things even more, some companies have decided to slap their own NAT classifications on things. This is mostly applicable to game consoles and you’ll find that when you do a network test, it will tell you that you’re using something like NAT Type 2 or NAT Type D.
These classifications are specific to the console or device makers and you should check their official documentation to figure out what each classification actually means.Common Fixes for NAT Issues
Most of the time, for most people, NAT works perfectly and with complete transparency. Sometimes however, it malfunctions or gets in the way.
Once again, game consoles are most likely to run into issues, because some of their services need your network to accept access requests to your public IP address from outside, since standard NAT configurations usually don’t allow this. The good news is that there are a few common fixes you can try to make NAT less restrictive and allow incoming connections.
You also have the option of doing manual port forwarding, so that devices that need a less strict connection can get it on a case-by-case basis.It’s Only NATural
One of the pricy options for the new Mac Pro is Apple’s Afterburner card. It costs $2,000. You may be asking yourself, what is the Mac Pro Afterburner card? Do I need it? That depends entirely on how you’re using the Mac Pro.
Apple’s new Mac Pro is now available to order. The device starts at $5,999 but its price tag soars into the stratosphere with CPU, memory, storage and video card options – you can, in fact, spend ten times that if you fully rig one out. So do you need to make sure an Afterburner is on the order?Afterburner eliminates the need for proxies
If you work in film or video and your goal is to eliminate proxy workflows, the answer is yes. You’ll make your money back quickly thanks to your improved productivity. You see, Afterburner is a special purpose-built accelerator card designed specifically for handling video content encoded using Apples ProRes and ProRes RAW codecs.
With Afterburner installed, the Mac Pro can simultaneously play back three streams of 8K video encoded using ProRes RAW. Up to 12 streams of 4K ProRes RAW video can be decoded in real time, as well.
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) like the AMD Radeon and Pro Vega hardware available in the Mac Pro certain give it some graphics oomph. The difference between those and the Afterburner is its single purpose function. While GPUs provide good overall performance for graphics in general, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip on the Afterburner card has been custom-programmed for the specific computational needs of decoding and encoding 4K and 8K video streams using ProRes and ProRes RAW.
Historically, film and video editors have relied on proxy workflows in order to get their work done. Rather than manipulate the original, highest-quality video source material, lightweight proxy files are used in their place. Once the editing is completed, the computer relinks to the original camera files for a final render. Unfortunately, proxy rendering can be a lot of trouble. There can be incompatibility with encoders and errors can be introduced resulting in laborious and long re-editing and re-rendering sessions.Set Afterburner and forget it
The Afterburner card doesn’t have any sort of direct physical interface on its backplane to connect to display hardware or anything else. It’s simply a PCI Express-equipped board that goes into one of the eight compatible expansion slots in the massive Mac Pro. You can put it in any of the slots, though optimally it should be inserted in one of the 16x slots for best performance. Apple ships it pre-installed in Slot 5, on Mac Pros that are ordered with Afterburner from the factory.
If you buy a Mac Pro without an Afterburner card and decide later that you need one, Apple offers them as an accessory you can order online. It costs $2,000. Availability will be limited until Apple’s caught up with the initial demand of Mac Pros.
Once it’s installed, Afterburner will just work with apps that are designed to use the ProRes or ProRes RAW codecs.Any questions?
If you’re working with video encoded using ProRes or ProRes RAW, the $2,000 Afterburner may be a good value to help you stay productive rather than having to manage ingest and export through a proxy workflow. But if you’re using your Mac Pro for purposes other than editing videos, the Afterburner card won’t do anything to improve your life.
What is text annotation?
Supervised ML models need data labeling to work effectively. Text annotation is a subset of data annotation where the annotation process focuses only on text data such as PDFs, DOCs, ODTs etc.
Text annotation requires manual work. Data scientists determine the labels or “tags” and passes the text-specific information to the NLP model being trained. This process can be thought of as a child’s language learning process. Under the guidance of the parents who determine the labels, the child first learns the meaning of the words and then distinguishes the satire, metaphor, allusion, and emotion behind the sentence.Why is text annotation important now?
Statista shows that the global NLP market generated turnovers of over $12 billion in 2023, and it is predicted that the market will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 25% from 2023 to 2025, reaching revenues of over $43 billion. Since text annotation is the fundamental process in developing an NLP, it is reasonable to consider text annotation as an important phenomenon.
In addition, customers demand digitized and fast customer services, and the Covid-19 pandemic has increased this demand. Consequently, chatbots become an integral part of customer service. No company would want to serve its customers with a weakly trained NLP algorithm that is not able to distinguish a simple metaphor.What are the techniques for text annotation?
There are four main techniques of text annotation, namely:Named entity recognition
Named entity recognition labels the words in the text with predefined categories such as date, name, location, etc. It is useful for machines to understand the topic of the text as AI learns keywords thanks to this labeling method. Therefore, named entity recognition is often used in the development of chatbots.Entity linking
While entity annotation is about marking specific entities in a text, entity linking is about linking those entities to larger data sets such as Wikipedia links.Sentiment Annotation
Sentiment annotation is the tagging of emotions and opinions contained in a text. Annotators choose which tag best represents the emotion of the document.
Understanding human emotions is crucial for companies to evaluate their position in the market. Sentiment annotation helps companies to improve customer satisfaction. Customer review analysis is an example of sentiment annotation, where data labelers read reviews and determine whether they are positive, neutral, or negative.
For more in-depth knowledge on sentiment analysis, feel free to download our comprehensive whitepaper:
For more details on sentiment analysis, check our comprehensive article.Intent annotation
For effective chatbots in customer service, it is crucial to understand the reason for the conversation. Is the customer asking for something, reporting an unpleasant experience, waiting for a response or confirmation, etc.? Data analysts classify texts into different categories, such as request, command, or confirmation to train chatbots.How to annotate text data?
Companies need software that specializes in text annotation to apply the text annotation techniques. It is possible to outsource the process to vendors that offer open-source and closed-source text annotation tools.
Open-source text annotation tools are free, and since the code is open to anyone, it can be modified to meet your organization’s needs. Closed-source tools, on the other hand, have a team to help you set up and use the software for your business. However they charge a fee for such a service.In-housing vs outsourcing vs crowdsourcing
In-housing, outsourcing and crowdsourcing are ways to perform the manual work of text annotation. They are associated with different costs, output quality and data security. Therefore, it is an important strategic decision for companies which method to use.
Of course, the optimal strategy will vary from organization to organization, as the conditions and needs of organizations are different. Nevertheless, the following table might be helpful for you to choose the optimal strategy. For more, you can check our article on outsourcing data labeling.
OutsourceIn-houseCrowdsource Time requiredAverageHighLow PriceAverageExpensiveCheap Quality of labelingHighHighLow SecurityAverageHighLow
Don’t forget to check our sortable/filterable list of data labeling/annotation/classification vendors list. You can also check our open-source data labeling platforms list.
You might also want to see our image and audio annotation articles to learn more about data labeling. If needed, we can introduce you to some of the best text annotation companies:
Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.
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HTML5 has all but replaced Flash, Silverlight, XHTML and other platforms as a safer, more versatile solution on the web. So what is HTML5 and how has it managed to become the all-pervasive web-development tool? Today, we’ll look at the web’s most used markup language and how it has changed the way developers create websites and implement various modern functionalities in them.HTML5: What is it and How Does it Work? What is HTML5?
HTML5 is a programming language and the latest public-facing iteration of HyperText Markup Language, or HTML, created in 1989 by the inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners Lee. Recommended by the WWW Consortium (W3C), it is used for structuring and presenting content on the web and is maintained by a consortium of the major browser vendors, including Apple, Google, Mozilla and Microsoft. Together, they form the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG), which now has the sole authority over the HTML and DOM (Document Object Model) standards after W3C ceded control last year.
How Does HTML5 Work?
HTML5 was first released in a public-facing form in 2008, with a major update in October 2014. It was intended to replace not only HTML4 (originally standardized in 1997) but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML. However, given its versatility and ease-of-development, W3C, which was developing XHTML 2.0 as a competing platform, stopped working on it and recommended HTML5 as the future of web development.
From the user side, the biggest change from HTML4 is that we no longer need plugins like Adobe Flash or Microsoft Silverlight to play videos on different websites. Remember how a decade ago you were often prompted to ‘Update Flash’ (or Silverlight) while trying to play videos online? When was the last time you saw such a prompt? And when was the last time you needed to update Java on your computer? Chances are, you haven’t seen such messages in the last five years.
If you are still seeing such prompts, you need to stop visiting those sites because they’re either old, out-of-date sites that pose a security risk or are fake sites run by scammers trying to install malware on your system. As of September 2023, fewer than 0.035% of sites used Silverlight, 2.5% used Adobe Flash, and less than 0.017% used Java, making them pretty much redundant in the modern web built around HTML5.What Are the Advantages of HTML5?
There are many reasons why HTML5 has become the preferred web development platform. Not only is it easier to code in than other markup languages, but it also includes built-in rich multimedia features that ensure no other software or browser plugin is required to design a complete website from scratch. The technology allows web designers to develop all types of applications, animations and other multimedia features that run on a browser.
Another massive reason for the uptake of HTML5 is the fact that it isn’t proprietary, which means you don’t have to pay royalties to use it. It’s also a platform-agnostic technology that can be used to render websites on Windows PCs, Linux machines, MacBooks, Android, iPhones, smart TVs and more. All you need a compliant user agent (any of the popular modern browsers), and you can have access to all the goodies available on the web at your fingertips.1. No Standard Video Support for all Browsers
One of the major issues with HTML5 is the confusion regarding video format support for different browsers. Even though all modern browsers incorporated HTML5 support several years ago, not everybody supports all HTML5 video formats. There’s often been confusion about which browser supports which video format, because that depends on not only the user agent, but also the platform (Windows, Android, Linux, etc).
As mentioned earlier, all modern browsers, including Edge, Firefox, Chrome, Safari and Opera, support at least some elements of HTML5 on all platforms. However, their support for the standard doesn’t manifest itself identically. As a rule of thumb, Firefox supports the widest range of HTML5 features, with Chrome following closely behind.
Here’s a (non-exhaustive) list of the browsers that support HTML5:
GNOME WebHTML5: The Present and Future of Web Development
HTML5 improves the way the web works, making it easier for developers to create great websites and for users to experience those creations irrespective of their device of choice or the browser they are using. It is the biggest and most popular web-development platform, and with its ever-evolving standards incorporating new features and functionalities, it’s likely to stay that way in the foreseeable future.
Do you ever wonder which songs or albums you listen to the most? If you’re an Apple Music subscriber, you can find out with Apple Music Replay.
Like Spotify Wrapped, you can see a recap of which songs, albums, and artists you play the most each year. In addition, you can add your Replay as a playlist, share it with others, and access it on the web and on your Apple devices.
Table of ContentsHow Apple Music Replay Is Assembled
Apple uses your listening habits and history in the Music app to determine which songs comprise your Apple Music Replay.
It includes songs that you play on your Apple devices where you’re signed into Apple Music with your Apple ID, songs available in the Apple Music catalog, and synced with your Apple Music subscription.
It does not include music you listen to on devices where you have Use Listening History disabled.
You can view an Apple Music Replay for each year you are an Apple Music subscriber. If you don’t see a Replay, turn on the history feature to see future Apple Music Replays.Turn On Apple Music Listening History
On iPhone, iPad, and Apple Watch, open your Settings and select Music. Turn on the toggle for Use Listening History.
On Apple TV, open Settings and select Apps. Choose Music and pick Use Listening History to turn it on. It will then display as On.Access Apple Music Replay on the Web
If you don’t have an Apple device handy, you can get your Apple Music Replay online in any browser.
Visit the Apple Music Replay website at chúng tôi Sign In on the top right to enter your Apple ID username and password.
You’ll then see the most recent Apple Music Replay available. Select Get Your Replay Mix to view it.
You can then see the top songs and albums you listened to that year. You’ll also see how many times you played each song on the right side.
To listen to your Replay, select the Play button at the top of the page or on the album artwork.
To view Replays for previous years, scroll to the bottom and select one.Access Apple Music Replay on Your Apple Device
If you prefer to access your Apple Music Replay on your Apple device, it’s just as easy.
Open the Music app on your iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple Watch, or Apple TV.
Head to the Listen Now tab.
Scroll to the bottom to view your available Replays below Replay: Your Top Songs by Year. (On Apple Watch, tap Replay: Your Top Songs by Year).
If you select a Replay, you’ll see the list of songs and artists, and can select Play at the top to listen.
You currently won’t see the number of plays per song like on the website, but you can view the total number of songs and hours for the mix at the bottom.
To see your Replays for previous years, select the arrow on the top left to go back and scroll to the bottom of the Listen Now tab.Add Your Replay as a Playlist
If you enjoy going back in time with your Apple Music Replay, you can save the entire mix as a playlist in your Music Library.
Select Add at the top of the Replay page on the website or Mac.
On iPhone, iPad, or Apple TV, tap the plus sign at the top.
On Apple Watch, tap the three dots and choose Add to Library.Share Your Apple Music Replay
You can also share your Apple Music Replay with others like you share a playlist in the Music app.
On iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple Watch, or the website, use the three dots at the top of the Replay detail page to pick Share Playlist or Share. Then, choose a sharing option such as social media, Mail, or Messages, depending on your device.
You cannot share an Apple Music Replay on Apple TV.
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